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Full-Text Articles in Community College Leadership

Defying The Odds, Stories Of Success: A Case Study Of Foster Care Alumni In The Community College Environment, Julia Philyaw May 2020

Defying The Odds, Stories Of Success: A Case Study Of Foster Care Alumni In The Community College Environment, Julia Philyaw

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the lived experiences of foster care alumni and how these experiences influenced the individual’s decision to enroll in a community college, persist, and complete a degree. The dissertation drew from two conceptual frameworks, Bandwidth (Verschelden, 2017) and Capitals – cultural, social, and academic (Bourdieu, 1986; St. John, Hu, & Fisher, 2010). Foster care alumni were selected as the population due to their underrepresentation in college enrollment and poor completion rates. Moving beyond a deficit model that focuses on identifying obstacles, this dissertation focused on success stories of the foster care alumni in an ...


Going The Distance: A Case Study Of One Community College's Journey Across The Digital Divide, Michael Robert Jolley Apr 2020

Going The Distance: A Case Study Of One Community College's Journey Across The Digital Divide, Michael Robert Jolley

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Rural communities throughout the nation continue to lag their urban and suburban peers in access to high-speed internet service. This digital divide affects rural populations in a myriad of ways, but access to higher educational opportunities may be most problematic. While the promise of technology to level the field for rural students continues to offer hope, the scarcity of broadband service lingers. This qualitative instrumental case study explores how one exceptional rural community college in the Great Plains developed the capacity to deliver distance education programming. The study relies upon Rogers's theory of diffusion of innovations to validate the ...


Speaker Of The House: The Intersection Of Faculty And Administrator Roles Among Community College Faculty Department Chairs, Miles Young Mar 2020

Speaker Of The House: The Intersection Of Faculty And Administrator Roles Among Community College Faculty Department Chairs, Miles Young

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Community colleges face significant challenges in the 21st century due largely to the effects of neoliberalism. Shifts in governance structures and an emphasis towards productivity and accountability have put a strain on institutional relationships, particularly between the faculty and the administration. Much attention has been given to how this relationship could be restored through direct means; however, another institutional stakeholder group has largely been overlooked in terms of a resource that could help bridge the faculty and administration. The community college faculty department chair is uniquely situated between the faculty and administration within these institutions, yet little is known ...


Inclusion Of The Economically Backward Students: Scope And Tenet Of Indian School Libraries, Sarthak Chakraborty, Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri May 2019

Inclusion Of The Economically Backward Students: Scope And Tenet Of Indian School Libraries, Sarthak Chakraborty, Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The study aims to find out how far a school library can contribute in the issue of inclusion of the economically backward class students. Meanwhile the author has opined three major issues: Economical, Psychological and Societal as the reasons behind the school dropouts in India; while theoretical analyses have unveiled that the school library has enough scope and potential to reduce the dropout rate by offering several innovative approaches. Further, the author has investigated the reality and forwarded ten unique approaches (broadly classified into Library beyond school, Increase the reading habit and Empowerment of the student) which could be fruitful ...


Evolving Narratives About College: Immigrant Community College Students’ Perceptions Of The Four-Year Degree In The Great Plains, Moises Padilla, Justin Chase Brown, Elvira Abrica Apr 2019

Evolving Narratives About College: Immigrant Community College Students’ Perceptions Of The Four-Year Degree In The Great Plains, Moises Padilla, Justin Chase Brown, Elvira Abrica

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

A significant percentage of the enrollment growth in higher education can be attributed to the recruitment of more diverse students, including those from immigrant households. Although research on immigrant students is growing in light of changing U.S. demographic shifts, this literature is inchoate. This paper examines evolving perspectives of the value of a four-year degree among immigrants and children of immigrants. Thus, in this paper article we synthesize current dominant narratives of immigrant students about the utility and viability of a four-year degree (and the changing impact on community college enrollment) and how they have shifted over time. We ...


Education Institutions Creation Of Partnerships, Iwasan D. Kejawa Ed.D Mar 2018

Education Institutions Creation Of Partnerships, Iwasan D. Kejawa Ed.D

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

This issue is embracing the creation of partnerships with establishments worldwide for the provisions of life embodiments to graduates. At moment, there may be lack of friendship or partnership with establishments to create incentives for newly graduates of so many colleges and universities (Hirsh & Weber, 1999). Partnership with external companies will surely bring enormous grants to the colleges and universities and it will also encourage friendly establishments to provide incentives and perks to colleges, universities and alumni. It may be concluded that the advantages of creating rapport with external congruences is the comraderies and also compromises that will be achieved ...


