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Full-Text Articles in Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

Defining Unreasonable Radius Clauses For American Music Festivals, Trevor Lane Apr 2019

Defining Unreasonable Radius Clauses For American Music Festivals, Trevor Lane

Seattle University Law Review

Since 1969, the music festival remains a staple of American musical culture, and in order to meet consumer demands, today’s music festival promoters rely on radius clauses ancillary to the performance agreements that they use with artists. These radius clauses limit artists’ ability to perform at other music festivals and concerts within a specified temporal and geographic radius of the contracted music festival. Beginning in 2010, legal challenges have alleged that broadly defined radius clauses used by music festival promoters violate Section 1 of the Sherman Antitrust Act. This Note contends that radius clauses which limit artists from performing ...


Care For A Sample? De Minimis, Fair Use, Blockchain, And An Approach To An Affordable Music Sampling System For Independent Artists, Sean M. Corrado Jan 2019

Care For A Sample? De Minimis, Fair Use, Blockchain, And An Approach To An Affordable Music Sampling System For Independent Artists, Sean M. Corrado

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

Thanks, in part, to social media and the digital streaming age of music, independent artists have seen a rise in popularity and many musicians have achieved mainstream success without the affiliation of a major record label. Alongside the growth of independent music has come the widespread use of music sampling. Sampling, which was once depicted as a crime perpetrated by hip-hop artists, is now prevalent across charttopping hits from all genres. Artists have used sampling as a tool to integrate cultures, eras, and styles of music while experimenting with the bounds of musical creativity. Artists whose works are sampled have ...


"Distinctive Sounds": A Critique Of The Transformative Fair Use Test In Practice And The Need For A New Music Fair Use Exception, Kristin Bateman Sep 2018

"Distinctive Sounds": A Critique Of The Transformative Fair Use Test In Practice And The Need For A New Music Fair Use Exception, Kristin Bateman

Seattle University Law Review

The Constitution gives Congress the power “[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts,” resulting in our modern regime of patent, trademark, and copyright law. Over time, however, this artistic tradition of copying has collided with more modern concepts of intellectual property rights, especially copyright protections. The advent of the internet as well as state-of-the-art recording and mixing software has vastly increased opportunities to copy, remix, sample, parody, and otherwise alter the work of other artists, particularly musicians. More than twenty years after Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, transformative fair use has become the predominant test courts have used ...


Why The Copyright Act Expressly Preempts State-Level Public Performance Rights In Pre-1972 Recordings, James Fahringer May 2018

Why The Copyright Act Expressly Preempts State-Level Public Performance Rights In Pre-1972 Recordings, James Fahringer

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Over the past several years, two former bandmates in the 1960s rock group, The Turtles, have initiated several lawsuits against the popular music streaming services, Pandora and Sirius XM, arguing that the band owns common law copyrights in the sound recordings of its songs, and that these state-level copyrights grant the band an exclusive public performance right in its sound recordings. If accepted, this argument has the potential to significantly distort federal copyright policy because states would not be constrained by any of the balancing features of the Copyright Act, including Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) safe harbors for Internet ...


A Tale Of Two Composers: An Argument For A Limited Expansion Of Moral Rights For Composers, Cassidy Grunninger Jan 2018

A Tale Of Two Composers: An Argument For A Limited Expansion Of Moral Rights For Composers, Cassidy Grunninger

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Backing Down: Blurred Lines In The Standards For Analysis Of Substantial Similarity In Copyright Infringement For Musical Works, Nicholas Booth Jan 2018

Backing Down: Blurred Lines In The Standards For Analysis Of Substantial Similarity In Copyright Infringement For Musical Works, Nicholas Booth

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


A Riff On Billy The Kid, Richard H. Underwood Jun 2017

A Riff On Billy The Kid, Richard H. Underwood

Richard H. Underwood

In this essay the author discusses Billy Joel’s recording of Billy the Kid and that song's history.


