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Full-Text Articles in Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

Care For A Sample? De Minimis, Fair Use, Blockchain, And An Approach To An Affordable Music Sampling System For Independent Artists, Sean M. Corrado Jan 2019

Care For A Sample? De Minimis, Fair Use, Blockchain, And An Approach To An Affordable Music Sampling System For Independent Artists, Sean M. Corrado

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

Thanks, in part, to social media and the digital streaming age of music, independent artists have seen a rise in popularity and many musicians have achieved mainstream success without the affiliation of a major record label. Alongside the growth of independent music has come the widespread use of music sampling. Sampling, which was once depicted as a crime perpetrated by hip-hop artists, is now prevalent across charttopping hits from all genres. Artists have used sampling as a tool to integrate cultures, eras, and styles of music while experimenting with the bounds of musical creativity. Artists whose works are sampled have ...


What Protections Are Available To Graffiti Artists?, Molly Lamovec Jan 2019

What Protections Are Available To Graffiti Artists?, Molly Lamovec

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


Jason’S Long Night At Camp Blood: Surveying The Independent Copyrightability Of Jason Voorhees In The Wake Of Horror Inc. V. Miller, Tim Kelly Jan 2019

Jason’S Long Night At Camp Blood: Surveying The Independent Copyrightability Of Jason Voorhees In The Wake Of Horror Inc. V. Miller, Tim Kelly

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


The Sample Solution: How Blockchain Technology Can Clarify A Divided Copyright Doctrine On Music Sampling, Angelo Massagli Dec 2018

The Sample Solution: How Blockchain Technology Can Clarify A Divided Copyright Doctrine On Music Sampling, Angelo Massagli

University of Miami Business Law Review

This article will examine how blockchain technology can clarify the complex and inconsistent judicial approach to the copyright doctrine regarding music sampling. As it stands today, circuit courts are divided over how to handle copyright infringement stemming from unlicensed music sampling. The first approach is simple: if you want to sample, get a license. The second approach is more lenient and applies a de minimis standard that forces courts to make fact sensitive, case–by–case decisions regarding whether or not the sample of the original work is sufficient enough to be defined as an infringement. The reason for this ...


Intellectual Property In Experience, Madhavi Sunder Nov 2018

Intellectual Property In Experience, Madhavi Sunder

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In today’s economy, consumers demand experiences. From Star Wars to Harry Potter, fans do not just want to watch or read about their favorite characters— they want to be them. They don the robes of Gryffindor, flick their wands, and drink the butterbeer. The owners of fantasy properties understand this, expanding their offerings from light sabers to the Galaxy’s Edge®, the new Disney Star Wars immersive theme park opening in 2019.

Since Star Wars, Congress and the courts have abetted what is now a $262 billion-a-year industry in merchandising, fashioning “merchandising rights” appurtenant to copyrights and trademarks that ...


"Distinctive Sounds": A Critique Of The Transformative Fair Use Test In Practice And The Need For A New Music Fair Use Exception, Kristin Bateman Sep 2018

"Distinctive Sounds": A Critique Of The Transformative Fair Use Test In Practice And The Need For A New Music Fair Use Exception, Kristin Bateman

Seattle University Law Review

The Constitution gives Congress the power “[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts,” resulting in our modern regime of patent, trademark, and copyright law. Over time, however, this artistic tradition of copying has collided with more modern concepts of intellectual property rights, especially copyright protections. The advent of the internet as well as state-of-the-art recording and mixing software has vastly increased opportunities to copy, remix, sample, parody, and otherwise alter the work of other artists, particularly musicians. More than twenty years after Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, transformative fair use has become the predominant test courts have used ...


Marching To The Beat Of The Eu's Drum: Refining The Collective Management Of Music Rights In The United States To Facilitate The Growth Of Interactive Streaming, Gary W. Hunt Iii Jul 2018

Marching To The Beat Of The Eu's Drum: Refining The Collective Management Of Music Rights In The United States To Facilitate The Growth Of Interactive Streaming, Gary W. Hunt Iii

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In the digital era, interactive streaming is now the preferred method for music consumers to access their favorite albums and songs. The traditional copyright system used to administer music rights and royalties has not evolved accordingly, which not only impedes progress by music platform innovators, but also frustrates artist, labels, and composers who are unable to reap the benefits of their music rights. This Note examines the complex process interactive streaming services undergo to obtain the rights necessary to stream music through their platforms, which involves a discussion of collective rights organizations. This Note then argues that the European Directive ...


Who's Afraid Of Swiss Cheese? Resolving The Copyright Claims Of Non-Coauthors, D. Sean West Jun 2018

Who's Afraid Of Swiss Cheese? Resolving The Copyright Claims Of Non-Coauthors, D. Sean West

Seattle University Law Review SUpra

No abstract provided.


