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2018

Intellectual Property Law

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Articles 1 - 30 of 39

Full-Text Articles in Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

The Sample Solution: How Blockchain Technology Can Clarify A Divided Copyright Doctrine On Music Sampling, Angelo Massagli Dec 2018

The Sample Solution: How Blockchain Technology Can Clarify A Divided Copyright Doctrine On Music Sampling, Angelo Massagli

University of Miami Business Law Review

This article will examine how blockchain technology can clarify the complex and inconsistent judicial approach to the copyright doctrine regarding music sampling. As it stands today, circuit courts are divided over how to handle copyright infringement stemming from unlicensed music sampling. The first approach is simple: if you want to sample, get a license. The second approach is more lenient and applies a de minimis standard that forces courts to make fact sensitive, case–by–case decisions regarding whether or not the sample of the original work is sufficient enough to be defined as an infringement. The reason for this ...


The Rearden Problem: Defining Ownership In A Changing Landscape, Jake Altobello Dec 2018

The Rearden Problem: Defining Ownership In A Changing Landscape, Jake Altobello

University of Miami Business Law Review

This paper will address the problem that is currently being confronted by the Walt Disney World Company; who owns the creative works made from software stolen from the original creator? Furthermore, does the court’s application of the “lion’s share” theory effectively further the Constitution’s intent to promote the growth of arts and sciences? By looking at the historical progression of intellectual property law and the holdings of key cases in copyright law, this paper will distill into a summary of key concerns the jurisprudence regarding associating property rights in intellectual property. By narrowing the key considerations of ...


Intellectual Property In Experience, Madhavi Sunder Nov 2018

Intellectual Property In Experience, Madhavi Sunder

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In today’s economy, consumers demand experiences. From Star Wars to Harry Potter, fans do not just want to watch or read about their favorite characters— they want to be them. They don the robes of Gryffindor, flick their wands, and drink the butterbeer. The owners of fantasy properties understand this, expanding their offerings from light sabers to the Galaxy’s Edge®, the new Disney Star Wars immersive theme park opening in 2019.

Since Star Wars, Congress and the courts have abetted what is now a $262 billion-a-year industry in merchandising, fashioning “merchandising rights” appurtenant to copyrights and trademarks that ...


"Distinctive Sounds": A Critique Of The Transformative Fair Use Test In Practice And The Need For A New Music Fair Use Exception, Kristin Bateman Sep 2018

"Distinctive Sounds": A Critique Of The Transformative Fair Use Test In Practice And The Need For A New Music Fair Use Exception, Kristin Bateman

Seattle University Law Review

The Constitution gives Congress the power “[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts,” resulting in our modern regime of patent, trademark, and copyright law. Over time, however, this artistic tradition of copying has collided with more modern concepts of intellectual property rights, especially copyright protections. The advent of the internet as well as state-of-the-art recording and mixing software has vastly increased opportunities to copy, remix, sample, parody, and otherwise alter the work of other artists, particularly musicians. More than twenty years after Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, transformative fair use has become the predominant test courts have used ...


Applying The Statutory Cover License To Mashup Covers And Medleys, Paulina Lopez Aug 2018

Applying The Statutory Cover License To Mashup Covers And Medleys, Paulina Lopez

North Carolina Central University Science & Intellectual Property Law Review

No abstract provided.


Indigenous Appropriation And Protections Provided By Intellectual Property Law, Kadeidra Baker Aug 2018

Indigenous Appropriation And Protections Provided By Intellectual Property Law, Kadeidra Baker

North Carolina Central University Science & Intellectual Property Law Review

No abstract provided.


When The Ink Dries, Whose Tatt Is It Anyway? The Copyrightability Of Tattoos, Chandel Boozer Aug 2018

When The Ink Dries, Whose Tatt Is It Anyway? The Copyrightability Of Tattoos, Chandel Boozer

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Fair Use Avoidance In Music Cases, Edward Lee Jul 2018

Fair Use Avoidance In Music Cases, Edward Lee

Boston College Law Review

This Article provides the first empirical study of fair use in cases involving musical works. The major finding of the study is surprising: despite the relatively high number of music cases decided under the 1976 Copyright Act, no decisions have recognized non-parody fair use of a musical work to create another musical work, except for a 2017 decision involving the copying of a narration that itself contained no music (and therefore might not even constitute a musical work). Thus far, no decision has held that copying musical notes or elements is fair use. Moreover, very few music cases have even ...


