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Full-Text Articles in Entertainment, Arts, and Sports Law

Masthead Jan 2019

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Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

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Lost In A Novelty Mug: U.S. Telecom, The Fcc, And Policy Resolution For Net Neutrality, Christopher Terry, Scott Memmel, Ashley Turacek Jan 2019

Lost In A Novelty Mug: U.S. Telecom, The Fcc, And Policy Resolution For Net Neutrality, Christopher Terry, Scott Memmel, Ashley Turacek

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This paper traces the history of net neutrality and the judicial reviews of the Federal Communication Commission’s multiple attempts at regulation, including the agency’s 2006 guidelines overturned in Comcast v. FCC, the 2010 rules overturned in Verizon v. FCC, and the FCC’s reclassification of broadband in its 2015 net neutrality rules, as well as the contemporary battles over the agency’s decision in November of 2017 to repeal the 2015 rules. As the FCC continues to wrestle with net neutrality and open internet regulations, the agency engaged in a series of continuing delays to impede a potential ...


Mixed Messages: How The Free Press Has A Responsibility To We The People At The Marketplace Of Ideas, Addison O’Donnell Jan 2019

Mixed Messages: How The Free Press Has A Responsibility To We The People At The Marketplace Of Ideas, Addison O’Donnell

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

The Free Press makes possible a fair democracy. It exerts influence on our communities and our consciences, principally in the form of reporting facts through its account of events, endorsing certain viewpoints through editorials, and ultimately producing the “first rough draft of history.” How the public responds to the Free Press speaks to the historic and continued expectation that many different voices should present divergent messages and allow the people to decide which message is the truth. Risks taken by the Free Press in the name of truth enable the theory of our Constitution to endure by facilitating the unbridled ...


Harvey Of Hollywood: The Face That Launched A Thousand Stories, Sara Khorasani Jan 2019

Harvey Of Hollywood: The Face That Launched A Thousand Stories, Sara Khorasani

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

In the fall of 2017, the world was shaken by allegations of sexual misconduct against one of Hollywood’s high-powered movie moguls. The Harvey Weinstein scandal exposed countless accounts of sexual harassment and abuse, along with the settlement agreements that had kept them covered for decades. Since then, social movements have helped knock Harvey off his Hollywood throne and shed light upon a major concern plaguing the entertainment industry. This paper seeks to address how to effectively change an industry that has long bred a systemic culture of sexual harassment and discrimination. Under the accepted norms of Hollywood, victims of ...


Youtube, K-Pop, And The Emergence Of Content Copycats, Sam Quach Jan 2019

Youtube, K-Pop, And The Emergence Of Content Copycats, Sam Quach

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

YouTube is the internet’s largest and most recognized video streaming platform; the website has millions of daily active users from all over the world and hosts billions of videos. With so much content being hosted on the website, YouTube has developed basic protocol when it comes to copyright issues, including a standardized system for dealing with copyright infringement. But with such a large audience and technology constantly growing and changing, YouTube is constantly faced with new problems. Among content on YouTube, Korean entertainment and pop music (commonly referred to as K-Pop) has quickly become one of the largest markets ...


Legalizing Federal Sports Gambling Laws: You Got To Know When To Hold’Em, Robert Shawhan Jan 2018

Legalizing Federal Sports Gambling Laws: You Got To Know When To Hold’Em, Robert Shawhan

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This paper addresses the current federal laws that prohibits sports gambling. It argues that the introduction of a well-regulated and transparent gambling industry may serve greater protections than what is provided by the law. Politicians are sensibly acknowledging the realities of sports gambling and its benefits. The current political climate, under a Trump Presidency, is ideal for legalizing this form of gambling. Part I of this note will reflect on the most recent history of sports gambling laws. It will draw on New Jersey’s legal struggles, the sports evolution of Las Vegas, and the relevant Daily Fantasy Sports controversy ...


From Satirical To Satyrical: When Is A Joke Actionable?, Sandra Davidson Scott Jan 2018

From Satirical To Satyrical: When Is A Joke Actionable?, Sandra Davidson Scott

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This Article was selected from Volume 13, Number 2 of the Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal. In light of President Donald Trump’s threats to change the current libel law, this Article was selected to address topics including Jerry Falwell’s unsuccessful suit against Hustler magazine, the public figure/private person distinction, commercial appropriation for name and likeness, and the opinion/fact distinction. The Article concludes that courts show more sensitivity to commercial than personal injury and fail to appreciate that satire can damage reputation by raising suspicions that statements are based on facts that are merely stretched.