“Wake Up, Mr. West!”: Distinguishing Albums And Compilations For Statutory Damages In Copyright Within A Streaming–Centric Music Economy, Tyler Laurence May 2018

“Wake Up, Mr. West!”: Distinguishing Albums And Compilations For Statutory Damages In Copyright Within A Streaming–Centric Music Economy, Tyler Laurence

University of Miami Business Law Review

The concept of the music album has been a vital cornerstone of the recorded music industry since its adoption in the form of the long–play vinyl record in 1948. For over sixty years, the ability for artists to package a cohesive collection of performances has remained of paramount priority and an art within itself, notwithstanding the flurry of technological innovations that have altered the album’s size, shape, length, and interactivity. These collections of songs have even withstood the so–called “era of unbundilization,” as digital music services declared a new piecemeal distribution standard of albums through the turn ...


Fair Use And First Amendment: Without Fair Use, What Would You Freely Speak About?, Adam Blaier Jan 2018

Fair Use And First Amendment: Without Fair Use, What Would You Freely Speak About?, Adam Blaier

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

The question this paper tries to answer is: Without fair use, what would you freely speak about? This paper will seek to demonstrate that the Copyright Clause’s Fair Use doctrine, and the First Amendment are cousins who help each other, rather than enemies sworn to destroy each other as some believe. First I will give a brief overview and history of each doctrine. Next I will speak about three areas where I believe fair use and the First Amendment cross paths extensively. These areas are: (1) school/education; (2) social media and news; and (3) sports images/broadcasting. Finally ...


A Tale Of Two Composers: An Argument For A Limited Expansion Of Moral Rights For Composers, Cassidy Grunninger Jan 2018

A Tale Of Two Composers: An Argument For A Limited Expansion Of Moral Rights For Composers, Cassidy Grunninger

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Backing Down: Blurred Lines In The Standards For Analysis Of Substantial Similarity In Copyright Infringement For Musical Works, Nicholas Booth Jan 2018

Backing Down: Blurred Lines In The Standards For Analysis Of Substantial Similarity In Copyright Infringement For Musical Works, Nicholas Booth

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Online Piracy Of Live Sports Telecasts In India, Seemantani Sharma Jan 2018

Online Piracy Of Live Sports Telecasts In India, Seemantani Sharma

Marquette Sports Law Review

None


Innovation And Tradition: A Survey Of Intellectual Property And Technology Legal Clinics, Cynthia L. Dahl, Victoria F. Phillips Jan 2018

Innovation And Tradition: A Survey Of Intellectual Property And Technology Legal Clinics, Cynthia L. Dahl, Victoria F. Phillips

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

For artists, nonprofits, community organizations and small-business clients of limited means, securing intellectual property rights and getting counseling involving patent, copyright and trademark law are critical to their success and growth. These clients need expert IP and technology legal assistance, but very often cannot afford services in the legal marketplace. In addition, legal services and state bar pro bono programs have generally been ill-equipped to assist in these more specialized areas. An expanding community of IP and Technology clinics has emerged across the country to meet these needs. But while law review articles have described and examined other sectors of ...


Piracy On Peer-To-Peer File Sharing Networks: Why A Streamlined Online Dispute Resolution System Should Not Be Forgotten In The Shadow Of A Federal Small Claims Tribunal, Naomi Gemmell Sep 2017

Piracy On Peer-To-Peer File Sharing Networks: Why A Streamlined Online Dispute Resolution System Should Not Be Forgotten In The Shadow Of A Federal Small Claims Tribunal, Naomi Gemmell

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This Article proposes application of an ADR system for resolving online copyright disputes related to P2P file sharing. Section II provides an overview of P2P file sharing networks and associated copyright infringement. Section III explores current approaches that fall short in resolving P2P copyright disputes, namely the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, litigation, and private agreements. Section IV examines the two primary proposed solutions to online copyright disputes: alternative dispute resolution and federal small claims. Section V recommends that a streamlined online dispute resolution system is necessary (even if a federal small claims tribunal is adopted), and concludes.


Panel Ii: The Death Or Rebirth Of The Copyright?, Hugh C. Hansen, Diane Zimmerman, Robert Kasunic, Brett Frischmann Sep 2017

Panel Ii: The Death Or Rebirth Of The Copyright?, Hugh C. Hansen, Diane Zimmerman, Robert Kasunic, Brett Frischmann

Brett Frischmann

No abstract provided.


