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The Gender Gap In Secondary School Mathematics At High Achievement Levels: Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson Jan 2010

The Gender Gap In Secondary School Mathematics At High Achievement Levels: Evidence From The American Mathematics Competitions, Glenn Ellison, Ashley Swanson

Health Care Management Papers

This paper uses a new data source, American Mathematics Competitions, to examine the gender gap among high school students at very high achievement levels. The data bring out several new facts. There is a large gender gap that widens dramatically at percentiles above those that can be examined using standard data sources. An analysis of unobserved heterogeneity indicates that there is only moderate variation in the gender gap across schools. The highest achieving girls in the U.S. are concentrated in a very small set of elite schools, suggesting that almost all girls with the ability to reach high math ...


Schooling And Conflict In Darfur: A Snapshot Of Basic Education Services For Displaced Children, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Safaa El-Kogali, Jenny Perlman Robinson, Johanna Rankin, Ali Rashed Jan 2010

Schooling And Conflict In Darfur: A Snapshot Of Basic Education Services For Displaced Children, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Safaa El-Kogali, Jenny Perlman Robinson, Johanna Rankin, Ali Rashed

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Schooling and Conflict in Darfur, a joint project of the Population Council and the Women's Refugee Commission, is a report based on a 2008 survey designed to provide a more accurate picture of the state of formal and non-formal education for displaced children of primary school age (6-14) in North and West Darfur. The findings are based on a scientifically selected sample of internally displaced persons (IDP) communities in North and West Darfur. The goal of the report is to provide donors, policymakers, and practitioners information to help plan and implement effective, targeted education programs for internally displaced children ...


The Nature Of Mothers' Work And Children's Schooling In Nepal: The Influence Of Income And Time Effects, Ashish Bajracharya Jan 2010

The Nature Of Mothers' Work And Children's Schooling In Nepal: The Influence Of Income And Time Effects, Ashish Bajracharya

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey, this Population Council working paper examines the influence of the nature of mothers’ work on Nepali children’s schooling outcomes. It analyses whether the engagement of mothers (and fathers) in nonagricultural work has significant consequences for their children’s school attendance and grade attainment, compared with these consequences when parents’ work is in traditional subsistence agriculture. Results indicate that children of parents who both work in the nonagriculture sector are significantly more likely to have attended or currently be attending school and have higher grade attainment, compared with children ...


Building Programs To Address Child Marriage: The Berhane Hewan Experience In Ethiopia, Eunice N. Muthengi, Annabel Erulkar Jan 2010

Building Programs To Address Child Marriage: The Berhane Hewan Experience In Ethiopia, Eunice N. Muthengi, Annabel Erulkar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The development of a context-appropriate program to delay marriage in rural Ethiopia took place over many years and in stages. The program that ultimately became known as “Berhane Hewan” was developed by building an evidence base of understanding on the populations being served and developing partnerships between the Population Council and like-minded agencies with complementary expertise. The Berhane Hewan pilot demonstrated that significant impacts can be made on the social, educational, and health status of adolescent girls in a short period of time, through well designed and implemented support programs. However, high levels of exposure to all project components, make ...


Understanding Adolescent Girls' Protection Strategies Against Hiv: An Exploratory Study In Urban Lusaka, Joseph Simbaya, Martha Brady, Allison Stone, Maya Vaughan-Smith Jan 2010

Understanding Adolescent Girls' Protection Strategies Against Hiv: An Exploratory Study In Urban Lusaka, Joseph Simbaya, Martha Brady, Allison Stone, Maya Vaughan-Smith

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This report provides a descriptive analysis of how adolescent girls and young women in Lusaka, Zambia construct notions of risk and safety, perceive reproductive health and HIV risks, and identify behaviors and actions they can take to protect themselves. Findings suggests stronger social support networks, improved access to the range of reproductive health services and products, and safe and supportive spaces for girls would be beneficial. The report points to several areas for potential program attention, including more focused attention on the structural and environmental drivers of girls’ vulnerability.


White Paper: Enhancing Adolescent Financial Capabilities Through Financial Education In Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin, Laila Rahman, Sigma Ainul, Ubaidur Rob, Bushra Zaman, Rinat Akter Jan 2010

White Paper: Enhancing Adolescent Financial Capabilities Through Financial Education In Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin, Laila Rahman, Sigma Ainul, Ubaidur Rob, Bushra Zaman, Rinat Akter

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This white paper addresses a growing concern about the problems of financial exclusion of the poor. It is based on a scoping study and a pilot program providing financial education to adolescents in Bangladesh. The Population Council worked with BRAC and Underprivileged Children’s Educational Program (UCEP) to expand these life skills. The result and tools of the study inspired UCEP to commit introduction of financial literacy in 52 schools for the under privileged children from next year while BRAC expressed interest to accumulate resources and initiate discussions with their donors and consortium partners for gradually introducing the financial literacy ...