Moral Rights For Musical Compositions In The United States:It’S Not Just Fair, It’S An Obligation, Becca E. Davis Jan 2018

Moral Rights For Musical Compositions In The United States:It’S Not Just Fair, It’S An Obligation, Becca E. Davis

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This paper seeks to establish that the United States has a quasi-obligation to enact comprehensive moral rights legislation to remain compliant with the minimum protection standards set forth by the Berne Convention of 1886. In order to alleviate the anticipated economic and societal concerns stemming from this idea, this paper presents musical compositions as the initial work of authorship to receive moral rights, gradually easing the United States’ transition into full compliance with the Berne Convention. Part I of this paper will cover a brief history of music law in the United States, focusing on how the exclusive rights granted ...


Droit De Suite, Copyright’S First Sale Doctrine And Preemption Of State Law, David E. Shipley Jan 2017

Droit De Suite, Copyright’S First Sale Doctrine And Preemption Of State Law, David E. Shipley

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

The primary focus of this article is whether California’s forty-year old droit de suite statute; the California Resale Royalty Act (CRRA), is subject to federal preemption under the Copyright Act. This issue is now being litigated in the Ninth Circuit, and this article concludes that the CRRA is preempted under section 301(a) of the Copyright Act and under the Supremacy Clause because it at odds with copyright’s well-established first sale doctrine.

The basic idea of droit de suite is that each time an artist’s work is resold by a dealer or auction house, the artist is ...


#Ncaa Vs. Student Athletes: An Empirical Analysis Of Ncaa Social Media Policies, Elizabeth M. Heintzelman Jan 2017

#Ncaa Vs. Student Athletes: An Empirical Analysis Of Ncaa Social Media Policies, Elizabeth M. Heintzelman

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This article argues that the NCAA and its universities should not have any form of social media policy as it creates First and Fourth Amendment violations, as well as a liability for both the NCAA and its member schools. A social media policy should not limit constitutional rights, but rather any policy should educate the youth about important issues such as cyber-bullying, versus limiting constitutional rights. This article will focus on several issues: 1) whether the relationship between the NCAA and its student athletes constitutes an employer-employee relationship; 2) an evaluation of the social media policies concerning private employers and ...


Can I Play Too? Transgender Student Athletes’ Inclusion In “Because Of Sex”, Paul Jones Jan 2017

Can I Play Too? Transgender Student Athletes’ Inclusion In “Because Of Sex”, Paul Jones

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This article seeks to explore what remedies may be available to transgender student athletes in today's changing legal field. The law is scant as to whether transgender student athletes must be allowed to play on the sex-segregated teams which correspond with their gender identity. New legislation may not be needed. Title VII and Title IX may offer protections for transgender student athletes. The legislative and judicial tools already exist.

Several federal courts have included gender identity under Title VII, yet Title VII currently only protects people who are considered to be employees. There is now a movement across college ...


The Pre-1972 Sound Recordings Landscape: A Need For A Uniform Federal Copyright Scheme, P. Dylan Jensen Jan 2016

The Pre-1972 Sound Recordings Landscape: A Need For A Uniform Federal Copyright Scheme, P. Dylan Jensen

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Since the rapid expansion of the Internet in the 1990s and through the 2000s, Internet entrepreneurs and technology companies continue to discover new ways to offer music online for free. A large portion of the music offered by these services was created prior to 1972, the year the Sound Recordings Act of 1971 established as the cut-off for federal copyright protection. These pre-1972 sound recordings are covered by a patchwork of state and common law, which varies greatly from state to state. Though some music services have shielded themselves with the safe harbor provision offered to Online Service Providers ("OSPs ...


Protecting Journalists From Politically Motivated Claims Of Espionage Under International Law, Allison Brinkerhoff Jan 2016

Protecting Journalists From Politically Motivated Claims Of Espionage Under International Law, Allison Brinkerhoff

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Currently, there is not a uniform international standard for the protection of journalists against politically motivated claims of espionage, and this void allows governments to cloak politically motivated claims of espionage as a "national security threats." The purpose of this article is to propose amending the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ("ICCPR"), to remove the void, by making Article 19 a nonderogated right for journalists who are reporting and participating in political expression.


There’S No R In Smoking: A Modified Rating System To Curb Adolescent Smoking, Amanda E. Beckwith Jan 2016

There’S No R In Smoking: A Modified Rating System To Curb Adolescent Smoking, Amanda E. Beckwith

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Smoking is the most common preventable causes of death in the United States and costs society billions of dollars each year. Most smokers become addicted at a young age, but often have no legal remedy from smoke-related injuries. Smoking in movies is a significant factor in the initiation of youth smoking, yet the Motion Picture Association of America ("MPAA") does not factor "smoking" into movie ratings. This note argues that in order to reduce the harmful effects of youth smoking, movies with depictions of cigarettes should be rated R. In order to pressure the MPAA into making this change, potential ...


Will The Federal Communications Commission’S 2015 Open Internet Order Receive Chevron Deference?, John Meisel Jan 2016

Will The Federal Communications Commission’S 2015 Open Internet Order Receive Chevron Deference?, John Meisel

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

In 2015, the Federal Communications Commission ("FCC") decided to reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service subject to Title II regulations contained in the Communications Act. This decision is currently under review by a three­ person panel of judges for the D.C. Circuit. A key question in the review will be whether the FCC's reclassification decision is eligible for Chevron deference. The answer to this question will likely be based on lessons learned from similar cases dealing with Chevron deference that the Supreme Court has addressed. For instance, the fact that the reclassification decision is likely to ...


Web Accessibility For Impaired Users: Applying Physical Solutions To Digital Problems, Deeva V. Shah Jan 2016

Web Accessibility For Impaired Users: Applying Physical Solutions To Digital Problems, Deeva V. Shah

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act ("ADA") aims to prevent discrimination against the disabled in places of public accommodation. Unlike many other anti­ discrimination statutes, the ADA requires places of public accommodation to take affirmative steps to ensure access for the impaired. Courts currently differ on whether a place of public accommodation requires a physical location or whether nonphysical places, such as a retailer's website, also fall under the statute. Some courts apply the nexus test to determine the whether the ADA applies to online content. Under the nexus test, there must be a connection between a ...


A Call For Minority Involvement In Cybersecurity Legislation Reform And Civil Rights Protests: Lessons From The Anti-Sopa/Pipa Demonstrations., Kiran Sidhu Jan 2015

A Call For Minority Involvement In Cybersecurity Legislation Reform And Civil Rights Protests: Lessons From The Anti-Sopa/Pipa Demonstrations., Kiran Sidhu

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This note examines one of the many pieces of cybersecurity legislation currently before Congress, the Cyber Intelligence Protection and Sharing Act (“CISPA”). This note illustrates CISPA’s deleterious effects on the privacy and security of American citizens as a result of its provisions that provide federal agencies and private companies legal immunity for sharing private information. However, this note ultimately avers that bills like CISPA will have a particularly negative impact on civil rights demonstrators–and especially demonstrators belonging to minority groups–given the U.S. history of surveillance of such groups during periods of social and political unrest. As ...


Conflict In The Network Of Networks: How Internet Service Providers Have Shifted From Partners To Adversaries, Rob Frieden Jan 2015

Conflict In The Network Of Networks: How Internet Service Providers Have Shifted From Partners To Adversaries, Rob Frieden

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This paper will examine new models for the carriage of Internet traffic with an eye toward providing insights on how the interconnection process has changed and what positive and negative consequences have resulted. Internet carrier interconnection used to constitute a cooperative undertaking, but now it increasingly requires difficult and protracted negotiations between ventures that consider themselves adversaries in a winner take all transaction. The paper concludes that new commercial arrangements, such as paid peering, can achieve mutually beneficial outcomes. However, the paper also identifies instances where migration from traditional interconnection arrangements has the potential to reduce overall utility of the ...


Adopting Subsequent Remuneration Right In Chinese Copyright Law, Xi Chen Jan 2015

Adopting Subsequent Remuneration Right In Chinese Copyright Law, Xi Chen

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

One heavily and contentiously argued clause in Chinese Copyright Law amendment drafts focuses on the practicality of granting authors of audiovisual works the legal right to collect subsequent remunerations (“SRR”) when their works are reused in subsequent exploitations. With the rapid increase of social media channels for the Chinese movie industry, and other entertainment industries relying on a heavy usage of audiovisual work, authors demand that they should be entitled to the profit earned from derivative markets and other media channels beyond the first intended market. In order to balance the conflicting interest between the author and the producer, and ...