Best Laid Plans: How Community College Student Success Courses Work, Deryl K. Hatch, Naomi Mardock-Uman, Crystal E. Garcia, Mary Johnson Jan 2018

Best Laid Plans: How Community College Student Success Courses Work, Deryl K. Hatch, Naomi Mardock-Uman, Crystal E. Garcia, Mary Johnson

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

Objective: Beyond understanding whether first-year student success interventions in community colleges are effective—for which there is mixed evidence in the literature—this study’s purpose was to uncover how they work to realize observed outcomes, including at times unanticipated undesirable outcomes.

Method: This qualitative multiple case study used cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to unpack interactions and tensions among programmatic-level features and individual-level experiences and actions. We conducted classroom observation, document analysis, and interviews with instructors and students in four student success courses across diverse contexts.

Results: Regardless of particular designs and course emphases, we found in all cases ...


Institutional Researcher Reflexivity: How Ir Professionals Can Utilize Researcher Reflexivity In Qualitative Studies Of Community College Students, Elvira Abrica Jan 2018

Institutional Researcher Reflexivity: How Ir Professionals Can Utilize Researcher Reflexivity In Qualitative Studies Of Community College Students, Elvira Abrica

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

In this paper, I argue that researcher reflexivity, a common qualitative practice, is a specific tool that institutional research professionals endeavoring to conduct qualitative research studies involving Students of Color can use to unpack issues of power and privilege that exist between the researcher and the researched. This may be particularly useful among institutional researchers working within community colleges that serve a disproportionate number of racially minoritized populations and other vulnerable student groups. I offer a reflexive account of various experiences related to race, gender, and social class that I encountered in a qualitative research study of Black and Latino ...


How To Measure Student Success? Toward Consideration Of Student Resilience As A Metric Of Success In Institutional Accountability Frameworks, Elvira Abrica Jan 2018

How To Measure Student Success? Toward Consideration Of Student Resilience As A Metric Of Success In Institutional Accountability Frameworks, Elvira Abrica

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

Rates of student success—four-year transfer, degree, and certificate completion— are frequently discussed. Less frequent, however, are opportunities to reflect on how these outcomes are measured. In this paper, I reflect on how rates of success—specifically for men of color—are calculated based on two California institutional accountability frameworks. First, I compared measures of success for men of color using the methodologies outlined by each framework. Secondly, I explored enrollment data of men of color who did not transfer or complete a degree or certificate after six years, those who would not be counted by either framework. Findings indicate ...


The Road Taken That Has Made All The Difference: A Narrative Inquiry Of Student Engagement And Success In Butler Community College's Accelerated Learning Program In English, Troy Nordman Dec 2017

The Road Taken That Has Made All The Difference: A Narrative Inquiry Of Student Engagement And Success In Butler Community College's Accelerated Learning Program In English, Troy Nordman

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether students who completed the accelerated learning program (ALP) in English at Butler Community College in fall 2016 perceived a three-part, structured approach to the course as having been a significant factor to their persistence and successful completion of the course. These perceptions were gathered during the spring 2017 semester through one-on-one, face-to-face interviews with 12 students from the fall 2016 cohort. Utilizing the conceptual framework of narrative inquiry proposed by Clandinin (2006) allowing the individual student narratives to weave a common, thematic context, this study examined the specific factors associated with ...


Impediments To The Advancement Of Women At Community Colleges, Teresa Yearout, Mitchell Williams, John Brenner Oct 2017

Impediments To The Advancement Of Women At Community Colleges, Teresa Yearout, Mitchell Williams, John Brenner

Journal of Women in Educational Leadership

This study examined current women leaders’ perceptions of the impediments to advancement at the community college. The study was guided by research questions addressing perceptions of (a) personal or internal impediments to advancement; (b) organizational or structural impediments to advancement; and (c) organizational cultural impediments to advancement. Additionally, the current study focuses on the setting and size of the community college and how these factors affect women leaders’ perceptions of impediments to leadership advancement. Participants in the study included a nonrandom, purposive sample of senior female leaders at community college leaders at community colleges in the eleven-state region of the ...


The Structure Of Student Engagement In Community College Student Success Programs: A Quantitative Activity Systems Analysis, Deryl K. Hatch Oct 2017

The Structure Of Student Engagement In Community College Student Success Programs: A Quantitative Activity Systems Analysis, Deryl K. Hatch

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

Community colleges increasingly implement various student success programs, including 1st-year seminars, college skills courses, learning communities, and orientation, in an effort to boost degree completion. However, it is unclear how success programs’ curricular designs may contribute to these and associated student outcomes. Such inquiry is limited, in part, by the lack of methodological frameworks for program impact heterogeneity research. This study proposes a new conceptualization of nominally different student success programs as instances of a broader activity, which also provides a way to operationalize their curricular structures in comparable ways. Second, to briefly illustrate this approach, the study leverages matched ...