Marching To The Beat Of The Eu's Drum: Refining The Collective Management Of Music Rights In The United States To Facilitate The Growth Of Interactive Streaming, Gary W. Hunt Iii Jul 2018

Marching To The Beat Of The Eu's Drum: Refining The Collective Management Of Music Rights In The United States To Facilitate The Growth Of Interactive Streaming, Gary W. Hunt Iii

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

In the digital era, interactive streaming is now the preferred method for music consumers to access their favorite albums and songs. The traditional copyright system used to administer music rights and royalties has not evolved accordingly, which not only impedes progress by music platform innovators, but also frustrates artist, labels, and composers who are unable to reap the benefits of their music rights. This Note examines the complex process interactive streaming services undergo to obtain the rights necessary to stream music through their platforms, which involves a discussion of collective rights organizations. This Note then argues that the European Directive ...


Who's Afraid Of Swiss Cheese? Resolving The Copyright Claims Of Non-Coauthors, D. Sean West Jun 2018

Who's Afraid Of Swiss Cheese? Resolving The Copyright Claims Of Non-Coauthors, D. Sean West

Seattle University Law Review SUpra

No abstract provided.


“Wake Up, Mr. West!”: Distinguishing Albums And Compilations For Statutory Damages In Copyright Within A Streaming–Centric Music Economy, Tyler Laurence May 2018

“Wake Up, Mr. West!”: Distinguishing Albums And Compilations For Statutory Damages In Copyright Within A Streaming–Centric Music Economy, Tyler Laurence

University of Miami Business Law Review

The concept of the music album has been a vital cornerstone of the recorded music industry since its adoption in the form of the long–play vinyl record in 1948. For over sixty years, the ability for artists to package a cohesive collection of performances has remained of paramount priority and an art within itself, notwithstanding the flurry of technological innovations that have altered the album’s size, shape, length, and interactivity. These collections of songs have even withstood the so–called “era of unbundilization,” as digital music services declared a new piecemeal distribution standard of albums through the turn ...


What's In A Game: Collective Management Organizations And Video Game Copyright, Tori Allen May 2018

What's In A Game: Collective Management Organizations And Video Game Copyright, Tori Allen

UNLV Gaming Law Journal

No abstract provided.


A (Thigh) Gap In The Law: Addressing Egregious Digital Manipulation Of Celebrity Images, Jessica L. Williams-Vickery May 2018

A (Thigh) Gap In The Law: Addressing Egregious Digital Manipulation Of Celebrity Images, Jessica L. Williams-Vickery

Georgia State University Law Review

In 2012, world-renowned supermodel Coco Rocha agreed to be photographed for the cover of one of Elle’s magazine publications, Elle Brazil. Rocha posed for the pictures in a dress with significant cutouts, covered only by a sheer layer of skin-toned fabric. In keeping with her firm policy of no full or partial nudity, Rocha wore a bodysuit underneath the dress to limit her exposure. When Elle published the magazine, the final product shocked Rocha; the magazine had altered the image to remove her bodysuit, giving the impression Rocha had shown more skin than she in fact had. Rocha took ...


Why The Copyright Act Expressly Preempts State-Level Public Performance Rights In Pre-1972 Recordings, James Fahringer May 2018

Why The Copyright Act Expressly Preempts State-Level Public Performance Rights In Pre-1972 Recordings, James Fahringer

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Over the past several years, two former bandmates in the 1960s rock group, The Turtles, have initiated several lawsuits against the popular music streaming services, Pandora and Sirius XM, arguing that the band owns common law copyrights in the sound recordings of its songs, and that these state-level copyrights grant the band an exclusive public performance right in its sound recordings. If accepted, this argument has the potential to significantly distort federal copyright policy because states would not be constrained by any of the balancing features of the Copyright Act, including Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) safe harbors for Internet ...


Harmonizing The Tension Between The First Amendment And Publicity Rights And Finding The Right Balance: Discerning How Much Freedom Is Warranted And What Needs Protection, William Buchsbaum Apr 2018

Harmonizing The Tension Between The First Amendment And Publicity Rights And Finding The Right Balance: Discerning How Much Freedom Is Warranted And What Needs Protection, William Buchsbaum

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

This paper examines the tension between the First Amendment and Publicity Rights considering why and how friction is emerging, the legal underpinnings and theories behind the development of publicity rights and how to reconcile this with values raised in support of the First Amendment. This collision course of rights occurs where property interests have vested in human identity itself which brings us face to face with the outer limits of free speech and expression under the First Amendment and evens tests the notion of how we define speech. The paper takes a dive into some of the currently arising issues ...


Capitol Records V. Vimeo: How The Digital Millennium Copyright Act Is Outdated And In Need Of Revision, Dustin Johnson Apr 2018

Capitol Records V. Vimeo: How The Digital Millennium Copyright Act Is Outdated And In Need Of Revision, Dustin Johnson

Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review

This Comment analyzes the Second Circuit Court of Appeals’ interpretation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) in Capitol Records, LLC v. Vimeo, LLC, 826 F.3d 78 (2d Cir. 2016). Beginning with a brief overview of the DMCA’s history, this Comment acknowledges the Second Circuit’s holding in Viacom Int’l Inc. v. YouTube, Inc., 676 F.3d 19 (2d Cir. 2012). In Viacom, the Second Circuit set precedent with its interpretation of the knowledge requirements for safe harbor under section 512(c) of the DMCA.

In Capitol Records, the Second Circuit confirmed its holding in Viacom but ...


Rejecting The De Minimis Defense To Infringement Of Sound Recording Copyrights, Michael G. Kubik Mar 2018

Rejecting The De Minimis Defense To Infringement Of Sound Recording Copyrights, Michael G. Kubik

Notre Dame Law Review

Part I of this Note examines the history of sound recording copyrights, the role of digital sampling in the music industry, and the basic principles and functions of the de minimis defense. Part II carefully dissects the Bridgeport and VMG opinions. Part III then considers the merits of each opinion and concludes that Bridgeport reached the correct conclusion. This argument rests on the statutory scheme of Title 17 of the U.S. Code and the plain text of its applicable provisions, bolstered by their legislative history, giving life to a unique statutory creature that thrives in a manner inconsistent with ...


Whitewashing Expression: Using Copyright Law To Protect Racial Identity In Casting, Brandon Johnson Mar 2018

Whitewashing Expression: Using Copyright Law To Protect Racial Identity In Casting, Brandon Johnson

Northwestern University Law Review

Porchlight Music Theatre, a non-equity theatre company in Chicago, decided to capitalize on the popularity of Lin-Manuel Miranda’s smash hit Hamilton by producing one of Miranda’s earlier works, In the Heights. This earlier work tells the story of a predominantly Latinx community in New York’s Washington Heights neighborhood. Porchlight’s production, however, received significant negative attention when it was revealed that the lead character—Usnavi, an immigrant from the Dominican Republic—would be played by a white actor. While casting white actors in nonwhite roles is nothing new and has been a persistent (and persistently criticized) practice ...


Who Determines What Is Egregious? Judge Or Jury: Enhanced Damages After Halo V. Pulse, Brandon M. Reed Feb 2018

Who Determines What Is Egregious? Judge Or Jury: Enhanced Damages After Halo V. Pulse, Brandon M. Reed

Georgia State University Law Review

Enhanced damages in patent law are a type of punitive damage that can be awarded in the case of “egregious misconduct” during the course of patent infringement. Authorization for enhanced damages comes from 35 U.S.C. § 284, which allows the district court to increase total damages up to three times the amount of actual damages found by the jury. It is well understood that, since enhanced damages are punitive in nature, enhancement should only be considered for cases of “wanton” or “deliberate” infringement. However, determining what constitutes this “egregious” misconduct has vastly transformed over time to include a negligence ...


Fair Use And First Amendment: Without Fair Use, What Would You Freely Speak About?, Adam Blaier Jan 2018

Fair Use And First Amendment: Without Fair Use, What Would You Freely Speak About?, Adam Blaier

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

The question this paper tries to answer is: Without fair use, what would you freely speak about? This paper will seek to demonstrate that the Copyright Clause’s Fair Use doctrine, and the First Amendment are cousins who help each other, rather than enemies sworn to destroy each other as some believe. First I will give a brief overview and history of each doctrine. Next I will speak about three areas where I believe fair use and the First Amendment cross paths extensively. These areas are: (1) school/education; (2) social media and news; and (3) sports images/broadcasting. Finally ...


A Tale Of Two Composers: An Argument For A Limited Expansion Of Moral Rights For Composers, Cassidy Grunninger Jan 2018

A Tale Of Two Composers: An Argument For A Limited Expansion Of Moral Rights For Composers, Cassidy Grunninger

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Backing Down: Blurred Lines In The Standards For Analysis Of Substantial Similarity In Copyright Infringement For Musical Works, Nicholas Booth Jan 2018

Backing Down: Blurred Lines In The Standards For Analysis Of Substantial Similarity In Copyright Infringement For Musical Works, Nicholas Booth

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Live Sports Virtual Reality Broadcasts: Copyright And Other Protections, Marie Hopkins Jan 2018

Live Sports Virtual Reality Broadcasts: Copyright And Other Protections, Marie Hopkins

Duke Law & Technology Review

As virtual reality rapidly progresses, broadcasts are able to increasingly mimic the experience of actually attending a game. As the technology advances and the viewer can freely move about the game and virtual reality can simulate the in-stadium attendance, the virtual reality broadcast nears the point where the broadcast is indistinguishable from the underlying game. Thus, novel copyright protection issues arise regarding the ability to protect the experience through copyright. Although normal broadcasts may be copyrighted, virtual reality broadcasts of live sports could lack protection under the Copyright Act because the elements of originality, authorship, and fixation are harder to ...


Lookalike Logos: Is A High School's Use Of A Logo Or Insignia Similar To That Of A University A Violation Under The Lanham Act, Keegan Girodo Jan 2018

Lookalike Logos: Is A High School's Use Of A Logo Or Insignia Similar To That Of A University A Violation Under The Lanham Act, Keegan Girodo

Marquette Sports Law Review

None


2017 Annual Survey: Recent Developments In Sports Law, Jordan Lysiak, Katherine Hampel Jan 2018

2017 Annual Survey: Recent Developments In Sports Law, Jordan Lysiak, Katherine Hampel

Marquette Sports Law Review

None


Index: Sports Law In Law Reviews And Journals, Jordan Lysiak Jan 2018

Index: Sports Law In Law Reviews And Journals, Jordan Lysiak

Marquette Sports Law Review

None


Online Piracy Of Live Sports Telecasts In India, Seemantani Sharma Jan 2018

Online Piracy Of Live Sports Telecasts In India, Seemantani Sharma

Marquette Sports Law Review

None


Index: Sports Law In Law Reviews And Journals, Jordan Lysiak Jan 2018

Index: Sports Law In Law Reviews And Journals, Jordan Lysiak

Marquette Sports Law Review

None


In Lieu Of Moral Rights For Ip-Wronged Music Vocalists: Personhood Theory, Moral Rights, And The Wppt Revisited, Tuneen E. Chisolm Jan 2018

In Lieu Of Moral Rights For Ip-Wronged Music Vocalists: Personhood Theory, Moral Rights, And The Wppt Revisited, Tuneen E. Chisolm

Scholarly Works

Copyright law in the United States is failing music performers, and most specifically, music vocalists. The utilitarian/economic incentive-based copyright regime not only minimizes the creative contribution of music performers and subjects the exclusive rights to exploit their works to an ever-widening range of fair use exceptions, but it also disregards the personhood interests of most actual creators entirely. That disregard of personhood interests affects music vocalists more than authors of other copyrightable works because "a voice is as distinctive and personal as a face. The human voice is one of the most palpable ways identity is manifested. [And thus ...


Congress Does Not Hide Elephants In Mouse-Holes: How Vimeo Paid No Heed To That Caution, Mitch Bailey Jan 2018

Congress Does Not Hide Elephants In Mouse-Holes: How Vimeo Paid No Heed To That Caution, Mitch Bailey

Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

With the passage of the 1976 Copyright Act, sound recordings fixed prior to February 15, 1972 remained under the protection of the state copyright laws where the works were registered. Some incredible culturally significant songs were fixed before February 15, 1972, including songs from “The Beatles, The Supremes, Elvis Presley, Aretha Franklin, Barbara Streisand, and Marvin Gaye.” To date, state law protects the owner’s rights without interference from federal law, including the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”).

Given its location, the Second Circuit significantly influenced the development of intellectual property law in the United States, especially copyright law. Many ...