“Fair Compensation” In The Digital Age: Realigning The Audio Home Recording Act, Monica Zhang Jan 2015

“Fair Compensation” In The Digital Age: Realigning The Audio Home Recording Act, Monica Zhang

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This note examines how the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 falls short of providing “fair compensation” due to copyright owners in the digital age under the Copyright Act. The note focuses on the narrow language of the statute and the impact on royalties generated, as well as the shifts in global music consumption that reveal a pressing need for expansion. By examining how Canada and Finland have enacted similar statutes with forward-looking royalty structures, this note suggests better alternatives to our current model by expanding the royalty-bearing pool to truly provide “fair compensation” to recording artists and record labels ...


Why Should We Care What Fitbit Shares?: A Proposed Statutory Solution To Protect Sensitive Personal Fitness Information, Michelle M. Christovich Jan 2015

Why Should We Care What Fitbit Shares?: A Proposed Statutory Solution To Protect Sensitive Personal Fitness Information, Michelle M. Christovich

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This note examines the privacy implications of fitness trackers, devices such as Fitbit, which measure users’ movements, fitness habits, and overall health in granular detail. This note explores the privacy dangers of using fitness trackers generally and in the specific context of the workplace and Big Data. This note also draws parallels between the personal health information protected by the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”) and the personal fitness information collected by fitness trackers. This note argues that a statutory scheme, modeled after HIPAA, should be established in order to protect the sensitive personal fitness information gathered by ...


Richard Sherman, Rhetoric, And Racial Animus In The Rebirth Of The Bogeyman Myth, Nick J. Sciullo Jan 2015

Richard Sherman, Rhetoric, And Racial Animus In The Rebirth Of The Bogeyman Myth, Nick J. Sciullo

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

After the Seattle Seahawks won the NFC Championship game, the postgame interview of Richard Sherman, a defensive back for the Seahawks, became subject to racialized discourse in the media. This article draws upon important concepts of black danger, blackness and the media, and racial animus to explain how media pundits and online commentaries about the interview have created a modem-day version of the bogeyman. In so doing, the article theorizes a new logic to racial animus-the myth of the bogeyman-to expound on the confluence of race, law, and sports. This new approach will help to explain covert racism in the ...


The Costs And Benefits Of Regulatory Intervention In Internet Disputes: Lessons From Broadcast Signal Retransmission Consent Negotiations, Rob Frieden Jan 2015

The Costs And Benefits Of Regulatory Intervention In Internet Disputes: Lessons From Broadcast Signal Retransmission Consent Negotiations, Rob Frieden

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

The Internet increasingly provides an alternative distribution medium for video and other types of high value, bandwidth intensive content commonly called Internet Protocol Television ("IPTV"). While many consumers have become indifferent about their wire line or wireless service provider, they expect their video service providers to offer access anytime, anywhere, via any device, and in any format. These early adopters of new technologies have no patience with the concept of "appointment television" that limits access to a specific time, presentation, and channel. My article offers a clear assessment of whether and how the FCC can resolve disputes that can prevent ...


Evaluating Intent In True Threats Cases: The Importance Of Context In Analyzing Threatening Internet Messages, P. Brooks Fuller Jan 2015

Evaluating Intent In True Threats Cases: The Importance Of Context In Analyzing Threatening Internet Messages, P. Brooks Fuller

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Following the Supreme Court's most recent ruling on the true threats doctrine in Virginia v. Black, significant conflict emerged among the federal circuit courts. On one hand, several circuit courts disagreed interpreted the holding in Virginia v. Black as a requirement of applying a subjective intent standard into all statutes that criminalize true threats. On the other hand, some circuit courts interpreted the holding as a requirement for prosecutors to prove that a reasonable person would consider the message as a true threat. A speaker's use of social networking websites and Internet forums for the purpose of posting ...