Ensuring Education For All In India: Highlighting The Obstacles, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council Jan 2010

Ensuring Education For All In India: Highlighting The Obstacles, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Looking at the current educational situation of youth in India, this Population Council policy brief argues that significant investments in terms of appropriate policies and programs are required to enable the country to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of universal primary education and elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education, harness its demographic dividend, and enable its youth to participate in and benefit from global development. The brief recommends that policy commitments be met and programs be effectively implemented, and notes the importance of high school education in enabling youth to make a successful transition to adulthood. It ...


L'Adolescence Des Filles Au Burkina Faso: Une Clé De Voûte Pour Le Changement Social, Martha Brady, Lydia Saloucou, Erica Chong Jan 2010

L'Adolescence Des Filles Au Burkina Faso: Une Clé De Voûte Pour Le Changement Social, Martha Brady, Lydia Saloucou, Erica Chong

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Although a number of innovative programs have been created to meet their needs, Burkinabé adolescent girls continue to face many threats to their well-being. They still need considerable support and opportunities to improve their social and economic status and health status. This report, using a number of data sources, including Population Council studies and programs, and the Demographic and Health Survey of Burkina Faso, aims to provide a general overview of these young girls’ adolescence—the realities of life and the policy and program initiatives designed for them. The Population Council hopes that this report will make a significant contribution ...


Ethiopia Gender Survey: A Study In Seven Regions, Annabel Erulkar, Abebaw Ferede, Worku Ambelu, Woldemariam Girma, Helen Amdemikael, Behailu Gebremedhin, Berhanu Legesse, Ayehualem Tameru, Messay Teferi Jan 2010

Ethiopia Gender Survey: A Study In Seven Regions, Annabel Erulkar, Abebaw Ferede, Worku Ambelu, Woldemariam Girma, Helen Amdemikael, Behailu Gebremedhin, Berhanu Legesse, Ayehualem Tameru, Messay Teferi

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

“Ethiopia Gender Survey: A Study in Seven Regions” is a 2009 population-based survey. Over 8,000 Ethiopian women aged 15 to 49 were interviewed to examine a better understanding of HIV behavior, gender issues and reproductive health in Ethiopia. The information serves as the baseline survey for four initiatives in Ethiopia related to adolescent health and development, gender-based violence, women’s empowerment, and female genital cutting/ mutilation.


Education And Transition To Work Among Youth In Andhra Pradesh, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council Jan 2010

Education And Transition To Work Among Youth In Andhra Pradesh, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Looking at the current educational and employment situation of youth in Andhra Pradesh, this Population Council policy brief argues that significant investments in terms of appropriate policies and programs are required to enable the state to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of universal primary education and elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education, harness its demographic dividend, and enable its youth to participate in and benefit from global development. Notwithstanding the state’s existing policy commitments, findings indicate that several challenges remain. The brief recommends a number of policies and programs to overcome these challenges.


Poverty, Marriage Timing, And Transitions To Adulthood In Nepal: A Longitudinal Analysis Using The Nepal Living Standards Survey, Ashish Bajracharya, Sajeda Amin Jan 2010

Poverty, Marriage Timing, And Transitions To Adulthood In Nepal: A Longitudinal Analysis Using The Nepal Living Standards Survey, Ashish Bajracharya, Sajeda Amin

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This working paper examines the influence of household poverty experienced during early childhood on early marriage and outcomes in schooling and workforce participation during adolescence for girls in Nepal. Much of the evidence concerning these relationships is drawn from cross-sectional data that cannot be used, and has not been able, to address causality. This Population Council study uses longitudinal data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS), a two-wave panel in which the waves were conducted eight years apart to address these questions. Analyzing the data by household-wealth quintiles reveals surprisingly nonlinear results indicating that these associations are largest for ...


Youth In India: Situation And Needs 2006-2007, Andhra Pradesh, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council Jan 2010

Youth In India: Situation And Needs 2006-2007, Andhra Pradesh, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This report is the result of a sub-national study undertaken by the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai and the Population Council, New Delhi, as part of a project to collect information on key transitions experienced by youth in India, including those related to education, work force participation, sexual activity, marriage, health and civic participation; the magnitude and patterns of young people’s sexual and reproductive practices before, within and outside of marriage as well as related knowledge, decision-making and attitudes. The project was implemented in six states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu.