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Articles 1 - 30 of 8311

Full-Text Articles in Business Organizations Law

Masthead Jul 2019

Masthead

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Regulatory Framework Of Executive Remuneration: Contributions From Shareholder Activism And Board Accountability, Jingchen Zhao, Zhihui Li Jul 2019

The Regulatory Framework Of Executive Remuneration: Contributions From Shareholder Activism And Board Accountability, Jingchen Zhao, Zhihui Li

Hastings Business Law Journal

Executive remuneration is influenced by multiple factors including capital markets, product markets, corporate internal governance, corporate finance, governmental regulation, and legislation. Related to various practical factors, executive remuneration is no longer simply fixed based on the contractual arrangements between companies and their directors. Due to the complicated relationship network in executive remuneration and

the way public companies produce their remuneration policies, remuneration structures and levels can be extremely complex and easily affected by undue influence. This paper focuses on how to solve executive remuneration problems through regulation. Legislations from several developed countries in areas such as providing shareholders with more ...


The Vital Need To Eliminate A De Facto Negligence Standard Under Section 14(E) Of The Exchange Act, Matthew A. Powell Jul 2019

The Vital Need To Eliminate A De Facto Negligence Standard Under Section 14(E) Of The Exchange Act, Matthew A. Powell

Hastings Business Law Journal

In Varjabedian v. Emulex Corp. (Varjabedian), the Ninth Circuit held that a claim for failure to satisfy a statutory disclosure provision concerning tender offers under Section 14(e) of the

1934 Act only requires a pleading of negligence, not scienter. The Ninth Circuit’s holding in Varjabedian departs from half a century of established case law and creates a circuit split with the Second, Third, Fifth, Sixth, and Eleventh circuits. The Varjabedian decision opens the door for the very litigation abuses that Congress has sought to prevent in order to protect businesses and markets. However, while the federal securities laws ...


The Development Of Social Enterprise And Rise Of Benefit Corporations: A Global Solution?, Dina Dalessandro Jul 2019

The Development Of Social Enterprise And Rise Of Benefit Corporations: A Global Solution?, Dina Dalessandro

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Future Is Femtech: Privacy And Data Security Issues Surrounding Femtech Applications, Celia Rosas Jul 2019

The Future Is Femtech: Privacy And Data Security Issues Surrounding Femtech Applications, Celia Rosas

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Current Issues Of U.S.-Japan Cross-Border Ip Disputes, Ryoichi Mimura Jul 2019

Current Issues Of U.S.-Japan Cross-Border Ip Disputes, Ryoichi Mimura

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Cross Border Patent Disputes, David A. Makman Jul 2019

Cross Border Patent Disputes, David A. Makman

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Ticket To An Antitrust Violation? Why The Nfl And Directv’S Exclusive Distributorship Agreement For Sunday Ticket May Violate Antitrust Laws, And How The U.S. District Court For The Central District Of California May Have Gotten It Wrong, Haig Siranosian Jul 2019

Ticket To An Antitrust Violation? Why The Nfl And Directv’S Exclusive Distributorship Agreement For Sunday Ticket May Violate Antitrust Laws, And How The U.S. District Court For The Central District Of California May Have Gotten It Wrong, Haig Siranosian

Hastings Business Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Why Delaware Courts Should Abolish The Schnell Doctrine, Mary Siegel Jun 2019

Why Delaware Courts Should Abolish The Schnell Doctrine, Mary Siegel

Mary Siegel

No abstract provided.


Outsourcing Corporate Accountability, Kishanthi Parella May 2019

Outsourcing Corporate Accountability, Kishanthi Parella

Kish Parella

This Article addresses the problem of preventing human rights violations abroad that result from the globalization of business. It specifically explores the challenge of improving labor standards in global value chains. The modern business has changed dramatically and has “gone global” in order to court foreign markets and secure resources, including labor. Familiar household names, such as Nike and Apple, have “outsourced” many of their functions to suppliers overseas. As multinational buyers, they dominate one end of the global value chain. At the opposite end of the value chain are the local managers and owners of the factories and workhouses ...


