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Full-Text Articles in Community College Leadership

Udl And Motivation: Student Perceptions Of The Impact Of Universal Design For Learning On Motivation Of First-Year Community College Students In Rural East Tennessee, Jennifer Mayes May 2020

Udl And Motivation: Student Perceptions Of The Impact Of Universal Design For Learning On Motivation Of First-Year Community College Students In Rural East Tennessee, Jennifer Mayes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the perceptions of how Universal Design for Learning (UDL) impacts motivation in first-year community college students in rural East Tennessee. This study investigated the effects of UDL on motivation of first-year community college students in East Tennessee. This involved multiple sections of courses participating in a UDL pilot training program with the college’s Instructional Design department. Two of the courses were part of the UDL pilot, and two of the courses were teaching the Standard approved Master Curriculum. The study had a total of 109 participants, and 9 research questions ...


The Impact Of Teacher Methodology Training For Higher Education Faculty Members, Nicole R. Baker Apr 2020

The Impact Of Teacher Methodology Training For Higher Education Faculty Members, Nicole R. Baker

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Many college programs are designed to graduate individuals who are experts in their field of study, but not necessarily individuals who are trained in how to teach. This quantitative, quasi-experiment study examined college faculty member’s level of training in the area of teaching practices and methodology. The relation to student satisfaction, current course performance, attendance, the belief in the need for training, and faculty member’s sense of efficacy in teaching was explored. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to organize the data using a one-way ANCOVA to analyze the impact the level of training ...


Community College Student Organizations And Hispanic Students' Gpa, Retention, And Graduation Rates, Joanne Alvarez Apr 2020

Community College Student Organizations And Hispanic Students' Gpa, Retention, And Graduation Rates, Joanne Alvarez

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Although the Hispanic population continues to grow throughout the United States, Hispanic students still have some of the lowest college retention and graduation rates. Administrators at post-secondary institutions need evidence for effective strategies to recruit, retain, and graduate Hispanic students. The current study was created to determine if there was a difference in grade point averages (GPA), retention, and graduation rates between two specific groups. The first group consisted of 506 self-identified Hispanic students engaged in at least one community college student organization versus 506 self-identified Hispanic students not engaged in any campus organization. A quantitative study was conducted to ...


Measuring Positive Psychology Constructs To Determine The Effect Of A Well-Being Intervention At Gateway Community College, Lisa R. Richardson, Odilia Rivera-Santos, Adriana Drulla-Rossi, Diane Trif Apr 2020

Measuring Positive Psychology Constructs To Determine The Effect Of A Well-Being Intervention At Gateway Community College, Lisa R. Richardson, Odilia Rivera-Santos, Adriana Drulla-Rossi, Diane Trif

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

In partnership with GateWay Community College (GWCC), the following service-learning project outlines an application plan to implement validated measures of positive psychology constructs through GWCC’s Strategies for College Success (CPD150) course. Supported by a situation analysis and literature review, constructs of Hope, Grit and Career Decision Self-Efficacy were identified as key constructs to be measured in alignment with the course curriculum and research demonstrating a positive correlation to student achievement and well-being outcomes. The application plan describes the identified measures for each construct, resources to support implementation within CPD150, and recommendations for additional measures and limitations.


Students' Performance, Satisfaction And Retention In A Hybrid And Traditional Face-To-Face Science Course, Principles Of Biology I, In A Community College, Abdallah Mohammad Matari Feb 2020

Students' Performance, Satisfaction And Retention In A Hybrid And Traditional Face-To-Face Science Course, Principles Of Biology I, In A Community College, Abdallah Mohammad Matari

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Hybrid teaching, comprised of both in-class and online teaching, is rapidly becoming a favorite mode of teaching and learning. Online and hybrid courses on have become more and more appealing to both higher education institutions and the students they serve. In particular, hybrid teaching has an increase appeal to community colleges as they serve a diverse student population with varied academic levels, cultural background, and personal responsibilities. Hybrid courses promotes flexibility in course scheduling options for students and enables institutions to accept more students without worrying about physical classroom space concerns. This study explored and compared students’ learning outcomes, satisfaction ...


