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Full-Text Articles in Gender Equity in Education

Measuring Gender Equality In Education: Lessons From 43 Countries, Stephanie Psaki, Katharine Mccarthy, Barbara Mensch Jan 2017

Measuring Gender Equality In Education: Lessons From 43 Countries, Stephanie Psaki, Katharine Mccarthy, Barbara Mensch

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Through the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), governments committed to achieving universal secondary school completion, including eliminating gender disparities, by 2030. The period from 1997 to 2014 saw considerable progress in closing gender gaps in school enrollment and attainment in many, but not all, low- and middle-income countries. However, as this research brief explains, claims that gender parity in primary education now exists are premature, especially in the poorest countries and new gender gaps, or gender-related challenges, may emerge as attainment increases. Moreover, the extremely low levels of secondary school enrollment—and even moreso completion—demonstrate that the SDG target ...


The Contracting World Of Girls At Puberty: Violence And Gender-Divergent Access To The Public Sphere Among Adolescents In South Africa, Kelly Hallman, Nora Kenworthy, Judith A. Diers, Nick Swan, Bashi Devnarain Jan 2013

The Contracting World Of Girls At Puberty: Violence And Gender-Divergent Access To The Public Sphere Among Adolescents In South Africa, Kelly Hallman, Nora Kenworthy, Judith A. Diers, Nick Swan, Bashi Devnarain

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This Population Council working paper describes a participatory mapping project undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8–9 children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At grade 5, female self-defined community areas were equal to or larger in size than those of males in both sites. However, wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found among grade 8–9 children. Although curtailed spatial access, especially in urban areas, is intended to protect post-pubescent girls, grade 8–9 girls reported most spaces in their small navigable areas unsafe. Reducing girls’ access to the public ...


Challenges Facing The Egyptian Education System: Access, Quality, And Inequality [Arabic], Caroline Krafft Jan 2012

Challenges Facing The Egyptian Education System: Access, Quality, And Inequality [Arabic], Caroline Krafft

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief analyzes and summarizes young people's responses to the 2009 Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE) to identify the greatest challenges facing the Egyptian educational system, focusing specifically on primary through secondary schooling. Results show that access to school has improved, but some youth, especially females in rural Upper Egypt, remain outside the school system and are increasingly marginalized. The Egyptian school system is delivering low-quality education that is irrelevant to the labor market and has problems with repetition, absenteeism, and drop out which reduce the efficiency of the education system. Unequal distribution of resources in the ...


Addis Birhan Wendoch ('New Light Boys'): Working With Boys And Young Men To Create Healthier Futures, Woldemariam Girma, Diane Rubino, Annabel Erulkar, Worku Ambelu, Ayenechew Kerie Jan 2012

Addis Birhan Wendoch ('New Light Boys'): Working With Boys And Young Men To Create Healthier Futures, Woldemariam Girma, Diane Rubino, Annabel Erulkar, Worku Ambelu, Ayenechew Kerie

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The Population Council and the Ethiopian Ministry of Women, Children, and Youth Affairs designed Addis Birhan Wendoch to impart life skills and promote gender-equitable, nonviolent, and healthy behaviors among boys and young men aged 10 to 24. The program helps out-of school boys and young men in Ethiopia navigate toward a healthier future by providing them with trained, compassionate mentors and safe environments in which they can find the support needed to share ideas and take positive actions. Through frank and open discussions, boys have the opportunity to get the facts on a range of essential topics from financial literacy ...


And How Will You Remember Me, My Child? Redefining Fatherhood In Turkey, Gary Barker, Deniz Dogruoz, Debbie Rogow Jan 2009

And How Will You Remember Me, My Child? Redefining Fatherhood In Turkey, Gary Barker, Deniz Dogruoz, Debbie Rogow

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This issue of Quality/Calidad/Qualité profiles the AÇEV Father Support Program, a series of 13-week-long support groups for fathers across Turkey. Fatherhood (and men’s roles in the lives of children in general) is an ideal starting point for engaging men in gender equality for two key reasons: most men want to be involved in the lives of children, whether their own biological children or younger siblings, nieces, or nephews; and responsibility for the care of children is at the heart of gender inequality. The program reached nearly 10,000 men, teaching them about their role in the development ...


Educational Inequalities In The Midst Of Persistent Poverty: Diversity Across Africa In Educational Outcomes, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Paul C. Hewett Jan 2009

Educational Inequalities In The Midst Of Persistent Poverty: Diversity Across Africa In Educational Outcomes, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Paul C. Hewett

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This working paper explores inequalities in education across sub-Saharan Africa, focusing mostly on primary school completion rates, with attention also given to literacy as a more proximate indicator of human capital acquisition. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, we explore cross-country variations in primary school completion rates, gender and wealth gaps in education, and literacy rates in relation to one another and in relation to cross-country variations in national income per capita. While these data paint a picture of overall educational progress, particularly for girls, this general picture is juxtaposed against ...


Looking Beyond Universal Primary Education: Gender Differences In Time Use Among Children In Rural Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin, S. Chandrasekhar Jan 2009

Looking Beyond Universal Primary Education: Gender Differences In Time Use Among Children In Rural Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin, S. Chandrasekhar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This paper addresses gender equity in parents’ educational investments in children in a context of rising school attendance in rural Bangladesh. Using data from the nationally representative 2005 Bangladesh Adolescent Survey, we analyze correlates of time spent in school, studying outside school, and work, using a data set on time-use patterns of schoolgoing children and adolescents. We find that time spent in work varies inversely with the amount of time spent studying at home, while time at school shows no such association. We find support for two hypotheses regarding household influences on education: that time spent in school is insensitive ...


Teacher Absence As A Factor In Gender Inequalities In Access To Primary Schooling In Rural Pakistan, Sharon Ghuman, Cynthia B. Lloyd Jan 2007

Teacher Absence As A Factor In Gender Inequalities In Access To Primary Schooling In Rural Pakistan, Sharon Ghuman, Cynthia B. Lloyd

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This paper examines the case of Pakistan, where primary school enrollment among girls in rural areas is substantially lower than among children in urban areas and boys in rural areas, owing to lack of access to government girls’ schools. The focus is on teacher absence as a further barrier to schooling for girls. Using data from a panel study of primary schooling in rural Punjab and NWFP in 1997 and 2004, the report examines trends in teacher absence, examine the factors correlated with teacher absence in the government and private sector, and assesses the implications of these absence levels for ...


Growing Up In Pakistan: The Separate Experiences Of Males And Females, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Monica J. Grant Jan 2004

Growing Up In Pakistan: The Separate Experiences Of Males And Females, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Monica J. Grant

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This Population Council working paper examines gender differences in transitions to adulthood in Pakistan. The survey covers key aspects of adolescents’ lives, including the timing of several adult transitions and a detailed accounting of time use over the previous 24 hours. The results of the analysis confirm the fundamental importance of schooling to transitions to adulthood. Those without any schooling, which still includes 15 percent of young men and 46 percent of young women, assume the work burdens of adults prematurely and are deprived of the opportunity for learning in an institutional setting outside the family. Those who do attend ...


Primary Schooling In Sub-Saharan Africa: Recent Trends And Current Challenges, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Paul C. Hewett Jan 2003

Primary Schooling In Sub-Saharan Africa: Recent Trends And Current Challenges, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Paul C. Hewett

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

At the dawn of the twenty-first century we estimate that more than 37 million young adolescents aged 10-14 in sub-Saharan Africa will not complete primary school. Our estimates are based on data from nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys from 26 countries, collectively representing 83 percent of the sub-Saharan youth population. This number is nearly twice the entire population of children aged 10-14 in the United States, virtually all of whom will complete primary school. Reducing the number of uneducated African youth is a primary objective of the United Nations as laid out in the Millennium Development Goal for education ...


The Effect Of Gender Differences In Primary School Access, Type, And Quality On The Decision To Enroll In Rural Pakistan, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Cem Mete, Zeba Sathar Jan 2002

The Effect Of Gender Differences In Primary School Access, Type, And Quality On The Decision To Enroll In Rural Pakistan, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Cem Mete, Zeba Sathar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The paper explores the effect of primary school access, type, and quality on the decision to enroll in rural Pakistan using a 1997 survey especially designed for this purpose. A unique contribution of the paper is the construction of gender-specific dimensions of school accessibility and school quality according to school type (i.e., public vs. private). Within the same village, girls and boys often face starkly different options for schooling in terms of distance, type, and quality. Public primary schools are segregated by sex; private schools, whose numbers have grown rapidly in recent years in response to rising demand and ...


Greater Investments In Children Through Women's Empowerment: A Key To Demographic Change In Pakistan?, Valerie L. Durrant, Zeba Sathar Jan 2000

Greater Investments In Children Through Women's Empowerment: A Key To Demographic Change In Pakistan?, Valerie L. Durrant, Zeba Sathar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Women’s status has received considerable attention as a significant factor in demographic behavior and outcomes in South Asia however, little research has addressed the links between women’s status and their investments in children. In this paper, we empirically investigate how women’s status on multiple levels is associated with demographic outcomes. Using data from the Pakistan Status of Women and Fertility Survey in rural Punjab, we confirm that empowered women, or those with higher status, are better able to make positive investments in their children, thus increasing their children’s chances of survival during infancy and increasing their ...


The Effects Of Primary School Quality On The Educational Participation And Attainment Of Kenyan Girls And Boys, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Barbara Mensch, Wesley H. Clark Jan 1998

The Effects Of Primary School Quality On The Educational Participation And Attainment Of Kenyan Girls And Boys, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Barbara Mensch, Wesley H. Clark

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

In Kenya, adolescent girls fare poorly relative to boys in an educational system characterized by enormous growth, deteriorating quality, and rising costs. Girls are more likely than boys to drop out of school prematurely and are less likely to do well on the primary school leaving exams that come at the end of grade eight. Using data from nearly 600 adolescents aged 12-19 in combination with data collected from 36 primary schools in which those adolescents reside, this paper investigates the effect of school quality on the likelihood of dropping out from primary school in three districts of Kenya. In ...