Mootness Fees, Matthew D. Cain, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon, Randall Thomas May 2019

Mootness Fees, Matthew D. Cain, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon, Randall Thomas

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

We examine the latest development in merger litigation: the mootness fee. Utilizing a hand-collected sample of 2,320 unique deals from 2003-2018, we find that Delaware’s crackdown on merger litigation substantially altered the merger litigation landscape. Although merger litigation rates remain high, and in 2018 83% of deals experienced litigation, plaintiffs’ lawyers have fled Delaware. In 2018 only 5% of completed deals experienced merger litigation in Delaware compared to 50%-60% in prior years. These cases have migrated to federal court where in 2018 92% of deals with litigation experienced a filing. We find that at least 65% of ...


Collaboration Theory And Corporate Tax Avoidance, Eric C. Chaffee May 2019

Collaboration Theory And Corporate Tax Avoidance, Eric C. Chaffee

Washington and Lee Law Review

This Article argues that aggressive corporate tax avoidance is legally impermissible based upon the essential nature of the corporate form. The history of the debate over the essential nature of the corporation is substantial. This debate has been reinvigorated by the Supreme Court’s recent opinions, Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., which explore the scope of corporate rights.


Innovation Agents, Mirit Eyal-Cohen May 2019

Innovation Agents, Mirit Eyal-Cohen

Washington and Lee Law Review

The standard narrative of entrepreneurship is one of self-employed creative individuals working out of their garage or independently owned start-up companies. Intrapreneurship— where employees are responsible for being alert to new opportunities inside firms—is another model for developing innovations. Relatively little is known, however, about the latter process through which large, complex firms engage in groundbreaking corporate entrepreneurship.

This Article’s focus is on these types of innovation agents. It provides a thorough account of the positive and negative spillovers of intrapreneurial firms while making the following key points: First, intrapreneurial companies utilize their economies of scale, scope, and ...


Sarbanes-Oxley's Purported Over-Criminalization Of Corporate Offenders, Lisa H. Nicholson May 2019

Sarbanes-Oxley's Purported Over-Criminalization Of Corporate Offenders, Lisa H. Nicholson

Lisa H. Nicholson

No abstract provided.


Centros, California’S “Women On Boards” Statute And The Scope Of Regulatory Competition, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon May 2019

Centros, California’S “Women On Boards” Statute And The Scope Of Regulatory Competition, Jill E. Fisch, Steven Davidoff Solomon

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

We examine the Centros decision through the lens of SB 826 – the California statute mandating a minimum number of women on boards. SB 826, like the Centros decision, raises questions about the scope of the internal affairs doctrine and its role in encouraging regulatory competition. Despite the claim that US corporate law is characterized by regulatory competition, in the US, the internal affairs doctrine has led to less variation in corporate law than in Europe. We theorize that this is due to the shareholder primacy norm in US corporate law which results in the internal affairs doctrine focusing on matters ...


Promoting Predictability In Business: Solutions For Overlapping Liability In International Anti-Corruption Enforcement, Andrew T. Bulovsky May 2019

Promoting Predictability In Business: Solutions For Overlapping Liability In International Anti-Corruption Enforcement, Andrew T. Bulovsky

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note evaluates solutions to the problems of overlapping liability in general and multi-jurisdictional disgorgement in particular. Part I traces the origins of international anti-corruption efforts and provides an overview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”). It then discusses the two most significant international anti-corruption conventions: the OECD’s Convention on Combatting Bribery of Foreign Officials in International Business Transactions (the “OECD Convention”) and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (“UNCAC”). Part II lays out the problems created by the lack of a formal mechanism to prevent overlapping liability— a phenomenon that violates the common law concept known ...


Activist Shareholders At De Facto Controlled Companies, Gaia Balp May 2019

Activist Shareholders At De Facto Controlled Companies, Gaia Balp

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Activist campaigns are likely to increasingly target controlled companies. Studies concerning activism at controlled companies focus on shareholder-empowering tools, such as the right to nominate and elect minority directors on the board, as a pathway for limiting the principal-principal agency problem. However, not enough attention has been paid to the distinction between de jure and de facto controlled companies. Building on a recent case concerning a leading Italian corporation, this Article analyzes the possible unexpected corporate governance consequences of successful activist intervention at de facto controlled companies, showing that, where minority shareholders are granted the right to appoint directors on ...


The Specter Of The Giant Three, Scott Hirst, Lucian Bebchuk May 2019

The Specter Of The Giant Three, Scott Hirst, Lucian Bebchuk

Faculty Scholarship

This Article examines the large, steady, and continuing growth of the Big Three index fund managers — BlackRock, Vanguard, and State Street Global Advisors. We show that there is a real prospect that index funds will continue to grow, and that voting in most significant public companies will come to be dominated by the future “Giant Three.”

We begin by analyzing the drivers of the rise of the Big Three, including the structural factors that are leading to the heavy concentration of the index funds sector. We then provide empirical evidence about the past growth and current status of the Big ...


Securities Disclosure As Soundbite: The Case Of Ceo Pay Ratios, Steven A. Bank, George S. Georgiev Apr 2019

Securities Disclosure As Soundbite: The Case Of Ceo Pay Ratios, Steven A. Bank, George S. Georgiev

Boston College Law Review

This Article analyzes the history, design, and effectiveness of the highly controversial CEO pay ratio disclosure rule, which went into effect in 2018. Based on a regulatory mandate contained in the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, the rule requires public companies to disclose the ratio between CEO pay and median worker pay as part of their annual filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The seven-year rulemaking process was politically contentious and generated a level of public engagement that was virtually unprecedented in the long history of the SEC disclosure regime. The SEC sought to minimize compliance costs by providing ...


Let’S Shake On It: Perceived Pre-Contractual Risk In Cross-Border Investment, Kevin J. Fandl Jd, Phd Apr 2019

Let’S Shake On It: Perceived Pre-Contractual Risk In Cross-Border Investment, Kevin J. Fandl Jd, Phd

University of Miami Business Law Review

This article asks whether a legal system that provides protection for commitments made prior to contract formation is more or less conducive to risk-taking by foreign investors than a legal system that does not. I surmise that increased levels of protection for precontractual commitments establish an environment more hospitable to new business development, giving potential entrepreneurs added security in their ventures. And I further surmise that different legal traditions provide different levels of protection for these pre-contractual commitments.

To better understand the risks faced by cross-border business investors, this article describes the key distinctions between legal systems that create potential ...


Criminal Trade Secret Theft Cases Against Judgment Proof Defendants In Texas And California, Michelle Evans, Kurt M. Saunders Apr 2019

Criminal Trade Secret Theft Cases Against Judgment Proof Defendants In Texas And California, Michelle Evans, Kurt M. Saunders

William & Mary Business Law Review

Trade secret theft is a costly and ongoing risk to many businesses. As the two most populous states, California and Texas are home to numerous businesses that own trade secrets. Although civil remedies afford one source of relief when a trade secret has been stolen or disclosed, collecting on a judgment may be impossible due to the Homestead laws in both states, which effectively render the defendants judgment proof. In such cases, another alternative is to consider a criminal prosecution under the Federal Economic Espionage Act or state law. The same misconduct that results in civil liability can also violate ...


Loyalty Loses Ground To Market Freedom In The U.S. Supreme Court, Daniel Harris Apr 2019

Loyalty Loses Ground To Market Freedom In The U.S. Supreme Court, Daniel Harris

William & Mary Business Law Review

In the last decade, the U.S. Supreme Court has taken a much less moralistic and much more market-oriented approach to questions of fiduciary loyalty. In cases involving fiduciaries with conflicts of interest, the Court has shifted the burden of proof to the party claiming unfair treatment, thereby protecting deals and making loyalty harder to enforce. The Court has also struck down or narrowly construed laws designed to prevent disloyalty by fiduciaries on the theory that broad prohibitions on business conduct encroach on constitutionally protected freedoms.