Effects Of Synchronous Group Work On Learning And Community In Online Mathematics At Community Colleges, Carrie L. Naughton Jan 2020

Effects Of Synchronous Group Work On Learning And Community In Online Mathematics At Community Colleges, Carrie L. Naughton

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Online learning plays an increasingly important role in community college education. However, evidence has shown that online learning can be a challenge, especially in mathematics, and students are not performing as well in online classes as they are in face-to-face formats. In addition, the online environment can be isolating and lonely, with little opportunity for interaction and group work with fellow students. With the increased demand for online mathematics courses at the community college level, it has become imperative that two-year colleges find ways to increase online student success while simultaneously fostering interaction, collaboration and community. This study focused on ...


From Developmental Education To Transfer And Bachelor’S Degree Attainment: A Study Of Community College Students’ Long-Term Outcomes, Kathryn Mahaffey Harvey Oct 2019

From Developmental Education To Transfer And Bachelor’S Degree Attainment: A Study Of Community College Students’ Long-Term Outcomes, Kathryn Mahaffey Harvey

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Community college is the only pathway to higher education for many students. Jenkins and Fink (2016) reported that 40% of new college students entered higher education through a community college. Most of these students aspire to earn a bachelor’s degree (Fink 2014). In order to achieve their dream of bachelor’s degree attainment, many of these students need to first complete a series of developmental or remedial courses to become college-ready and begin taking curriculum courses. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between developmental education course completion and transfer success by comparing the longitudinal outcomes ...


Increasing Diversity Of Faculty And Administrators In The Virginia Community College System, Nicole Munday, Rachel Angel, Mahzar Anik, Sylvia Clay, Lorraine Justice, Cheri Maea, Gena Mckinley, Tim Merrill, Aaron Rosenthal Jul 2019

Increasing Diversity Of Faculty And Administrators In The Virginia Community College System, Nicole Munday, Rachel Angel, Mahzar Anik, Sylvia Clay, Lorraine Justice, Cheri Maea, Gena Mckinley, Tim Merrill, Aaron Rosenthal

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

In 2013, Chancellor DuBois convened a Task Force on Diversity with the aim of making the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) a model for diversity by “increasing the demographic diversity of the VCCS so that teaching faculty and leaders look more like the communities we serve” (Chancellors Diversity Task Force, 2014, p. 3). The hard work of the Task Force members culminated in a report that summarized their findings and recommendations, including a “Call to Action” list of 11 steps, many of which have been implemented or are in progress. Several of these key initiatives have put the VCCS on ...


Improving Transferability Case Studies: 'Building A Better Bridge To The Bachelor's', Tamra Lipscomb, Cindy Wallin, David Braun, Katherine Clatterbuck, Faison Dana, Leonda Keniston, John Lipp, Christian Mason Jul 2019

Improving Transferability Case Studies: 'Building A Better Bridge To The Bachelor's', Tamra Lipscomb, Cindy Wallin, David Braun, Katherine Clatterbuck, Faison Dana, Leonda Keniston, John Lipp, Christian Mason

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Many Virginians aspiring to earn a four-year degree intentionally begin their journey at one of the 23 community colleges within the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). In concert with those aspirations, the VCCS is committed to providing its residents an affordable and accessible program of study that prepares them to transfer and earn a bachelor’s degree at any one of Virginia’s colleges and universities. The establishment of an affordable and accessible pathway was one of the emanating purposes of the community college (Mellow & Heelan, 2015). The dream of affordable transfer education is one of three key legislative efforts ...


Communication And Data Sharing Between K-12 And Community Colleges, Beth Page, Jacob Surratt, Debbie Bond, Mitzi Jones, Josh Meyer, Amy Webster, Brian Wright Jul 2019

Communication And Data Sharing Between K-12 And Community Colleges, Beth Page, Jacob Surratt, Debbie Bond, Mitzi Jones, Josh Meyer, Amy Webster, Brian Wright

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

This report investigates communication and data sharing between K-12 and community colleges to identify best practices. This wide-ranging topic encompassed many efforts that impact student recruitment, retention and success in their postsecondary education. To prioritize the most pressing issues, this report focuses on recent system-wide findings and recommendations. In 2016, the Virginia General Assembly directed the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) to review the VCCS, a process that had not been done since 1991. The JLARC report in 2017 stated that a relatively low percentage of community college students obtain a degree or credential (39 percent). In addition ...


