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Full-Text Articles in Home Economics

Organoleptic, Chemical, Physical And Microscopic Characteristics Of Muscles In Eight Beef Carcasses, Differing In Age Of Animal, Carcass Grade And Extent Of Cooking, Belle Lowe, Joseph Kastelic Jun 2017

Organoleptic, Chemical, Physical And Microscopic Characteristics Of Muscles In Eight Beef Carcasses, Differing In Age Of Animal, Carcass Grade And Extent Of Cooking, Belle Lowe, Joseph Kastelic

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Studies have been made of the organoleptic and some chemical, physical and microscopic characteristics of cooked and uncooked beef muscles obtained from carcasses of animals differing in age and quality. The beef animals were divided into pairs according to animal age and carcass grade. Group I included animals I and V - age, 18 months; carcass grade, Commercial. Group 2 included animals II and VI - age, 18 months; carcass grade, Choice. Group 3 consisted of animals III and VII - age, 6 months; carcass grade, Commercial. Group 4 included animals IV and VIII - age, 42-48 months; carcass grade, Commercial.

Roasts were obtained ...


Educational Needs Of Three Socio-Economic Groups Of Rural Homemakers In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle Jun 2017

Educational Needs Of Three Socio-Economic Groups Of Rural Homemakers In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

In the belief that a study of the practices and problems of rural homemakers would yield information from which some of their educational needs could be inferred, a project was designed at the Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station to investigate the homemaking practices of rural homemakers in Iowa. Of special concern in the study were the practices and problems of women in the low socio-economic group who often are not served by adult education agencies. 1 If their practices and problems differ widely from those of the middle and high socioeconomic group, part of the explanation for their ...


Food Intakes Of 2,189 Women In Five North Central States, Pearl Swanson, Elisabeth Willis, Emil Jebe, Janice M. Smith, Margaret A. Ohlson, Alice Biester, Lida M. Burrill Jun 2017

Food Intakes Of 2,189 Women In Five North Central States, Pearl Swanson, Elisabeth Willis, Emil Jebe, Janice M. Smith, Margaret A. Ohlson, Alice Biester, Lida M. Burrill

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Nearly 2,200 women, ranging in age from 30 to more than 90 years, living in five North Central states, provided the 24-hour dietaries from which data summarized in this bulletin were obtained. The women interviewed in Iowa and South Dakota were selected by area-probability sampling methods, so that they represented all women over 29 years of age in each of these two states. Four other samples were drawn from three urban centers: one from Urbana, Illinois; two (one white, one Negro) from Lansing-East Lansing, Michigan; and one from St. Paul, Minnesota.

The mean nutritive values of 24-hour dietaries reported ...


Management Aspects Of School Lunch Programs In Iowa, Beatrice Donaldson, Grace M. Augustine Jun 2017

Management Aspects Of School Lunch Programs In Iowa, Beatrice Donaldson, Grace M. Augustine

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Efficient management of school lunch programs involves the operation of the food service to provide attractive, palatable and nutritionally adequate meals and the realization of the educational potentialities of such programs. These are recognized as important management aspects of feeding children at school.

This bulletin reports results of a survey of management aspects of school lunch programs in 25 Iowa schools which were drawn as a sample to represent the 622 Iowa schools in which full meals were served during the 1948-49 school year. The survey was made in connection with a regional study of the nutritional status of school ...


Educational Needs Of Less Privileged Homemakers In A Rural County In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle Jun 2017

Educational Needs Of Less Privileged Homemakers In A Rural County In Iowa, Mary S. Lyle

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Even though only six states had a rural level of living index higher than Iowa in 1940, according to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, many families in Iowa were living at a level much below that suggested by the index and were at a disadvantage in income and in education. A study of the economic problems of farmers in Iowa in 1939 showed that 81 percent of them had a net cash income below $1,200 and 64 percent had a total income of less than $1,200. Even in the prosperous years after World War II when incomes in ...


Defrosting And Cooking Frozen Meat: The Effect Of Method Of Defrosting And Of The Manner And Temperature Of Cooking Upon Weight Loss And Palatability, Belle Lowe, Elma Crain, Georgia Amick, Mildred Riedesel, Louise J. Peet, Florence Busse Smith, Buford R. Mcclurg, P. S. Shearer Jun 2017

Defrosting And Cooking Frozen Meat: The Effect Of Method Of Defrosting And Of The Manner And Temperature Of Cooking Upon Weight Loss And Palatability, Belle Lowe, Elma Crain, Georgia Amick, Mildred Riedesel, Louise J. Peet, Florence Busse Smith, Buford R. Mcclurg, P. S. Shearer

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The primary objective of this study was to determine the time for defrosting cuts of beef, veal, Iamb and pork by four methods and to consider the effect of the method of defrosting upon the palatability of the cooked meat. The methods of defrosting were: (1) in the refrigerator, (2) at room temperature, (3) in water and (4) during cooking.