E-Sports: More Than Just A Fad, Michael Mctee Aug 2017

E-Sports: More Than Just A Fad, Michael Mctee

Oklahoma Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


Consent Decrees In The Streaming Era: Digital Withdrawal, Fractional Licensing, And § 114(I), Steven J. Gagliano Jul 2017

Consent Decrees In The Streaming Era: Digital Withdrawal, Fractional Licensing, And § 114(I), Steven J. Gagliano

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Clear disagreement exists about how best to reconcile the copyright protections afforded to songwriters with the antitrust considerations protecting consumers. Songwriter public performance royalty collections account for over $2 billion in annual U.S. revenue, roughly 90% of which is collected by the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) and Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI). ASCAP and BMI are performance rights organizations (PROs) regulated by seventy-five-year-old consent decrees. After the Second Circuit determined that these consent decrees prohibit music publishers from selectively withdrawing their new media rights from ASCAP and BMI to directly negotiating with new media services, the ...


Equitable Resale Royalties, Brian L. Frye Jun 2017

Equitable Resale Royalties, Brian L. Frye

Brian L. Frye

A “resale royalty right” or droit de suite(resale right) is a legal right that gives certain artists the right to claim a percentage of the resale price of the artworks they created. The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and the Tunis Model Law on Copyright for Developing Countries provide for an optional resale royalty right. Many countries have created a resale royalty right, although the particulars of the right differ from country to country. But the United States has repeatedly declined to create a federal resale royalty right, and a federal court recently held ...


Incidental Intellectual Property, Brian L. Frye Jun 2017

Incidental Intellectual Property, Brian L. Frye

Brian L. Frye

As Mark Twain apocryphally observed, “History doesn’t repeat itself, but it often rhymes.” The history of the right of publicity reflects a common intellectual property rhyme. Much like copyright, the right of publicity is an incidental intellectual property right that emerged out of regulation. Over time, the property right gradually detached itself from the regulation and evolved into an independent legal doctrine.

Copyright emerged from the efforts of the Stationers’ Company to preserve its members’ monopoly on the publication of works of authorship. Similarly, it can be argued the right of publicity emerged from the efforts of bubblegum companies ...


Equitable Resale Royalties, Brian L. Frye Apr 2017

Equitable Resale Royalties, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

A “resale royalty right” or droit de suite(resale right) is a legal right that gives certain artists the right to claim a percentage of the resale price of the artworks they created. The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and the Tunis Model Law on Copyright for Developing Countries provide for an optional resale royalty right. Many countries have created a resale royalty right, although the particulars of the right differ from country to country. But the United States has repeatedly declined to create a federal resale royalty right, and a federal court recently held ...


Show Me The Money: Determining A Celebrity’S Fair Market Value In A Right Of Publicity Action, Cody Reaves Mar 2017

Show Me The Money: Determining A Celebrity’S Fair Market Value In A Right Of Publicity Action, Cody Reaves

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

As the power of celebrity continues to grow in the age of social media, so too does the price of using a celebrity’s name and likeness to promote a product. With the newfound ease of using Twitter, Facebook, and even print media to use a celebrity’s identity in conjunction with a product or company, right of publicity concerns arise. When a company uses a celebrity’s name and likeness without the celebrity’s authorization to market or sell a product, companies open themselves up to right of publicity suits. Many of these cases settle out of court. But ...


Return Of The De Minimis Exception In Digital Music Sampling: The Ninth Circuit's Recent Holding In Vmg Salsoul Improves Upon The Sixth Circuit's Holding In Bridgeport, But Raises Questions Of Its Own, Francesco Di Cosmo Jan 2017

Return Of The De Minimis Exception In Digital Music Sampling: The Ninth Circuit's Recent Holding In Vmg Salsoul Improves Upon The Sixth Circuit's Holding In Bridgeport, But Raises Questions Of Its Own, Francesco Di Cosmo

Washington University Law Review

Sampling is a musical production practice that has become increasingly common since the 1980s. A producer samples by copying a section of a sound recording and inserting it into the piece of music she is producing. The type of sound recording sampled by producers can vary vastly from piece to piece. Numerous pop and hip hop songs sample from songs of various genres (rock, classical music, or other pop songs, for example). Audio from a film, commercial, or speech may also be inserted into a song. Typically, the purpose of these samples is either to make use of the musical ...


Incidental Intellectual Property, Brian L. Frye Jan 2017

Incidental Intellectual Property, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

As Mark Twain apocryphally observed, “History doesn’t repeat itself, but it often rhymes.” The history of the right of publicity reflects a common intellectual property rhyme. Much like copyright, the right of publicity is an incidental intellectual property right that emerged out of regulation. Over time, the property right gradually detached itself from the regulation and evolved into an independent legal doctrine.

Copyright emerged from the efforts of the Stationers’ Company to preserve its members’ monopoly on the publication of works of authorship. Similarly, it can be argued the right of publicity emerged from the efforts of bubblegum companies ...