Increasing Success With Online Degree Courses And Programs In The Vccs, Thomas Chatman, Dave Dick, Paula Ford, Pamela Henry, Kim Hobert, Miles Keller, Kevin Riley, Christina Tidwell, Roberta Wright Jul 2019

Increasing Success With Online Degree Courses And Programs In The Vccs, Thomas Chatman, Dave Dick, Paula Ford, Pamela Henry, Kim Hobert, Miles Keller, Kevin Riley, Christina Tidwell, Roberta Wright

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Over the last three years, 724,116 online courses were attempted within the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). From these attempts, 206,533 resulted in a grade of D or F or a withdrawal, accounting for 29% of all attempted online courses (Virginia Community College System, 2015). This does not account for the students who may have dropped the course early in the semester to avoid academic and/or financial consequences. Studies have shown that students who do not experience success in their courses drop out significantly more than their counterparts (Thayer, 1973). Additionally, these students experience delayed degree or ...


Using Artificial Intelligence To Enhance Educational Opportunities And Student Services In Higher Education, Mandy Barrett, Lisa Branson, Sheryl Carter, Frank Deleon, Justin Ellis, Cirrus Gundlach, Dale Lee Jul 2019

Using Artificial Intelligence To Enhance Educational Opportunities And Student Services In Higher Education, Mandy Barrett, Lisa Branson, Sheryl Carter, Frank Deleon, Justin Ellis, Cirrus Gundlach, Dale Lee

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology is becoming the basis for business. Most businesses use it to improve the customer experience. The education community is just beginning to find ways to successfully implement AI for staff and students. Artificial Intelligence should be leveraged to create a better student experience. For example, Elon University uses AI to assist students with tracking previously taken courses and helps them apply the information to their course-planning (Gardner, 2018). Georgia State University uses Pounce, a chatbot built by AdmitHub, reducing summer melt by over 20% by reaching out to students via text when they have not completed ...


Taking The Leap (Learner Engaged Advising Programs): Vccs Advising Practices And Recommendations, Valerie Burge-Hall, Latoya Garrison, Leigh Giles-Brown, Dan Lepore, Melanie Mcnall, Christine Pauly, Andrew Quinn, Lisa Vaughn Jordan Jul 2019

Taking The Leap (Learner Engaged Advising Programs): Vccs Advising Practices And Recommendations, Valerie Burge-Hall, Latoya Garrison, Leigh Giles-Brown, Dan Lepore, Melanie Mcnall, Christine Pauly, Andrew Quinn, Lisa Vaughn Jordan

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) administration identified the need for adequate and proactive advising programs to foster student success. This paper presents a review of “best practices” in advising to determine commonalities, provides a comparison with current VCCS advising practices, and offers recommendations that support the goal of ensuring high quality advising programs.


Blending Credit & Non-Credit Courses: Best Practices, Opportunities, Barriers, Keisha Samuels, M. Todd Estes, Heather Eckman, Kelly Gillerlain, Shanda Jenkins, Wendy Miller-Edwards, Olivia Reinauer, Nicole Walker Jul 2019

Blending Credit & Non-Credit Courses: Best Practices, Opportunities, Barriers, Keisha Samuels, M. Todd Estes, Heather Eckman, Kelly Gillerlain, Shanda Jenkins, Wendy Miller-Edwards, Olivia Reinauer, Nicole Walker

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Community colleges offer an array of programs designed to help students meet different goals. Noncredit education provides training for students seeking targeted, often shorter, courses for personal and professional enrichment (Cohen, Brawer, & Kisker, 2014). Many community colleges are now increasingly emphasizing noncredit workforce education as they support regional workforce development efforts and strive to meet the needs of their local industry partners (Van Noy, Jacobs, Korey, Bailey, & Hughes, 2008). Despite the millions of students enrolled in these courses and their potential to generate revenue for the institutions delivering programs, Voorhees and Milam (2005) refer to noncredit community college education as ...