This Article discusses how the Supreme Court’s new approach represents a departure from ...


Government Ownership Of Banks: A Curse Or A Blessing For The United States?, Yueh-Ping (Alex) Yang Apr 2019

Government Ownership Of Banks: A Curse Or A Blessing For The United States?, Yueh-Ping (Alex) Yang

William & Mary Business Law Review

During the Financial Crisis of 2007–2008, the Treasury injected an enormous amount of capital and held equity in 707 financial institutions to stabilize the U.S. financial system. The government’s large-scale ownership of banks alarmed the U.S. banking sector. The mainstream opinion in the United States strongly opposed this practice, mostly due to the distrust of the government and the fear that government intervention would jeopardize private shareholders’ interests. Later developments, including the Treasury’s quick exit from its holdings and the Dodd-Frank Act’s declaration of the end of bailouts, suggest that the U.S. government ...


Symposium Panel One: Does Corporate Decision Making Allow Room For Religious Values, Russell G. Pearce, Steven H. Resnicoff, Mark A. Sargent, W Bradley Wendel Apr 2019

Symposium Panel One: Does Corporate Decision Making Allow Room For Religious Values, Russell G. Pearce, Steven H. Resnicoff, Mark A. Sargent, W Bradley Wendel

Steven Resnicoff

No abstract provided.


Jewish Law And Socially Responsible Corporate Conduct, Steven H. Resnicoff Apr 2019

Jewish Law And Socially Responsible Corporate Conduct, Steven H. Resnicoff

Steven Resnicoff

No abstract provided.


Business Law Bulletin, Spring 2019 Apr 2019

Business Law Bulletin, Spring 2019

Business Law Bulletin

No abstract provided.


Cybersecurity Oversight Liability, Benjamin P. Edwards Apr 2019

Cybersecurity Oversight Liability, Benjamin P. Edwards

Georgia State University Law Review

A changing cybersecurity environment now poses a significant corporate-governance challenge. Although some cybersecurity data breaches may be inevitable, courts now increasingly consider when a corporation’s officers and directors may be held liable on theories that they acted in bad faith and failed to adequately oversee the corporation’s affairs. This short essay reviews recent derivative decisions and encourages corporate boards to recognize that in an environment filled with increasing threats, a reasonable response will require devoting real resources and attention to cybersecurity issues.


Making Sustainability Disclosure Sustainable, Jill E. Fisch Apr 2019

Making Sustainability Disclosure Sustainable, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Sustainability is receiving increasing attention from issuers, investors and regulators. The desire to understand issuer sustainability practices and their relationship to economic performance has resulted in a proliferation of sustainability disclosure regimes and standards. The range of approaches to disclosure, however, limit the comparability and reliability of the information disclosed. The Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC) has solicited comment on whether to require expanded sustainability disclosures in issuer’s periodic financial reporting, and investors have communicated broad-based support for such expanded disclosures, but, to date, the SEC has not required general sustainability disclosure.

This Article argues that claims about the relationship ...


What Corporate Veil?, Joshua C. Macey Apr 2019

What Corporate Veil?, Joshua C. Macey

Michigan Law Review

Review of Adam Winkler's We the Corporations: How American Business Won Their Civil Rights.


Board Governance For The Twenty-First Century, Faith Stevelman, Sarah C. Haan Apr 2019

Board Governance For The Twenty-First Century, Faith Stevelman, Sarah C. Haan

Faculty Scholarship

A decade after the global financial crisis, corporate governance is in a state of flux. A conceptual shift is underway. Years ago, in "first wave" governance, boards had a cozy relationship with the company C-suite. In "second wave" governance, which took hold in the 1970s, legal academics reimagined the board's role, conceptualizing directors as monitors charged with limiting waste and abuse that can arise in agency relationships. Now, we find ourselves at the threshold of "third wave" governance, in which boards are asked to grapple immediately and candidly with both the financial aspects of business and new environmental, social ...