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Antitrust

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Articles 31 - 60 of 126

Full-Text Articles in Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

Symposium Introduction: The New Normal In College Sports: Realigned And Reckoning, Maureen A. Weston Apr 2014

Symposium Introduction: The New Normal In College Sports: Realigned And Reckoning, Maureen A. Weston

Pepperdine Law Review

On Friday, April 5, 2013, Pepperdine University School of Law in Malibu, California convened the Pepperdine Law Review Symposium on The New Normal in College Sports: Realigned and Reckoning. Highlights included a conversation with institutional leaders of major intercollegiate athletic programs; a consideration of the possibility of an antitrust exemption for the NCAA; the impact of conference realignment, digital media, broadcasting, and commercialization; and other emerging hot topics in college sports.


A Regulatory Solution To Better Promote The Educational Values And Economic Sustainability Of Intercollegiate Athletics, Stephen F. Ross, Matt Mitten Jan 2014

A Regulatory Solution To Better Promote The Educational Values And Economic Sustainability Of Intercollegiate Athletics, Stephen F. Ross, Matt Mitten

Journal Articles

Currently there are several pending antitrust suits challenging NCAA rules restricting the economic benefits intercollegiate athletes may receive for their sports participation. Although remedying the inherent problems of commercialized college sports (primarily Division I football and men’s basketball) is a laudable objective, a free market solution mandated by antitrust law may have unintended adverse consequences. Judicial invalidation of these rules may inhibit universities from providing many athletes with a college education they would not otherwise receive, by eliminating or reducing the value of scholarships for many players whose economic value is less than the cost of an education. A ...


"Show Me The Money!"-Analyzing The Potential State Tax Implications Of Paying Student-Athletes, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze, Adam Epstein Dec 2013

"Show Me The Money!"-Analyzing The Potential State Tax Implications Of Paying Student-Athletes, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze, Adam Epstein

Adam Epstein

On March 26, 2014, the Chicago district (Region 13) of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) ruled that Northwestern University football players qualify as employees and can unionize and bargain collectively, a decision which contravenes the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) core principle of amateurism. Shortly after, Northwestern University filed an appeal with the NLRB in Washington, D.C. to quash the prior Region 13 decision. This case has added fuel to the longstanding debate over whether student-athletes should be paid. Amidst arguments both for and against supporting the pay-for-play model from a purely compensatory stance, there has been ...


The Curt Flood Act Of 1998: A Hollow Gesture After All These Years?, Edmund P. Edmonds Oct 2013

The Curt Flood Act Of 1998: A Hollow Gesture After All These Years?, Edmund P. Edmonds

Edmund P. Edmonds

No abstract provided.


Should The Internet Exempt The Media Sector From The Antitrust Laws?, Thomas J. Horton, Robert H. Lande Sep 2013

Should The Internet Exempt The Media Sector From The Antitrust Laws?, Thomas J. Horton, Robert H. Lande

All Faculty Scholarship

This article examines whether the "old media" and the "new media", including the Internet, should be considered to be within the same relevant market for antitrust purposes. To do this the article first demonstrates that proper antitrust consideration of the role of non-price competition necessitates that “news” and “journalism” be analyzed in two distinct ways. First, every part of the operations of a newspaper (or other type of media source), including its investigative reporting and local coverage, should be assessed separately. We present empirical evidence collected for this study which demonstrates that the old media continues to win the vast ...


The Mpaa: A Script For An Antitrust Production, Ian G. Henry Sep 2013

The Mpaa: A Script For An Antitrust Production, Ian G. Henry

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


“The Emperor Has No Clothes:” The Ncaa’S Last Chance As The Middle Man In College Athletics, Nicolas A. Novy Jun 2013

“The Emperor Has No Clothes:” The Ncaa’S Last Chance As The Middle Man In College Athletics, Nicolas A. Novy

Nicolas A. Novy

No abstract provided.


Game Over For First Sale, Stephen J. Mcintyre Mar 2013

Game Over For First Sale, Stephen J. Mcintyre

Stephen J McIntyre

Video game companies have long considered secondhand game retailers a threat to their bottom lines. With the next generation of gaming consoles on the horizon, some companies are experimenting with technological tools to discourage and even prevent gamers from buying and selling used games. Most significantly, a recent patent application describes a system for suppressing secondhand sales by permanently identifying game discs with a single video game console. This technology flies in the face of copyright law’s “first sale” doctrine, which gives lawful purchasers the right to sell, lease, and lend DVDs, CDs, and other media. This Article answers ...


The Commercialization Of College Football: The Universities Of Oklahoma And Georgia Learn An Antitrust Lesson In Ncaa V. Board Of Regents, Suzanne E. Rand Jan 2013

The Commercialization Of College Football: The Universities Of Oklahoma And Georgia Learn An Antitrust Lesson In Ncaa V. Board Of Regents, Suzanne E. Rand

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Reasoning Per Se And Horizontal Price Fixing: An Emerging Trend In Antitrust Litigation?, Joseph W. Defuria Jr. Jan 2013

Reasoning Per Se And Horizontal Price Fixing: An Emerging Trend In Antitrust Litigation?, Joseph W. Defuria Jr.

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Accommodating Labor And Antitrust, Stephen F. Ross Jan 2013

Accommodating Labor And Antitrust, Stephen F. Ross

Journal Articles

In this article, the author comments on Professor Michael LeRoy's article "Federal Jurisdiction in Sports Labor Disputes" (2012 Utah L. Rev. 815) and explains why he disagrees with the claim that federal courts improperly invoke the Sherman Act in sports labor disputes.


Beyond Microsoft: Intellectual Property, Peer Production And The Law’S Concern With Market Dominance., Daryl Lim Jul 2012

Beyond Microsoft: Intellectual Property, Peer Production And The Law’S Concern With Market Dominance., Daryl Lim

Daryl Lim

No abstract provided.


American Needle’S Progeny? Tennis And Antitrust, Ryan M. Rodenberg, Daniel Hauptman Apr 2012

American Needle’S Progeny? Tennis And Antitrust, Ryan M. Rodenberg, Daniel Hauptman

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Decided in the shadow of the U.S. Supreme Court’s May 2010 decision in American Needle v. NFL, Ryan M. Rodenberg and Daniel Hauptman analyze Deutscher Tennis Bund v. ATP World Tour (hereinafter DTB v. ATP) and aim to explain its implications for individual sports (e.g. tennis and golf) and sport governance generally. Treatment is afforded to both the District Court’s jury verdict and the Third Circuit’s appellate decision in DTB v. ATP. Despite being the first federal appellate sports antitrust decision rendered following American Needle, this article concludes that DTB v. ATP should not be ...


Third And Extremely Long: Why The Elimination Of The Bcs Seems All But Impossible, Brad Taconi Jan 2012

Third And Extremely Long: Why The Elimination Of The Bcs Seems All But Impossible, Brad Taconi

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

On January 8, 2009, the University of Florida Gators defeated the University of Oklahoma Sooners in Miami, Florida to win the Bowl Championship Series (“BCS”) Championship Game. As a result of their victory, the Gators were named the Associated Press National Champions after capturing forty eight out of a possible sixty five first place votes. The win on the football field gave the Gators their second national championship in three seasons, but it also reignited a debate about the inherent fairness of the BCS system: whether the BCS violates antitrust law, and whether the federal government should interject and force ...


Topps Gets Exclusive License, Leaving Upper Deck On The Bench: An Analysis Of Major League Baseball's Antitrust Exemption In The Modern Era, Sarah A. Padove Dec 2011

Topps Gets Exclusive License, Leaving Upper Deck On The Bench: An Analysis Of Major League Baseball's Antitrust Exemption In The Modern Era, Sarah A. Padove

Marquette Sports Law Review

None


Shutting The Black Door: Using American Needle To Cure The Problem Of Improper Product Definition, Daniel A. Schwartz Nov 2011

Shutting The Black Door: Using American Needle To Cure The Problem Of Improper Product Definition, Daniel A. Schwartz

Michigan Law Review

Section 1 of the Sherman Act is designed to protect competition by making illegal any agreement that has the effect of limiting consumer choice. To make this determination, courts first define the product at issue and then consider the challenged restraint's impact on the market in which that product competes. When considering § 1 allegations against sports leagues, courts have tended to define products according to the structure of the leagues. The result of this tendency is that harm to competition between the leagues' teams is not properly accounted for in the courts' analyses. This, in turn, grants leagues a ...


Competition Law And Sector Regulation In The European Energy Market After The Third Energy Package: Hierarchy And Efficiency, Michael Diathesopoulos Apr 2011

Competition Law And Sector Regulation In The European Energy Market After The Third Energy Package: Hierarchy And Efficiency, Michael Diathesopoulos

Michael Diathesopoulos

The aim of this research is to provide the basic parameters for a model for the definition of the relation between the general competition and sector specific frameworks and rules regarding the regulation of the Internal Energy Market, especially after the Third Energy Package. The research considers the recent sector specific framework in relation to a series of recent competition law cases of the Energy Market where structural remedies were applied under the commitments procedure. Essential facilities doctrine and generally competition law tools do not seem to provide a suitable framework for effectively addressing the dynamic competition concept, treating the ...