Improving Completion Rates For Underrepresented Populations, Jen Daniels, Lynn Bowers, Megan Cook, Mark D'Antonio, Amber Foltz, Carlita Mccombs, John Sound, Jenni Vancuren Jul 2019

Improving Completion Rates For Underrepresented Populations, Jen Daniels, Lynn Bowers, Megan Cook, Mark D'Antonio, Amber Foltz, Carlita Mccombs, John Sound, Jenni Vancuren

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Most experienced educators recognize that many students will not complete optional assignments, and often those students who need additional help do not seek assistance. Current research demonstrates that students in underrepresented populations (see definition below) are less likely to seek support than others because they see needing help as a confirmation that they don’t really “belong” in college in the first place. Research shows that those who do access currently optional supports such as tutoring are more likely to succeed, so this research group looked for ways to build structured connections between underrepresented students and resources.

We found that ...


Promoting The Value Of Career Education Programs, David Howell, Maryanne Serignese, Shawn Anderson, Rachel Dodson, Joshua Mcdowell, Jesse Miller, Dana Newcomer, Regina Sanders, Brooklyn Shehan Jul 2019

Promoting The Value Of Career Education Programs, David Howell, Maryanne Serignese, Shawn Anderson, Rachel Dodson, Joshua Mcdowell, Jesse Miller, Dana Newcomer, Regina Sanders, Brooklyn Shehan

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

12.5 million secondary and postsecondary students are currently enrolled in Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs in the United States (“Career,” 2019). CTE programs provide students with the academic skills, technical skills, knowledge, and training necessary to succeed in future careers and to become lifelong learners (“Career,” 2019). Students are prepared for the workplace as a result of a competency-based learning approach and through partnerships with local employers who provide hands-on experience and work-based learning opportunities (“Career,” 2019). By 2020, 65 percent of American jobs will require some postsecondary education or training, with half of these positions requiring an ...


Accelerating Student Success: The Case For Corequisite Instruction, Maggie Emblom-Callahan, Nekisha Burgess-Palm, Sandra Davis, Amanda Decker, Heather Diritto, Shana Dix, Camisha Parker, Eric Styles Jul 2019

Accelerating Student Success: The Case For Corequisite Instruction, Maggie Emblom-Callahan, Nekisha Burgess-Palm, Sandra Davis, Amanda Decker, Heather Diritto, Shana Dix, Camisha Parker, Eric Styles

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

The successes of corequisite remediation courses and supplemental instruction over traditional remediation courses such as the modular Math Essentials have been widely and recently documented (Logue, Watanabe-Rose, & Douglas, 2016). Corequisite reform is an important strategy to improve student completion of higher education goals. A robust corequisite model integrates gateway course content with lifelong tools such as time management and study skills that help students beyond the scope of one course. Corequisite remediation may not completely eliminate developmental courses; however, “a fundamental redesign of the support system for academically underprepared students” will include corequisite remediation (Vandal, 2014). This broader “support system” may integrate corequisite courses with the current (or similar) modular curriculum with non-modular precollege courses such as MTH 5 or MTH 9 in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). Student placement into the optimal teaching/learning mode may be as key as course level placement (Bickerstaff, 2016). Corequisite remediation provides the ...


Asian American Community College Presidents: An Asiancrit Analysis Of Their Approaches To Leadership, Johnny Hu Jul 2019

Asian American Community College Presidents: An Asiancrit Analysis Of Their Approaches To Leadership, Johnny Hu

Ed.D. Dissertations in Practice/Capstone Projects

This study explores the experiences of five current and former Asian American community college presidents including their career transitions into executive leadership using an AsianCrit analysis for framing their narrative experiences. The literature review situates the experiences of Asian American community college presidents in various contexts by providing a brief summary of several historical moments and political movements that have shaped the realities they currently confront as higher education leaders. This study employed a Critical Race Theory (CRT) approach to counter storytelling to analyze the participants’ narratives both individually and thematically based on their social identities as Asian Americans and ...