You Can Use Hidden Recorders In Florida, Thomas R. Julin, Jamie Z. Isani, Paulo R. Lima Jan 2015

You Can Use Hidden Recorders In Florida, Thomas R. Julin, Jamie Z. Isani, Paulo R. Lima

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

The Florida Supreme Court faces a difficult decision in McDade v. State. The court must decide whether the statements recorded on a hidden recording device can be used to convict a man accused of sexually assaulting his step-daughter. This article traces the controversial history of Florida's Security of Communications Act and shows that it does not in ban the use of secret recordings of face-to-face conversations by any part to the conversations. The Florida courts, however, have misread the law for decades and this article urges the Florida Supreme Court to set the record straight in McDade. This article ...


Access To Information About Lethal Injections: A First Amendment Theory Perspective On Creating A New Constitutional Right, Clay Calvert, Emma Morehart, Kéran Billaud, Kevin Bruckenstein Jan 2015

Access To Information About Lethal Injections: A First Amendment Theory Perspective On Creating A New Constitutional Right, Clay Calvert, Emma Morehart, Kéran Billaud, Kevin Bruckenstein

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This article examines, through the lens of First Amendment theory, current judicial debate regarding the access rights of inmates and the public to detailed facts about lethal- injection drugs, personnel, and procedures. The article uses several 2014 appellate court disputes as analytical springboards, including the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit’s groundbreaking decision in Wood v. Ryan. The article argues that the First Amendment doctrine developed by the U.S. Supreme Court in Press-Enterprise II too narrowly cabins and confines access rights in lethal-injection data cases. In contrast, three venerable theories of free expression–the marketplace ...


The Internet Is A Packet-Switched Network, Kendall Koning Jan 2015

The Internet Is A Packet-Switched Network, Kendall Koning

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Since the Supreme Court's decision in National Cable Telecommunications Association v. Brand X Internet Services, many legal scholars have considered the question of whether the FCC may choose to regulate Internet access as an information service to be settled law. And, for the second time in five years, the D.C. Circuit in Verizon v. FCC struck down the jurisdictional theory relied upon by the FCC in creating its Open Internet rules because the FCC still classified Internet connections as information rather than telecommunications services. In response, and after a vigorous public debate, the FCC recently reversed its classification ...


Right-Sizing Broadband Spectrum Auction Licenses: The Case For Smaller Geographic License Areas In The Tv Broadcast Incentive Auction, William Lehr, J. Armand Musey Jan 2015

Right-Sizing Broadband Spectrum Auction Licenses: The Case For Smaller Geographic License Areas In The Tv Broadcast Incentive Auction, William Lehr, J. Armand Musey

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This article examines the potential impact of smaller-sized license territories in the context of the FCC's upcoming 2016 Broadcast Incentive Auction-the largest, most complex auction to date. The purpose of the auction is to free up to 120 MHz of prime spectrum in the 600 MHz band, currently licensed to over-the-air television broadcasting, to repurpose for licensing mobile broadband and other higher value wireless services. This article argues that using smaller territories is more consistent with the longterm direction of efficient spectrum management reform and future wireless market. The article also explains how adopting small geographic territories is necessary ...


Recovery Of Nazi-Related Art: Legal Aspects Under German And U.S. Law Exemplified By The Gurlitt Case, Michael Rebholz Jan 2015

Recovery Of Nazi-Related Art: Legal Aspects Under German And U.S. Law Exemplified By The Gurlitt Case, Michael Rebholz

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

Since November 3, 2013, a case regarding Nazi-looted art-known as the Gurlitt casehas garnered the attention of the media and the art industry in both Germany and the United States. This case arose from German authority's confiscation of approximately 1500 pieces of valuable art found in Cornelius Gurlitt's apartments in Germany and Austria. He claimed that he was the legal owner of the artworks that people believed to have been destroyed during World War It. This article first answers the question of how this case would be resolved under German law by focusing primarily on the question of ...


Transformative Use And The Right Of Publicity: A Relationship Ready For Revision, Justin L. Rand Jan 2015

Transformative Use And The Right Of Publicity: A Relationship Ready For Revision, Justin L. Rand

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

The only consistency in right of publicity jurisprudence has been inconsistency. The right can be defined as the ability to control the commercial use of one's identity, and its scope has varied from state to state and era to era. While aspects of the right of publicity partially overlap with copyright and trademark, its historical origins and underlying policy justifications are distinct. Indeed, understanding the unique position of the right has become increasingly important in the digital revolution, where celebrities are vigorously fighting to protect their identities from outside, commercial exploitation. Yet, in their efforts to monetize their names ...