Data to determine the weight loss during defrosting, weight loss during cooking, time for cooking and the amount of fuel needed for cooking were also recorded.

The methods of cooking employed with the different cuts of meat were roasting, broiling ...


Farm Family Housing Needs And Preferences In The North Central Region, Paulena Nickell, Marie Budolfson, Margaret Liston, Elisabeth Willis Jun 2017

Farm Family Housing Needs And Preferences In The North Central Region, Paulena Nickell, Marie Budolfson, Margaret Liston, Elisabeth Willis

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This bulletin reports the results of a survey of farm family preferences and activities as they relate to housing needs, carried on as a cooperative regional project by the agricultural experiment stations in 12 North Central states and the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics of the United States Department of Agriculture. A sample survey of nearly 900 households, made in the spring of 1948, provides a basis for making reliable estimates of the housing needs and preferences of the 2,270,000 households in the open-country portion of the North Central region.

The information obtained about preferences-about what ...


A Test Of The Performance Of Portable Electric Mixers For Household Use, Louise J. Peet, Gail M. Redfield, Arnold E. Baragar Jun 2017

A Test Of The Performance Of Portable Electric Mixers For Household Use, Louise J. Peet, Gail M. Redfield, Arnold E. Baragar

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

At the time this study was initiated, the small electrical food mixer was a common appliance in the home, serving in many ways to facilitate and hasten the tasks of whipping, beating and mixing during food preparation. Then, as now, the homemaker with a small food mixer wanted to use it for all her mixing and beating operations. Advertising claims indicated that it was adequate for such purposes. Many mixers, however, would not perform all the tasks required. The beater speed was too fast; the bowl turned too rapidly or did not turn at all; portions of the food remained ...


Performance Of Electric Roasters, Faith Madden, Louise J. Peet Jun 2017

Performance Of Electric Roasters, Faith Madden, Louise J. Peet

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The National Committee on Household Equipment Research under the leadership of the Bureau of Home Economics, has been working' for several years on test specifications for various household appliances, so that the several investigators in the field may be able to follow similar methods in testing equipment and have a basis for comparing results. Since research in the field of household equipment is of comparative recent date, very little data are available. It is necessary, therefore, to test the performance of appliances before test specifications can be set up and agreed upon. The present investigation was carried on for the ...


The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value Ii. Use In Plain Cake, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson Jun 2017

The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value Ii. Use In Plain Cake, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

These studies on the use of lards in plain cake were initiated in the fall of 1932 and completed during the summer of 1936. The major results of these investigations with cake have been included in a series of four theses by Martin (11), Buel (2), Minard (13) and Myers (15) .

Cakes containing fat may be divided into two types:

1. The pound cake, named from the proportions formerly used by our great-grandmothers, consists of a pound each of fat, sugar, flour and eggs, with no baking powder or soda. The volume of the cake depends upon the expansion of ...


The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value I. Shortening Value In Pastry And Cookies, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson, J. H. Buchanan Jun 2017

The Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Lards And Other Fats In Relation To Their Culinary Value I. Shortening Value In Pastry And Cookies, Belle Lowe, P. Mabel Nelson, J. H. Buchanan

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

These studies on the relationship of the physical and chemical characteristics and constants of lards and other fats to their culinary value were started during the fall of 1932 and completed during the summer of 1937.

The culinary tests were divided into three groups as follows: 1. The shortening power of lards and other fats in pastry and cookies. 2. the use of lards and other fats in plain cake, 3. the frying life of lards compared with other fats.

This section of the report presents the studies relating to the shortening value of lards as compared with other fats ...


Care Of Meat In The Household Refrigerator, Louise J. Peet May 2017

Care Of Meat In The Household Refrigerator, Louise J. Peet

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Paired cuts of beef, pork and lamb in the form of steaks or chops, ground meat and roasts, and corresponding portions of ham, bacon, sausage, dried beef and representative ready-to-serve meats (chicken loaf, boiled tongue, etc.) were stored for varying lengths of time, under a selected number of different storage conditions, in ice and mechanical refrigerators of the size commonly used in the home.

Greatest loss in weight occurred when the meat was stored uncovered; least loss, when wrapped in paraffin paper or stored in a covered container.

Fresh meat stored in a covered container showed signs of deterioration after ...


Starting Baked Products In Cold Versus Preheated Ovens, Louise J. Peet, Belle Lowe May 2017

Starting Baked Products In Cold Versus Preheated Ovens, Louise J. Peet, Belle Lowe

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Electricity is the most efficient but usually the most expensive source of heat for cooking. For this reason electric range manufacturers have proposed various methods of saving electricity; using utensils which fit the surface units, using the oven to capacity, preparing as much of the meal as possible in the insulated surface cooker, switching off the units before the end of the cooking process, and, more recently, starting oven cookery in a cold oven; in other words, beginning to use the heat in the oven when the unit is first turned on.


The Utilization Of Heat From Electric Surface Units By Certain Cooking Utensils, Louise J. Peet, Lucille O. Macdonald May 2017

The Utilization Of Heat From Electric Surface Units By Certain Cooking Utensils, Louise J. Peet, Lucille O. Macdonald

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

1. The distribution of temperature over the surface of an electric unit was fairly uniform. The temperature at the outer edge was slightly lower than at any other position on the unit.

2. Enamelware, copper and black-bottom aluminum pans of the same size, shape, thickness and bottom surface contour were practically equal in cooking efficiency for heating water and for typical short time and long time cooking processes. The natural finish aluminum pan was slightly less efficient.

3. The encased units, Calrod, Chromalox and Corox, required the least time to complete various typical cooking processes. Open units required slightly longer ...


Status Of Town And Village Housing In Iowa, Margaret G. Reid May 2017

Status Of Town And Village Housing In Iowa, Margaret G. Reid

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

A survey has been made of Iowa town and village houses, their condition, facilities, gardens and yards. Information has been obtained concerning 8,798 houses, 5,081 owner and 3,506 tenant homes in 10 typical agricultural counties and 211 homes in towns where mining is important. Only towns having less than 2,500 people were included. From these facts can be pictured the status of housing and facilities such as piped water, electricity, power washing machine, of approximately 152,000 rural-nonfarm families and of farm families living in or on the edge of town or village communities.

Several facts ...


Passing An Alternating Electric Current Through Food And Fruit Juices 1. Design And Use Of Suitable Equipment 2. Cooking Food And Sterilizing Fruit Juices, Lenore E. Sater May 2017

Passing An Alternating Electric Current Through Food And Fruit Juices 1. Design And Use Of Suitable Equipment 2. Cooking Food And Sterilizing Fruit Juices, Lenore E. Sater

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The purpose of this investigation was four-fold: First, to construct a piece of equipment for the cooking of food with heat generated by the resistance of the food, to the passage of an alternating electric current through it; second, to test the practical use of this equipment in the cooking of fruits, vegetables and meats; third, to determine the minimum temperatures necessary to obtain adequate sterilization in canning certain fruits, fruit juices, and vegetables when heated by this method; and fourth, to study the lethal effect on certain food bacteria of a 60-cycle alternating electric current at voltages available in ...


Status Of Farm Housing In Iowa, Margaret G. Reid May 2017

Status Of Farm Housing In Iowa, Margaret G. Reid

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The house is the center of family life, the meeting place of friends, and many productive activities are carried on here. The beauty, comfort, convenience, privacy and spaciousness of a house and its facilities contribute much to the joy of living and the development of people who inhabit it. The recent increased interest accorded housing is the result of a growing recognition that in order to raise the American standard of living, something must be done to improve housing.

To promote better housing it is necessary first of all to know the facts. This bulletin attempts to present certain important ...


The Vitamin B Content Of Vegetables, Margaret C. House, P. Mabel Nelson, E. S. Haber May 2017

The Vitamin B Content Of Vegetables, Margaret C. House, P. Mabel Nelson, E. S. Haber

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Statistical treatment of the data presented leads to the following conclusions:

1. The cortex of the carrot contains more vitamin B than the xylem and the periderm more than the cortex.

2. Within the limitations imposed by the small number of animals and the variability of each group, the data show that lettuce, kohlrabi and tomatoes, when grown under glass, are as potent in vitamin B as when grown in the direct sunlight. However, more data are necessary for positive proof.

3. Kohlrabi is a relatively good source of vitamin B.

4. A storage period of five months, under the ...