Stepping Stone Or Road Block: An Evaluation Of Community Colleges In The Midwest To Improve Attrition And Graduate Percentages Of African American Students, Tamela Odom Jul 2019

Stepping Stone Or Road Block: An Evaluation Of Community Colleges In The Midwest To Improve Attrition And Graduate Percentages Of African American Students, Tamela Odom

Ed.D. Dissertations

The path towards higher education is not the same for all. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore why African American students enroll into community college in the Midwest at higher percentages than any other racial group but persist to graduation at the lowest percentages. Factors that hinder African American students from persisting toward graduation and eventual degree completion from a 2-year college were uncovered through interviews conducted with participants on community college campuses throughout the Midwest. Considering the findings of this study, it is suggested that professors and instructors use classroom interactions and instructional opportunities to ...


Predicting Latino Community College Student Success: A Conceptual Model For First-Year Retention, Helen Castellanos Brewer May 2019

Predicting Latino Community College Student Success: A Conceptual Model For First-Year Retention, Helen Castellanos Brewer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Students decide to remain enrolled in community college more so during their first-year of matriculation, than at any other point in their education. For the last three decades, community college leaders across the United States have been challenged by stagnant retention rates that hover around 60% (Mortenson, 2012). While Latino college students enroll in two-year colleges more than any other racial/ethnic group, there is limited research available that comprehensively studies the experience of Latino community college students.

This study’s purpose was to contribute to existing literature on first-year retention of Latino college students by researching the relationship between ...


The Credentialed Workforce: Examining Success Rates Across Short-Term Noncredit Training Programs Aligned With Industry Credentials, Rochelle Fisher May 2019

The Credentialed Workforce: Examining Success Rates Across Short-Term Noncredit Training Programs Aligned With Industry Credentials, Rochelle Fisher

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

A new grant program implemented to provide subsidized training costs for students enrolling in short-term noncredit programs aligned with high-demand industry credentials leading to middle-skill jobs was implemented in July 2016. The grant program follows a pay-for-performance model where students are given a two-thirds discount on tuition but required to pay back an additional one-third if they do not successfully complete their short-term noncredit training. An exploratory study was conducted to provide training program completion and credential attainment rates for the overall program and by student demographic groups (age, race, and gender). Results showed little variation among training program completion ...


Student Loan Default Prevention And Management Practices At Mississippi Community & Junior Colleges, Lashanda Chamberlain May 2019

Student Loan Default Prevention And Management Practices At Mississippi Community & Junior Colleges, Lashanda Chamberlain

Dissertations

Cohort default rates can impact an institution’s ability to participate in the Title IV aid programs. Title IV aid programs such as the federal Pell grant, federal work-study program, and the federal loan program is critical to student enrollment. If an institution loses its participation in the Title IV aid programs, this would be detrimental to both students and the institution. Cohort default rates at Mississippi community and junior colleges are currently above the national average. This qualitative study examines the default prevention and management practices at Mississippi community and junior colleges. Using an interview protocol, the researcher interviewed ...


Promoting Persistence Among Lgbtq Community College Students, Gregory D. Robinson Mar 2019

Promoting Persistence Among Lgbtq Community College Students, Gregory D. Robinson

Theses and Dissertations

A vast amount of research has been devoted to the persistence and retention of college students since the 1970s. Recent research has focused on targeted populations such as first year students, racially minoritized, students with low social economic status and students at the developmental/remedial level. Nevertheless, limited scholarly research has been conducted on the persistence and retention of another category of students, sexual and gender minorities. This qualitative study examined the experiences that promote persistence among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) community colleges students. Interviews with eight LGBTQ students from three community colleges in the state ...