A Cure For Twitch: Compulsory License Promoting Video Game Live-Streaming, Yang Qiu Jan 2017

A Cure For Twitch: Compulsory License Promoting Video Game Live-Streaming, Yang Qiu

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

New technology always bring challenges to Chinese legislation. In recent years, based on technological development of network transmission, video game streaming platforms like “Twitch.tv” have made “big” money. The problem, however, is that the streaming content on those platforms involve copyrightable video games, which infringe game publishers’ copyright, if the streaming platform lacks authorization. And only a few of the streaming platforms and streamers have licenses from game publishers. Nowadays, most game publishers allow streaming to exist because they view the streaming as free advertisement for their games. By making these allowances, the game publishers stay in their fans ...


Keinitz V. Sconnie Nation, Llc: The Seventh Circuit's Necessary Resistance To Defining The Fair Use Doctrine Solely In Terms Of Transformativeness, Alexander Perwich Jan 2017

Keinitz V. Sconnie Nation, Llc: The Seventh Circuit's Necessary Resistance To Defining The Fair Use Doctrine Solely In Terms Of Transformativeness, Alexander Perwich

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

Under the fair use doctrine, use of a copyrighted work is not an infringement on a copyright if, after consideration of four factors, a court considers the use to be fair. The four factors courts are required to consider are: (1) “the purpose and character of the use;” (2) “the nature of the copyrighted work;” (3) “the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole;” and (4) the effect the use has on “the potential market for or value of the original copyrighted work.” A circuit split exists between the Second and ...


Intellectual Property As Seen By Barbie And Mickey: The Reciprocal Relationship Of Copyright And Trademark Law, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2017

Intellectual Property As Seen By Barbie And Mickey: The Reciprocal Relationship Of Copyright And Trademark Law, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Some years ago, caselaw on trademark parodies and similar unauthorized “speech” uses of trademarks could have led one to conclude that the law had no sense of humor. Over time, however, courts in the US and elsewhere began to leaven likelihood of confusion analyses with healthy skepticism regarding consumers’ alleged inability to perceive a joke. These decisions did not always expressly cite the copyright fair use defense, but the considerations underlying the copyright doctrine seemed to inform trademark analysis as well. The spillover effect may indeed have been inevitable, as several of the cases in which the fair use defense ...


The Whole Is More Public Domain Than The Parts?: Us Copyright Protection For Works Of Applied Art Under Star Athletica's Imagination Test, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2017

The Whole Is More Public Domain Than The Parts?: Us Copyright Protection For Works Of Applied Art Under Star Athletica's Imagination Test, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

In Star Athletica v. Varsity Brands, the Supreme Court granted certiorari to resolve confusion in the lower courts regarding the “separability” predicate to copyright protection of decorative features of useful articles. The case involved the “surface decorations” of stripes, chevrons, and color blocks applied to cheerleader uniforms. While the Supreme Court clarified the meaning and application of the “separability” standard for the kinds of decorative elements there at issue, the fate of other artistic “features” of useful articles, particularly their three dimensional forms, remains murky. Much of the Court’s analysis points toward a prophylactic rule excluding the entire shape ...


Falling On Deaf Ears: Is The "Fail-Safe" Triennial Exemption Provision In The Digital Millennium Copyright Act Effective In Protecting Fair Use?, Woodrow Neal Hartzog Oct 2016

Falling On Deaf Ears: Is The "Fail-Safe" Triennial Exemption Provision In The Digital Millennium Copyright Act Effective In Protecting Fair Use?, Woodrow Neal Hartzog

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

This Article examines whether the "fail-safe" triennial exemption provision of the DMCA is effective for its intended purpose: to serve as a countermeasure to the DMCA's anti-circumvention provisions by protecting the ability of the public to engage in non-infringing uses of copyrighted works.

Ultimately, this Article concludes that there are too many faults in both the structure and the execution of the rule-making provision to meaningfully counteract the adverse effects of the anti-circumvention provisions of the DMCA. Specifically, the rule-making procedure explicitly prohibits exemptions to a class based on the use of the work. This amounts to a rejection ...


Martha Graham, Professor Miller And The "Work For Hire" Doctrine: Undoing The Judicial Bind Created By The Legislature, Nancy S. Kim Oct 2016

Martha Graham, Professor Miller And The "Work For Hire" Doctrine: Undoing The Judicial Bind Created By The Legislature, Nancy S. Kim

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

The current work for hire doctrine, as embodied by 17 U.S.C. Sections 101 and 201 and interpreted by the judiciary, provides a default rule of copyright ownership in favor of employers where a work is created by an employee in the scope of employment. In the absence of a written agreement, a finding that an engagement is a work for hire under the statute automatically results in all ownership being vested in the employer. This result often contradicts business norms and the understanding of one or both of the parties. In this Article, the author advocates abolishing the ...