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Full-Text Articles in Science and Mathematics Education

Testing The Psychometric Properties Of The Modeling Self-Efficacy Scale, Anu Sharma, Stephen J. Pape, Jonathan Templin Jul 2019

Testing The Psychometric Properties Of The Modeling Self-Efficacy Scale, Anu Sharma, Stephen J. Pape, Jonathan Templin

Journal of Educational Research and Practice

The Modeling Self-Efficacy Scale was developed to measure middle and high school students’ confidence in understanding and solving modeling tasks. The scale was administered to 225 eighth- and ninth-grade students. Participants read modeling tasks adapted from Programme for International Student Assessment’s 2003 problem-solving assessment and rated their confidence on a 100-point self-efficacy scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that modeling self-efficacy is a unidimensional construct, best elicited by a repeated-measures-style survey design in which participants responded to the same self-efficacy items across multiple modeling problems. The omega reliability coefficient for the scale was .88. The findings suggest that the Modeling ...


Faculty Interactions With Black Male Students At Hbcus And Community Colleges As Predictors Of Academic Achievement In Stem, Antoine Gates Jul 2019

Faculty Interactions With Black Male Students At Hbcus And Community Colleges As Predictors Of Academic Achievement In Stem, Antoine Gates

Dissertations

A myriad of studies in STEM education aim to identify the underlying reasons behind poor achievement of Black males in higher education. Research studies have indicated that HBCUs make significant advances in various desired outcomes such as graduation rates for Blacks, especially males. However, Black males at community colleges do not always fare similarly to their counterparts at HBCUs. There are limited studies on faculty interactions with Black males in STEM at community colleges. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify whether significant differences existed in the interactions STEM faculty formed with Black males at community colleges and ...


Alexa?: Possibilities Of Voice Assistant Technology And Artificial Intelligence In The Classroom, Patrick D. Hales, Melissa Anderson, Tonya Christianson, Amber Gaspar, Billi Jo Meyer, Beth Nelson, Krista Shilvock, Mary Steinmetz, Makenzi Timmons, Michelle Vande Weerd Apr 2019

Alexa?: Possibilities Of Voice Assistant Technology And Artificial Intelligence In The Classroom, Patrick D. Hales, Melissa Anderson, Tonya Christianson, Amber Gaspar, Billi Jo Meyer, Beth Nelson, Krista Shilvock, Mary Steinmetz, Makenzi Timmons, Michelle Vande Weerd

Patrick Hales

The following paper represents the combined effort of 10 educators exploring the experience and use of voice assistant technology in classrooms. This reflection and study of our classrooms looks to better understand both our use of technology and students’ use of technology in very specific ways. Is there a place for voice assistant technology in our classrooms? What benefits are there? What obstacles exist? We tell our stories and experiences here with the intent to provide context and continue the discussion among more of our colleagues.


Brookings, South Dakota: Learning Lab, Doriane Paso Feb 2019

Brookings, South Dakota: Learning Lab, Doriane Paso

Empowering Research for Educators

The following paper explores the possibilities of education in one local setting using both an insider and outsider perspective. Education is a part of society, and as society changes, why should education not change with it?


Alexa?: Possibilities Of Voice Assistant Technology And Artificial Intelligence In The Classroom, Patrick D. Hales, Melissa Anderson, Tonya Christianson, Amber Gaspar, Billi Jo Meyer, Beth Nelson, Krista Shilvock, Mary Steinmetz, Makenzi Timmons, Michelle Vande Weerd Feb 2019

Alexa?: Possibilities Of Voice Assistant Technology And Artificial Intelligence In The Classroom, Patrick D. Hales, Melissa Anderson, Tonya Christianson, Amber Gaspar, Billi Jo Meyer, Beth Nelson, Krista Shilvock, Mary Steinmetz, Makenzi Timmons, Michelle Vande Weerd

Empowering Research for Educators

The following paper represents the combined effort of 10 educators exploring the experience and use of voice assistant technology in classrooms. This reflection and study of our classrooms looks to better understand both our use of technology and students’ use of technology in very specific ways. Is there a place for voice assistant technology in our classrooms? What benefits are there? What obstacles exist? We tell our stories and experiences here with the intent to provide context and continue the discussion among more of our colleagues.