“Can You Just Move The Curtain?”: Stories Of Women From The Educational Underclass At The College Door, Janet Kaplan-Bucciarelli Jan 2019

“Can You Just Move The Curtain?”: Stories Of Women From The Educational Underclass At The College Door, Janet Kaplan-Bucciarelli

Adult Education Research Conference

This study explores prospective students’ lives and beliefs about college, and proposes principles and practices that respond holistically to learners’ strengths and vulnerabilities rather than emphasizing academic deficiencies.


The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen Jun 2018

The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen

Dissertations

This qualitative study explores the experiences of new student affairs professionals who have begun their careers at community colleges. Research in the field of higher education has examined the preparation and socialization of new professionals within the field of higher education student affairs. However, this body of research has primarily focused on the experiences of those who go on to work in four-year colleges and universities. Little has been examined regarding those who graduate from these programs and whose first professional role is in a community college setting.

Through this phenomenological inquiry, the participants share rich details about their socialization ...


Latina Community College Leaders And The Role Cultural Intelligence Plays In Their Leadership: El Líderazgo Inteligente De Administradoras Latinas., Patricia Avila May 2018

Latina Community College Leaders And The Role Cultural Intelligence Plays In Their Leadership: El Líderazgo Inteligente De Administradoras Latinas., Patricia Avila

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to discover and describe how Latina community college administrators utilize the four elements of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) to provide leadership in their organizations.

Methodology: The phenomenological qualitative approach was used to describe the utilization of cultural intelligence of ten Latina community college administrators to provide effective leadership in their organizations. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews to gain insight into participants’ leadership behaviors outlined in the study’s purpose. An examination of the data collected revealed patterns and themes.

Findings: Examination of study participants’ interviews resulted in ten themes and 411 frequencies among ...


Factors Used To Determine The Teaching Load For Chairs In Public Community Colleges, Mandel Samuels, James O. Hammons Mar 2018

Factors Used To Determine The Teaching Load For Chairs In Public Community Colleges, Mandel Samuels, James O. Hammons

Academic Chairpersons Conference Proceedings

After a 10 minute presentation of a recently completed national study of the practices used by public community colleges to determine chair teaching load, attendees will be provided a framework and procedure for determining chair teaching load on their campus, and will then engage in a spirited but structured discussion of the factors to be considered and a process for assigning weights to each.


Diversifying Your Toolkit For Learners: Evidence-Based Strategies For Supporting Success In Diverse Learners, Regan A.R. Gurung Jan 2018

Diversifying Your Toolkit For Learners: Evidence-Based Strategies For Supporting Success In Diverse Learners, Regan A.R. Gurung

Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Workshops

This slide presentation accompanied a workshop delivered to Parkland College faculty. Using research findings from psychology, education, and related field, Dr. Garung summarized evidence-based approaches that support learning, improves instructional design (including increasing rapport and pedagogy changes), and facilitates assessment to support diverse learners.


Working Together To Cultivate Learning: Transcending Individual Differences And Inspiring Change, Regan A.R. Gurung Jan 2018

Working Together To Cultivate Learning: Transcending Individual Differences And Inspiring Change, Regan A.R. Gurung

Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Workshops

In his keynote address to the faculty of Parkland College, Dr. Gurung provides a new way to think about learning, as a lifelong change that takes into account all types of students who are in the process of learning, and explicitly focuses on the diverse characteristics of the students, outlines the main factors influencing traditional and lifelong learning, and offers pragmatic methods to motivate learners. This document is the slide presentation of his address.


A Workforce Development Study To Explore Current Demand For Industry-Recognized Credentials, Debra Kay Smiley Jan 2018

A Workforce Development Study To Explore Current Demand For Industry-Recognized Credentials, Debra Kay Smiley

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In this descriptive research study, I identified industry-recognized workforce credentials that are or will be in high demand by employers operating in Virginia. I surveyed a targeted group of Virginia workforce development stakeholders including 17 Virginia Community College System workforce development leaders who represent each local community college, 47 Virginia local and regional economic development directors, and 11 Virginia Workforce Innovation Opportunity Act directors. Due to the economic disparity between rural and urban areas, I also examined the contrast between high-demand credentials needed by employers in rural and urban areas.

The findings revealed that the top two industry-recognized credentials were ...