The Price Of Social Norms: Towards A Liability Regime For File-Sharing, Daniel J. Gervais Oct 2016

The Price Of Social Norms: Towards A Liability Regime For File-Sharing, Daniel J. Gervais

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

The paper starts by asking whether P2P file-sharing of music can be stopped. Based on a discussion of (a) the interaction among law (regulation), technology and the market and (b) relevant social norms, the paper takes the view that it may not be possible to stop file-sharing. The paper then turns to an analysis of the economics and structure of a viable licensing model that could be implemented now without legislative or technological changes. The paper argues that P2P licensing could be good business. The paper ends with a brief look at (a) whether the licensing model could be exported ...


Copyrightability Of Music Compilations And Playlists: Original And Creative Works Of Authorship?, Marc A. Fritzsche Jun 2016

Copyrightability Of Music Compilations And Playlists: Original And Creative Works Of Authorship?, Marc A. Fritzsche

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Music compilations and playlists have a common nucleus of an act of gathering songs and ordering them. Their selection and arrangement can be decisive of the success and therefore can be valuable. And here is where the legal issues about their ownership arise: Are music compilations and playlists protectable under the regime of Copyright Law? This article will discuss the legal and practical issues connected with that question. Thereby, it will consider the United States, Europe in general and also the United Kingdom and Germany in particular. The individual legal systems and statutes will be analyzed, as well as the ...


The Future Of Music: Reconfiguring Public Performance Rights, Gary Myers, George Howard Jun 2016

The Future Of Music: Reconfiguring Public Performance Rights, Gary Myers, George Howard

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


A Riff On Billy The Kid, Richard H. Underwood Apr 2016

A Riff On Billy The Kid, Richard H. Underwood

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In this essay the author discusses Billy Joel’s recording of Billy the Kid and that song's history.


Patented Electric Guitar Pickups And The Creation Of Modern Music Genres, Sean M. O'Connor Jan 2016

Patented Electric Guitar Pickups And The Creation Of Modern Music Genres, Sean M. O'Connor

Articles

This Essay provides an overview of how patents played a core role in developing world-changing musical genres. This may be surprising, as normally copyright law is associated with incentivizing advances in the creative arts. But as this Conference’s theme [The IP Platform: Supporting Invention and Inspiration] and presentations emphasize, the whole range of intellectual property (“IP”), especially when viewed as a platform, supports innovation across the spectrum of human ingenuity and creativity.

This Essay is also intended to be read in conjunction with a viewing of the live-music demonstration of how pickups transformed popular music, delivered at the Conference ...


An “Immeasurable Sign Of Great Hope”: The Detroit Institute Of The Arts, Municipal Bankruptcy And “Cultural Assets”, Rebecca Gosch Jan 2016

An “Immeasurable Sign Of Great Hope”: The Detroit Institute Of The Arts, Municipal Bankruptcy And “Cultural Assets”, Rebecca Gosch

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Is Music The Next Ebooks? An Antitrust Analysis Of Apple's Conduct In The Music Industry, Alexa Klebanow, Tim Wu Jan 2015

Is Music The Next Ebooks? An Antitrust Analysis Of Apple's Conduct In The Music Industry, Alexa Klebanow, Tim Wu

Faculty Scholarship

Over the last twenty years, two waves of technological change have transformed the way people purchase and listen to music. First, digital downloads displaced physical sales of albums. More recently, digital downloads, once the primary way to gain access to digital music, have come to be challenged by streaming services. Apple, a leader in the digital download market with iTunes, has engaged in various strategies to meet the challenge. This paper specifically focuses on two types of conduct – Apple’s pressure on labels to enter into exclusive license agreements, also known as windowing, and Apple’s pressure on the market ...


Introduction: From Sheet Music To Mp3 Files—A Brief Perspective On Napster, Harold R. Weinberg Dec 2014

Introduction: From Sheet Music To Mp3 Files—A Brief Perspective On Napster, Harold R. Weinberg

Harold R. Weinberg

The Napster case is the current cause celebre of the digital age. The story has color. It involves music-sharing technology invented by an eighteen-year-old college dropout whose high school classmates nicknamed him "The Napster" on account of his perpetually kinky hair. The story has drama. Depending on your perspective, it pits rapacious big music companies against poor and hardworking students who just want to enjoy some tunes; or it pits creative and industrious music companies seeking a fair return on their invested effort, time, and money against greedy and irreverent music thieves. And the case has importance. Music maybe intellectual ...