From Assertion To Conversion: Classroom Management For 21st Century Teachers, Benjamin Halbkat Feb 2019

From Assertion To Conversion: Classroom Management For 21st Century Teachers, Benjamin Halbkat

Empowering Research for Educators

The following position paper provides a new teacher's perspective on modern classroom management. Where is there room for improvement? What might the future hold?


High School Biology Preparation: Do Students Feel They Have Been Adequately Prepared For Introductory College Biology?, Mara Neitzel Feb 2019

High School Biology Preparation: Do Students Feel They Have Been Adequately Prepared For Introductory College Biology?, Mara Neitzel

Empowering Research for Educators

The purpose of this study was to determine how well students are being prepared in high school for introductory college biology courses. Specifically, the objectives of the study are as follows: To gain a better understanding about how well students feel they have been prepared for college science classes based on their high school education, to gain insight on how college preparation in high school impacts students’ self-confidence, and to determine if the accessibility of advanced education courses is influenced by the size of a high school. A mixed methods survey was distributed to freshman in the fall semester of ...


In Support Of The Tinker V. Des Moines Decision, Matthew Olson Feb 2019

In Support Of The Tinker V. Des Moines Decision, Matthew Olson

Empowering Research for Educators

The following position outlines a case for the Tinker v. Des Moines decision, including a historical and modern perspective. With freedom of speech and protest being a regular part of the discussion about U.S. society and schools, now is a good time to look back.


Revisiting Multiplication Area Models For Whole Numbers, Oh-Hoon Kwon, Ji-Won Son, Ji Yeong I Jan 2019

Revisiting Multiplication Area Models For Whole Numbers, Oh-Hoon Kwon, Ji-Won Son, Ji Yeong I

Education Publications

We argue that there are two conceptually different area models for whole number multiplication: area-to-area model and lengths-to-area model depending on how multiplication operation is conceived: action on / change of an initial quantity, or operation / coordination of two quantities. These models complement each other to promote students’ conceptual understanding of whole number multiplication and help students extend their understanding of whole number multiplication to fraction multiplication.


Value Beliefs About Math: A Bifactor-Esem Representation [Accepted Manuscript], Daniela Fadda, L. Francesca Scalas, Alexandre J. S. Morin, Herbert W. Marsh, Hanna Gaspard Jan 2019

Value Beliefs About Math: A Bifactor-Esem Representation [Accepted Manuscript], Daniela Fadda, L. Francesca Scalas, Alexandre J. S. Morin, Herbert W. Marsh, Hanna Gaspard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This study proposed an improved representation of the factor structure of the Gaspard et al. (2015) value beliefs about math scale relying on bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (B-ESEM). Using a convenience sample of 537 Italian students (327 males; Mage = 18.2), our results supported the superiority of a B-ESEM solution including nine specific factors (intrinsic, importance of achievement, personal importance, utility for school/job, utility for life, social utility, effort required, opportunity cost, and emotional cost) and one global value factor. The results further revealed that the specific factors (with the exception of personal importance) retained meaning over and ...


Job Satisfaction Of Teachers And Their Principals In Relation To Climate And Student Achievement [Accepted Manuscript], Theresa Dicke, Herbert W. Marsh, Philip D. Parker, Jiesi Guo, Philip Riley, Julia Waldeyer Jan 2019

Job Satisfaction Of Teachers And Their Principals In Relation To Climate And Student Achievement [Accepted Manuscript], Theresa Dicke, Herbert W. Marsh, Philip D. Parker, Jiesi Guo, Philip Riley, Julia Waldeyer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Job satisfaction is important for employee well-being and retention, which are both crucial for high strained occupations such as teachers and school principals. We investigated the structure and relationship of teachers’ job satisfaction (N = 142,280) and principals’ job satisfaction (N = 8,869). Results of structural equation modeling using multilevel bi-factor models provide strong evidence for the validity of a model including both specific (satisfaction with the profession versus the working environment) and general job satisfaction factors. This differential conception of job satisfaction was further tested by including the student variables disciplinary climate and student achievement from linked TALIS 2013-PISA ...


Young Women Face Disadvantage To Enrollment In University Stem Coursework Regardless Of Prior Achievement And Attitudes [Accepted Manuscript], Herbert W. Marsh, Brooke Van Zanden, Philip D. Parker, Jiesi Guo, James Conigrave, Marjorie Seaton Jan 2019

Young Women Face Disadvantage To Enrollment In University Stem Coursework Regardless Of Prior Achievement And Attitudes [Accepted Manuscript], Herbert W. Marsh, Brooke Van Zanden, Philip D. Parker, Jiesi Guo, James Conigrave, Marjorie Seaton

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

We evaluated STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) coursework selection by women and men (representative longitudinal sample, 10,370 Australians) in senior high school and university, controlling achievement and expectancy-value variables. A near-zero total effect of gender on high school STEM enrollment reflected pathways favoring boys through achievement and expectancy-value variables, but a counteracting direct effect of gender favoring girls. In contrast, subsequent university STEM enrollment favored boys. In both high school and university, enrollments favored girls in life sciences and boys in physical sciences, but at university there was a leaky pipeline in which girls who qualified to pursue ...


The Intersection Of Gender, Social Class, And Cultural Context: A Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Philip D. Parker, Brooke Van Zanden, Herbert W. Marsh, Katherine Owen, Jasper J. Duineveld, Michael Noetel Jan 2019

The Intersection Of Gender, Social Class, And Cultural Context: A Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Philip D. Parker, Brooke Van Zanden, Herbert W. Marsh, Katherine Owen, Jasper J. Duineveld, Michael Noetel

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Expectancy value theory is often evoked by educational psychologists to explain gender differences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) variables. Yet gender does not operate in isolation. Nor are gender effects likely to be context free. In the current meta-analysis, we explore gender differences in STEM-related expectancy for success, and the task values of intrinsic, utility, attainment, and cost. We find that gender differences were generally small in size. Invoking the concept of intersectionality, we find that heterogeneity in gender effect sizes are large and gender differences are moderated, primarily, by socioeconomic status, ethnic diversity, and somewhat by national ...


The Murky Distinction Between Self-Concept And Self-Efficacy: Beware Of Lurking Jingle-Jangle Fallacies [Accepted Manuscript], Herbert W. Marsh, Reinhard Pekrun, Philip D. Parker, Kou Murayama, Jiesi Guo, Theresa Dicke, A. Katrin Arens Jan 2019

The Murky Distinction Between Self-Concept And Self-Efficacy: Beware Of Lurking Jingle-Jangle Fallacies [Accepted Manuscript], Herbert W. Marsh, Reinhard Pekrun, Philip D. Parker, Kou Murayama, Jiesi Guo, Theresa Dicke, A. Katrin Arens

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This study extends the classic constructive dialogue/debate between self-concept and self-efficacy researchers (Marsh, Roche, Pajares, & Miller, 1997) regarding the distinctions between these 2 constructs. The study is a substantive-methodological synergy, bringing together new substantive, theoretical, and statistical models and developing new tests of the classic jingle-jangle fallacy. We demonstrate that in a representative sample of 3,350 students from math classes in 43 German schools, generalized math self-efficacy and math outcome expectancies were indistinguishable from math self-concept, but were distinct from test-related and functional measures of self-efficacy. This is consistent with the jingle-jangle fallacies that are proposed. On the basis of pretest variables, we demonstrate negative frame-of-reference effects in social (big-fish-little-pond effect) and dimensional (internal/external frame-of-reference effect) comparisons for three self-concept-like constructs in each of the first 4 years of secondary school. In contrast, none of the frame-of-reference effects were significantly negative for either of the two self-efficacy-like constructs in any of the 4 years of testing. After controlling for pretest variables, each of the 3 self-concept-like constructs (math self-concept, outcome expectancy, and generalized math self-efficacy) in each of the 4 years of secondary school was more strongly related to posttest outcomes (school grades, test scores, future aspirations) than were the corresponding 2 self-efficacy-like factors. Extending discussion by Marsh et al. (1997), we clarify distinctions between self-efficacy and self-concept; the role of evaluation, worthiness, and outcome expectancy in self-efficacy measures; and complications in generalized and global measures of self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)