The Economics Of Competitive Balance: Sports Antitrust Claims After American Needle, James T. Mckeown Jan 2011

The Economics Of Competitive Balance: Sports Antitrust Claims After American Needle, James T. Mckeown

Marquette Sports Law Review

None.


Creation Without Restraint: Promoting Liberty And Rivalry In Innovation, Christina Bohannan, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jan 2011

Creation Without Restraint: Promoting Liberty And Rivalry In Innovation, Christina Bohannan, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This document contains the table of contents, introduction, and a brief description of Christina Bohannan & Herbert Hovenkamp, Creation without Restraint: Promoting Liberty and Rivalry in Innovation (Oxford 2011).

Promoting rivalry in innovation requires a fusion of legal policies drawn from patent, copyright, and antitrust law, as well as economics and other disciplines. Creation Without Restraint looks first at the relationship between markets and innovation, noting that innovation occurs most in moderately competitive markets and that small actors are more likely to be truly creative innovators. Then we examine the problem of connected and complementary relationships, a dominant feature of high technology markets. Interconnection requirements, technological compatibility requirements, standard setting, and the relationship between durable products and aftermarkets all involve interconnection, or “tying.” Some see tying as inherently anticompetitive, while others view it as unexceptionally benign. In fact, bundling products or technologies is essential in high technology markets and most of it is socially beneficial, but possibilities of abuse nevertheless remain.

Identifying good substantive legal rules for facilitating innovation is often very difficult. Two generations ago antitrust law addressed problems of complexity by shifting the focus to harm. The courts reasoned that they could often avoid unmanageable substantive doctrine by considering whether the plaintiff had suffered the appropriate kind of injury. Plaintiffs who are injured by more rather than less competition should be denied a remedy. In the case of patent and copyright law, the appropriate question is whether an infringer’s conduct served to undermine the right holder’s incentive to innovate, with incentives measured from before the innovation occurred. Some IP infringements do no harm to the incentive to innovate; others actually make the right more rather than less valuable. In these situations relief should be denied.

Patent and copyright law are both in crisis today – major problems include overissuance, overly broad and ambiguously defined protections, and rules that permit both patentees and copyright holders to make broad claims on unforeseen innovations. The result has been that many patents are valueless, while others have very considerable value precisely because they enclose ideas or technologies that rightfully belong in the public domain. Patent law could be ...


The Firm As Cartel Manager, Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Christopher R. Leslie Jan 2011

The Firm As Cartel Manager, Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Christopher R. Leslie

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Antitrust law is the primary legal obstacle to price fixing, which is condemned by Section 1 of the Sherman Act. Firms that engage in price fixing may try to reduce their probability of antitrust liability in a number of ways. First, members of a price-fixing conspiracy go to great lengths to conceal their illegal activities from antitrust enforcers. Second, because Section 1 condemns only concerted action, firms may structure their relationship to appear to be the action of a single entity that is beyond the reach of Section One.

In its American Needle decision the Supreme Court held that the ...


American Needle And The Boundaries Of The Firm In Antitrust Law, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Aug 2010

American Needle And The Boundaries Of The Firm In Antitrust Law, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In American Needle the Supreme Court unanimously held that for the practice at issue the NFL should be treated as a “combination” of its teams rather than a single entity. However, the arrangement must be assessed under the rule of reason. The opinion, written by Justice Stevens, was almost certainly his last opinion for the Court in an antitrust case; Justice Stevens had been a dissenter in the Supreme Court’s Copperweld decision 25 years earlier, which held that a parent corporation and its wholly owned subsidiary constituted a single “firm” for antitrust purposes. The Sherman Act speaks to this ...


From Energy Sector Inquiry To Recent Antitrust Decisions In European Energy Markets: Competition Law As A Means To Implement Energy Sector Regulation In Eu, Michael Diathesopoulos Jul 2010

From Energy Sector Inquiry To Recent Antitrust Decisions In European Energy Markets: Competition Law As A Means To Implement Energy Sector Regulation In Eu, Michael Diathesopoulos

Michael Diathesopoulos

This paper presents the conceptual path followed by European Union, European Commission and European Competition Network, after the Energy Sector Inquiry (2007) towards the realisation of the objective of an Energy Internal Market, fully functional and open to competition. Firstly, we examine the findings of Sector Inquiry and then we describe how the Third Energy Package - that followed - tried to address the issues highlighted by the Inquiry and how Third Energy Package introduces a promising but complex system, in order to develop sector rules. Following the above, we proceed to a brief but close examination of 10 recent -during or ...


American Needle: The Sherman Act, Conspiracy, And Exclusion, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jun 2010

American Needle: The Sherman Act, Conspiracy, And Exclusion, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay, part of a colloquium in the CPI Antitrust Journal, explores the meaning and significance of the Supreme Court’s decision in American Needle v. NFL. The Supreme Court held that for purposes of the dispute at hand the NFL should be treated as a collaboration of its member teams rather than a single entity. The factors that the Supreme Court considered most important were, first, that the NFL’s member teams are individually owned profit making entities who compete with each other in at least some economic markets, such as that for the sale of apparel bearing NFL ...


The Nba And The Single Entity Defense: A Better Case?, Michael A. Mccann Apr 2010

The Nba And The Single Entity Defense: A Better Case?, Michael A. Mccann

Law Faculty Scholarship

This Article will explore the relationship between the National Basketball Association, its independently-owned teams, and associated corporate entities, including the Women’s NBA, NBA Properties, NBA Developmental League, NBA China, and single entity analysis under section 1 of the Sherman Act. Section 1 chiefly aims to prevent competitors from combining their economic power in ways that unduly impair competition or harm consumers, be it in terms of raised prices, diminished quality, or limited choices. Single entities are exempt from section 1 because they are considered “one,” rather than competitors, and thus their collaboration does not implicate anticompetitive concerns.

In American ...


Intra-Enterprise Activity, Joint Ventures And Sports Leagues: Identifying Unilateral Conduct Under The Antitrust Laws, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jan 2010

Intra-Enterprise Activity, Joint Ventures And Sports Leagues: Identifying Unilateral Conduct Under The Antitrust Laws, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the American Needle case the Supreme Court will consider whether the NFL’s decision to give an exclusive trademark license to one firm should be counted as “unilateral” on the NFL’s part, or rather as the concerted joint venture activity of the NFL’s individual member teams. The intellectual property in question is not trademarks in the NFL itself, but rather the trademarks and other intellectual property developed separately by each individual team, and which the teams in turn have licensed exclusively to the NFL.

In general, when a joint venture is engaged in its own business the ...


American Needle V. Nfl: An Opportunity To Reshape Sports Law, Michael Mccann Jan 2010

American Needle V. Nfl: An Opportunity To Reshape Sports Law, Michael Mccann

Law Faculty Scholarship

This Feature will explore American Needle, Inc. v. NFL and its potential impact on professional sports in the United States. In August 2008, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit held that the National Football League (NFL) and its teams operate as a “single entity” for purposes of apparel sales. Because a single entity cannot conspire with itself, it cannot violate Section 1 of the Sherman Act, which prohibits concerted action that unreasonably restrains trade. The U.S. Supreme Court recently granted a writ of certiorari and will review American Needle in its 2009-2010 Term. As this ...


One Trilogy That Should Go Without A Sequel: Why The Baseball Antitrust Exemption Should Be Repealed, Brittany Van Roo Jan 2010

One Trilogy That Should Go Without A Sequel: Why The Baseball Antitrust Exemption Should Be Repealed, Brittany Van Roo

Marquette Sports Law Review

No abstract provided.


Justice Sonia Sotomayor And The Relationship Between Leagues And Players: Insights And Implications, Michael Mccann Jan 2010

Justice Sonia Sotomayor And The Relationship Between Leagues And Players: Insights And Implications, Michael Mccann

Law Faculty Scholarship

This Essay examines U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor’s important role in shaping U.S. sports law. As a judge on the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York and later on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, Sotomayor authored opinions that resolved two major sports law disputes: whether Major League Baseball (“MLB”) owners could unilaterally impose new labor conditions on MLB players during the 1994 baseball strike and whether Ohio State University sophomore Maurice Clarett was obligated to wait three years from the completion of high school to become ...


Sports Arbitration And Enforcing Promises: Brian Shaw And Labor Arbitration, Roger I. Abrams Jan 2009

Sports Arbitration And Enforcing Promises: Brian Shaw And Labor Arbitration, Roger I. Abrams

Marquette Sports Law Review

No abstract provided.


"Mixed Metaphors," Revisionist History And Post-Hypnotic Suggestions On The Interpretation Of Sports Antitrust Exemptions: The Second Circuit's Use In Clarett Of A Piazza-Like "Innovative Reinterpretation Of Supreme Court Dogma", Walter T. Champion, Jr. Jan 2009

"Mixed Metaphors," Revisionist History And Post-Hypnotic Suggestions On The Interpretation Of Sports Antitrust Exemptions: The Second Circuit's Use In Clarett Of A Piazza-Like "Innovative Reinterpretation Of Supreme Court Dogma", Walter T. Champion, Jr.

Marquette Sports Law Review

No abstract provided.