"Disillusioned Words Like Bullets Bark": Incitement To Genocide, Music, And The Trial Of Simon Bikindi, Robert H. Snyder Sep 2014

"Disillusioned Words Like Bullets Bark": Incitement To Genocide, Music, And The Trial Of Simon Bikindi, Robert H. Snyder

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Anti-Competitive Music Industry And The Case For Compulsory Licensing In The Digital Distribution Of Music, Ankur Srivastava Jun 2014

The Anti-Competitive Music Industry And The Case For Compulsory Licensing In The Digital Distribution Of Music, Ankur Srivastava

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cash From Chaos: Sound Recording Authorship, Section 203 Recapture Rights And A New Wave Of Termination, Hector Martinez Jun 2014

Cash From Chaos: Sound Recording Authorship, Section 203 Recapture Rights And A New Wave Of Termination, Hector Martinez

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

The thesis of this Article is that under an exclusive recording agreement entered into in the United States between a record label and recording artist on or after January 1, 1978, any key member of recording artist that signed the recording contract is a bona fide author of a sound recording for purposes of claiming standing in order to effectuate a termination of transfer of grant under Section 203 of the 1976 Copyright Act.

Part I will summarize the history of sound recordings as copyrightable subject matter. Part II will examine record industry custom and practice as it relates to ...


Banksy Got Back? Problems With Chains Of Unauthorized Derivative Works And Arrangements In Cover Songs Under A Compulsory License, Matthew A. Eller Jun 2014

Banksy Got Back? Problems With Chains Of Unauthorized Derivative Works And Arrangements In Cover Songs Under A Compulsory License, Matthew A. Eller

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Article will analyze the scope of copyright ownership in relation to chains of unauthorized derivative works and chains of arrangement rights in cover versions of musical recordings. In particular, the analysis will focus on the gray area in the law where an unauthorized derivative work (“D1”) is created by an author and another author creates a second derivative work (“D2”) based off of D1. In situations such as these, does the creator of the original derivative work have any rights in their creation if their derivative work was unauthorized?

Further, depending on what rights do exist for D1, can ...


Decoding Bollywood’S Royalty-Sharing Conundrum, Pralika Jain Apr 2014

Decoding Bollywood’S Royalty-Sharing Conundrum, Pralika Jain

Pralika Jain

India’s film making community and business got „industry‟ status only in 2011. However, unlike major industries such as telecom and pharmaceutical, the film industry (popularly known as “Bollywood”) is characterised by a major lack of legal rules and institutions to administer them, the problem being most acute in respect of artists. Consequently, the industry is governed completely by market forces whose successful players wield nearly all the bargaining power. It’s almost baffling that a film industry which is currently worlds second in terms of revenue is so thinly regulated.


The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson Jan 2014

The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson

Hillary A Henderson

Copyright law rewards an artificial monopoly to individual authors for their creations. This reward is based on the belief that, by granting authors the exclusive right to reproduce their works, they receive an incentive and means to create, which in turn advances the welfare of the general public by “promoting the progress of science and useful arts.” Copyright protection subsists . . . in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device . . . . In no ...


Private Copyright Reform, Kristelia A. García Dec 2013

Private Copyright Reform, Kristelia A. García

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The government is not the only player in copyright reform, and perhaps not even the most important. Left to free market negotiation, risk averse licensors and licensees are contracting around the statutory license for certain types of copyright-protected content, and achieving greater efficiency via private ordering. This emerging phenomenon, herein termed “private copyright reform,” presents both adverse selection and distributive justice concerns: first, circumvention of the statutory license goes against legislative intent by allowing for the reduction, and even elimination, of statutorily mandated royalties owed to non-parties. In addition, when presented without full term disclosure, privately determined royalty rates can ...


Play Your Part: Girl Talk's Indefinite Role In The Digital Sampling Saga, Shervin Rezaie Dec 2012

Play Your Part: Girl Talk's Indefinite Role In The Digital Sampling Saga, Shervin Rezaie

Touro Law Review

In 2006, Greg Gillis was a twenty-four year old leading a double-life. During the day he was a biomedical engineer, but by night he was slowly becoming an infamous mash-up artist. His albums mixed "Top 40" radio hits into a unique postmodern audio pastiche. Under the moniker Girl Talk, Greg made his entrance into the limelight with the release of Night Ripper, his third album. Night Ripper began gaining attention as audiences became intrigued and excited by Greg's ability to blend numerous artists, old and new, into one seamless track. To illustrate, the first track on Night Ripper, "Once ...


Public Performance Rights In The Digital Age: Fixing The Licensing Problem, G. S. Hans Dec 2012

Public Performance Rights In The Digital Age: Fixing The Licensing Problem, G. S. Hans

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

Recent technological advances have allowed consumers to reinvent the mixtape. Instead of being confined to two sides of an audiocassette, people can now create playlists that stretch for hours and days on their computers, tablets, mobile devices, and MP3 players. This, in turn, has affected how people consume and listen to music, both in isolation and in groups. As individuals and business owners in the United States use devices to store, organize, and listen to music, they inevitably run up against the boundaries of U.S. copyright law. In general, these laws affect businesses more often than private individuals, who ...


Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels And The Webcasting Controversy: The Antithesis Of Good Alternative Dispute Resolution, Jeremy Delibero Mar 2012

Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels And The Webcasting Controversy: The Antithesis Of Good Alternative Dispute Resolution, Jeremy Delibero

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Music is becoming increasingly synonymous with big business and corporate influence. The advent of Internet radio and streaming webcasts are simply one example of this shift. Organizations such as the Radio Industry Association of America ("RIAA") have discovered a new way to receive royalties from the performance of musical works, and have fought vigorously to obtain favorable rates to achieve the maximum profit. On the other hand, small webcasters have fought equally hard to avoid these large rates. Although arguments for each side are equally persuasive, neither is persuasive enough to force a compromise. In attempting to solve these disputes ...


The Moral Rights Act Of 2007: Finding The Melody In The Music, Aurele Danoff Jan 2012

The Moral Rights Act Of 2007: Finding The Melody In The Music, Aurele Danoff

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


Heavy Metal Alloys: Unsigned Rock Bands And Joint Work, Michael S. Young Apr 2011

Heavy Metal Alloys: Unsigned Rock Bands And Joint Work, Michael S. Young

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This note uses humorous illustrations culled from the history of popular heavy metal music to facilitate examination of the effectiveness of joint authorship analysis by modern federal courts. The note carefully considers a variety of common contributions made by band members in the absence of any written or verbal agreement about authorship, and concludes (1) that a more equitable regime would do away with the requirement that a co-author make an "independently copyrightable" contribution, and (2) that courts must take greater care not to transform "will to control" into "intent to be a sole author."


No Bitin’ Allowed: A Hip-Hop Copying Paradigm For All Of Us, Horace E. Anderson Jr. Jan 2011

No Bitin’ Allowed: A Hip-Hop Copying Paradigm For All Of Us, Horace E. Anderson Jr.

Pace Law Faculty Publications

It is long past time to reform the Copyright Act. The law of copyright in the United States is at one of its periodic inflection points. In the past, major technological change and major shifts in the way copyrightable works were used have rightly led to major changes in the law. The invention of the printing press prompted the first codification of copyright. The popularity of the player piano contributed to a reevaluation of how musical works should be protected. The dawn of the computer age led to an explicit expansion of copyrightable subject matter to include computer programs. These ...


Space Age Love Song: The Mix Tape In A Digital Universe, Megan M. Carpenter Oct 2010

Space Age Love Song: The Mix Tape In A Digital Universe, Megan M. Carpenter

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Music As Speech: A First Amendment Category Unto Itself, David Munkittrick Jun 2010

Music As Speech: A First Amendment Category Unto Itself, David Munkittrick

Federal Communications Law Journal

Perhaps the most ubiquitous of art forms, music accompanies daily activities from shopping to jogging. Music permeates modem society, and there is little question it constitutes an integral mode of expression. Despite recognition of music's worth, however, there is little explanation of music in First Amendment jurisprudence. A rationale for First Amendment protection begins with analysis of the particular medium of speech. Through a foray in musical aesthetics and the history of musical censorship, this Note discusses the role of music in political, societal, and individual experience. Music has had an important role in political events, from the fall ...