Teacher Perception And Their Understanding Of Progress Monitoring Throughout A Longitudinal Assessment System, Rena A. Duewel Dec 2018

Teacher Perception And Their Understanding Of Progress Monitoring Throughout A Longitudinal Assessment System, Rena A. Duewel

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the phenomenon of teacher perception and their understanding of progress monitoring throughout a longitudinal assessment system. This monitoring of student progress is to enhance their academic skills in mathematics and provide necessary interventions for growth as measured on a longitudinal assessment system through fidelity of implementation of interventions processed through progress monitoring. Data was collected from participant responses through interviews, a demographic survey, and focus groups. Interview respondents participated in a closed-door, face-to-face interview. The survey was used to collect specific demographic data to provide a concise snapshot of each individual ...


Adapting Practices Of Science Journalism To Foster Science Literacy, Joseph L. Polman, Alan Newman, E. Wendy Saul, Cathy Farrar Oct 2018

Adapting Practices Of Science Journalism To Foster Science Literacy, Joseph L. Polman, Alan Newman, E. Wendy Saul, Cathy Farrar

Wendy Saul

In this paper, the authors describe how the practices of expert science journalists enable them to act as "competent outsiders" to science. We assert that selected science journalism practices can be used to design reform-based science instruction; these practices not only foster science literacy that is useful in daily life, but also complement practices of scientists that already have been incorporated into science education. We describe and illustrate science journalism practices for educational activities that can be adapted and used. We argue that such experiences enable students to better use science information for personal decision-making and help them contribute meaningfully ...


Decision Making In The Sciences: Understanding Heuristic Use By Students In Problem Solving, Elizabeth Csikar Oct 2018

Decision Making In The Sciences: Understanding Heuristic Use By Students In Problem Solving, Elizabeth Csikar

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the use of heuristics by students and gain insight into the thought process behind their problem-solving skills. The study used an adaptive narrative as the information delivery medium. An adaptive narrative was chosen because it could be designed to simulate decision making processes encountered in real world situations. Students enrolled in an introductory biology major class were chosen for the study because their fields of interest all require complex problem solving and decision-making skills. It was of interest to investigate what decisions were made when heuristics were given and how that may ...


School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs Aug 2018

School Climate: A Comparison Of Teachers, Students, And Parents, James A. Jacobs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the benefits of positive school climate and to measure the perceptions of school climate for intermediate grades in a Northeast Tennessee School district. An online school climate survey was used to collect responses from participants in intermediate grades and focused on the 3 major components of school climate: school engagement, school environment, and school safety. Data were collected for 2 consecutive years in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. Response totals included 1,955 student responses, 116 teacher responses, and 210 parent responses that were analyzed and used for this study. Of the student totals, some students ...


A Causal Comparative Analysis Of Mathematics Self-Efficacy Of Face-To-Face And Online Quantitative Literacy Students, Laronda Lowery Jul 2018

A Causal Comparative Analysis Of Mathematics Self-Efficacy Of Face-To-Face And Online Quantitative Literacy Students, Laronda Lowery

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

Mathematics self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of mathematics performance and mixed results have been found when examining the mathematics self-efficacy of face-to-face students based on gender and age. However, there is a lack of research studies that examine if differences exist in the mathematics self-efficacy of face-to-face and online students. The purpose of this ex-post facto causal comparative quantitative study was to determine if differences existed in the mathematics self-efficacy of Quantitative Literacy students, as measured by the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale, based on their choice of delivery method (face-to-face or online). Participants for this research study ...


Concept Maps And Feedback In Statistics Learning: Exploring The Effect Of Expert Map Feedback And Peer Feedback On Concept Map Structure, Theresa A. Hickey May 2018

Concept Maps And Feedback In Statistics Learning: Exploring The Effect Of Expert Map Feedback And Peer Feedback On Concept Map Structure, Theresa A. Hickey

Education Dissertations

This mixed methods exploratory study examined the effects of two types of feedback – Peer and Expert Map – on Concept Maps used as learning tools in a statistics classroom. Of interest were possible effects of feedback on Concept Map structure (determined by structural scores), on structural classification (Discrete, Integrated), and on student choice of starting concept (General, Specific). Student perceptions of feedback and the role of mapping in statistics learning were elicited using a 12-item questionnaire. Two open-ended responses were coded by themes. All data were assessed separately, then merged to enrich findings.

Results from a mixed repeated measures ANOVA of ...


Echoes Of The Past: The Effect Of Background Experience On Far Transfer, Graham H. Hummel-Hall May 2018

Echoes Of The Past: The Effect Of Background Experience On Far Transfer, Graham H. Hummel-Hall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Far transfer is the application of knowledge learned in one setting to a problem in a very different setting. This multi-method study looked at far transfer in humans and whether it could be facilitated, inhibited, or remain unaffected by the number of courses or years a student at a university spent learning about the subject matter of the knowledge being transferred. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis of pretest and post-test data from an introductory undergraduate earth science course, I found that students with more physical science background experience more frequently engaged in successful and accurate transfer of physics information to ...


The Impact Of Computer-Based Programs On Middle School Math Achievement, Kenyatta Gilmore May 2018

The Impact Of Computer-Based Programs On Middle School Math Achievement, Kenyatta Gilmore

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this correlation research study was to investigate the impact of computer-based learning on middle school math achievement of at-risk students. The participants for this study were drawn from a convenience sample of 83 middle school students located in southeastern Georgia. At-risk middle school students were achieving below their grade equivalent and failing to meet local and state proficiency standards. Computer-based instruction was implemented as an intervention to increase student achievement in mathematics. The study used a pretest-posttest control group design and used SPSS software to conduct the statistical analyses using an ANCOVA and t-test. The results indicated ...


Experiencing Success: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Of Successful Remedial Mathematics Students, Kyle Ireland May 2018

Experiencing Success: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Of Successful Remedial Mathematics Students, Kyle Ireland

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to describe how students experience success in mathematics remediation at a four-year private institution in the central United States. Success in a remedial mathematics course was defined as one’s completion of a required remedial mathematics course having earned an overall grade of 90% or higher. The theories guiding this study were achievement goal theory and expectancy-value theory grounded in Bandura’s social cognitive theory. This theoretical framework provided a motivational framework for student success in a post-secondary, remedial mathematics course based on individual goals for completing the task, student self-efficacy beliefs ...


Incivility As A Barrier To Embeddedness Among Engineering Students: Does Gender Matter?, Katelyn R. Reynoldson Apr 2018

Incivility As A Barrier To Embeddedness Among Engineering Students: Does Gender Matter?, Katelyn R. Reynoldson

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

To meet the current demand for engineers, research has focused on how to attract and retain qualified candidates in the field, especially those that are underrepresented (e.g., women; NSB, 2016). The present study investigates incivility and embeddedness, which have been found to be antecedents of retention in both the workplace (Cortina, Magley, Williams, & Langhout, 2001; Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erez, 2001) and the collegiate setting (Caza & Cortina, 2007; Major et al., 2015). To extend previous research, both constructs were examined simultaneously among undergraduate engineering students. Undergraduate, first-year engineers completed an online survey indicating the extent to which they experienced incivility in engineering, the primary source of the uncivil treatment, and ...


Engagement And Positive Psychology For Stem Learning And Beyond, Mark Tuominen, Lori Tuominen Jan 2018

Engagement And Positive Psychology For Stem Learning And Beyond, Mark Tuominen, Lori Tuominen

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

Positive psychology is the study of how people flourish. A considerable amount of recent scientific research is now showing how the basic tenets of positive psychology used in schools can boost engagement, learning and wellbeing for students and teachers. These principles apply to any type of learning, including STEM courses. The concepts and practices of positive psychology effectively serve as affective multipliers, enhancing learning success and personal wellbeing. This seminar will introduce a sampler plate of ideas and activities from their course for first-year UMass students, entitled “Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness, Creativity, and Accomplishment.”


A Tale Of Two Contexts: Mathematics Self-Efficacy Development Among Rural And Urban Students, Brianna L. Weidner Jan 2018

A Tale Of Two Contexts: Mathematics Self-Efficacy Development Among Rural And Urban Students, Brianna L. Weidner

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Self-efficacy, or a belief in one’s ability to complete a task, has been shown to predict student success and persistence. Rural students have a history of lower college enrollment and degree attainment than urban students. However, no studies have compared self-efficacy or its sources across rural and urban groups. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in how rural and urban middle school students develop self-efficacy and self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in the domain of math. Data were collected from 174 rural students and 1743 urban students in grades 6-8 in the southeastern United States. Measurement invariance ...


The Importance Of Automaticity Development In Mathematics, Austin T. Baker, Josh Cuevas Jan 2018

The Importance Of Automaticity Development In Mathematics, Austin T. Baker, Josh Cuevas

Georgia Educational Researcher

This study examined whether students were reaching automaticity with single digit multiplication facts. A fourteen question interview was used to collect data. The first three questions asked the student basic information about themselves and their current math teacher. The next seven questions were math facts. The math facts chosen for the interview were a range of difficulty, starting with a simple problem like 1 x 9 and increasing in difficulty to 6 x 9. The last four questions were open-ended with the intent of gaining insight into whether the students were using strategies to complete the problems or if they ...


A Study On Science Achievement And Motivation Using Computer-Based Simulations Compared To Traditional Hands-On Manipulation, Stacey L. Hannel, Joshua Cuevas Jan 2018

A Study On Science Achievement And Motivation Using Computer-Based Simulations Compared To Traditional Hands-On Manipulation, Stacey L. Hannel, Joshua Cuevas

Georgia Educational Researcher

This study was conducted to investigate whether or not computer-based simulations had a greater impact on science achievement compared to traditional hands-on methods for middle school students in an on-level science course. The study also sought to determine if either method had an impact on retention as well as motivation. The participants in the study were 6th grade students attending a public middle school in suburban metro-Atlanta. A variety of statistical analyses were utilized to measure science achievement, retention, and motivation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference on science achievement between the traditional hands-on method and the ...


Graph Accessibility And Comprehension For The Blind: A Challenge Of Its Own Kind, Ashley Nichole Nashleanas Jan 2018

Graph Accessibility And Comprehension For The Blind: A Challenge Of Its Own Kind, Ashley Nichole Nashleanas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to explore graph accessibility and comprehension for students with visual impairments (SVI) in high school mathematics courses. The dissertation is comprised of three articles. In Paper One, I propose a conceptual framework to guide understanding around the approaches SVI use to access and comprehend graphical information. To do this, I draw from literature bases centered on the cognitive strategies individuals with visual impairments employ to understand spatial representations, tools and instruction to assist SVI in mathematics courses, and training of professionals serving SVI regarding their unique learning needs. In Paper Two, I report the ...


Differences In Spatial Visualization Ability And Vividness Of Spatial Imagery Between People With And Without Aphantasia, Anita Crowder Jan 2018

Differences In Spatial Visualization Ability And Vividness Of Spatial Imagery Between People With And Without Aphantasia, Anita Crowder

Theses and Dissertations

Mathematics education researchers have examined the relationship between visualization and mathematics for decades (e.g., Arcavi, 2003; Bishop, 1991; Duval, 1999; Fennema & Tartre, 1985; Presmeg, 1986). Studies have linked spatial visualization ability, such as measured in mental rotation tasks, directly to mathematics self-efficacy (Pajares & Kranzler, 1995; Weckbacher & Okamoto, 2014), which in turn influences mathematics achievement (Casey, Nuttall, & Pezaris, 1997). With the important role that spatial visualization plays in learning mathematics, the recent identification of congenital aphantasia (Zeman, Dewar, & Della Sala, 2015), which is the lack of mental imagery ability, has raised new questions for mathematics education researchers. This study investigated the differences in mental ...