Content Validation Of The Community College Student Success Program Inventory, Deryl K. Hatch, Naomi Mardock-Uman, Matthew J. Nelson Jun 2017

Content Validation Of The Community College Student Success Program Inventory, Deryl K. Hatch, Naomi Mardock-Uman, Matthew J. Nelson

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

This study reports on the content validation of the Community College Student Success Program Inventory (CCSSPI), a structured interview protocol for program personnel, designed to serve as a tool for researchers and practitioners alike to account for critical features of various types of student success programs in detailed and comparable ways across multiple sites. In all, 20 subject matter experts (SMEs) rated the relevancy and clarity of each item to ascertain essential program features. Content validity index (CVI) and scale-level index scores (S-CVI) were calculated. Results showed high to moderately high validity for items related to course goals, logistics, skills-focused ...


An Instrumental Case Study Of Administrative Smart Practices For Fully Online Programs And Degrees, Charles V. Gregory Apr 2017

An Instrumental Case Study Of Administrative Smart Practices For Fully Online Programs And Degrees, Charles V. Gregory

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore administrators’ responses to significant administrative challenges of fully online programs and degrees. The case was a single public community college located in the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Plains Region. In this study Bardach’s (1994) method to identify and extrapolate smart practices used to resolve administrative challenges arising from an institution’s online and distance education programming. The concept of smart practice aims to exploit or take advantage of some latent opportunity for creating value. Organizational culture was identified to be of significant influence in identifying the value the ...


Academic Advising And The Persistence Intentions Of Community College Students In Their First Weeks In College, Deryl K. Hatch, Crystal E. Garcia Apr 2017

Academic Advising And The Persistence Intentions Of Community College Students In Their First Weeks In College, Deryl K. Hatch, Crystal E. Garcia

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

Persistence of community college students is a serious and perennial concern with numerous published figures illustrating the daunting odds that students and institutions face along their path to college completion (Calcagno, Crosta, Bailey, & Jenkins, 2007; Provasnik & Planty, 2008). Although researchers have made headway in identifying influential factors in students’ successful persistence along that path, evidence suggests that attrition in community colleges can begin to occur within the first term and even between enrollment and the first day of class (Bailey, 2009; Bailey, Jeong, & Cho, 2010; Brooks-Leonard, 1991). While some researchers have explored the critical role of the early weeks of college experiences in student success (Astin, 1993; Tinto, 1988; Woosley, 2003; Woosley & Miller, 2009), studies specific to retention and persistence regarding this timeframe remain scarce, especially in the two-year college sector where 4 out of 10 new college students enroll (American Association of Community Colleges, 2015) and where student ...


Refugee Students In Community Colleges: How Colleges Can Respond To An Emerging Demographic Challenge, Minerva D. Tuliao, Deryl K. Hatch, Richard J. Torraco Jan 2017

Refugee Students In Community Colleges: How Colleges Can Respond To An Emerging Demographic Challenge, Minerva D. Tuliao, Deryl K. Hatch, Richard J. Torraco

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

This practice brief provides recommendations for community college leaders in addressing the educational needs of refugee students in community colleges. Despite increasingly diverse immigrant populations at community colleges, there is limited research examining refugee students and their needs in higher education settings. Educational needs related to social support, cultural competency of the campus community, and financial assistance are found to be salient for refugee students. Implications for community colleges are discussed from the perspective of validation and community cultural wealth. Strategies that meet the needs of refugee students include expanding social networks that involve local community organizations, developing specific support ...


Chicanas In Ir: Data-Driven Advocacy For Latinx Students From Institutional Research Contexts In The Community College, Elvira Abrica, Martha Rivas Jan 2017

Chicanas In Ir: Data-Driven Advocacy For Latinx Students From Institutional Research Contexts In The Community College, Elvira Abrica, Martha Rivas

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

Various inequities and challenges facing Latinx students in community colleges continue to be documented. Yet, less documented are the challenges associated with advocacy efforts to support Latinx and other underrepresented Students of Color within the community college sector. There is not often pause to consider: who advocates for Latinx students? When and how does this advocacy take shape? In this article, we offer Chicana testimonios as institutional research (IR) professionals to highlight ways we experience, respond to, and challenge institutionalized racism and systemic obstacles to advocate for Latinx students in the California community college system. We situate our testimonios within ...


A Professional Development Certification Program For Instructors Teaching In The Online Environment And Student Completion And Success Rates At A Midwestern Community College: An Ex Post Facto Study, Marie L. Gardner Nov 2016

A Professional Development Certification Program For Instructors Teaching In The Online Environment And Student Completion And Success Rates At A Midwestern Community College: An Ex Post Facto Study, Marie L. Gardner

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The increased demand for online courses in higher education, particularly at community colleges, highlights two concerns: 1) online courses have high drop-out rates and 2) the prevalence of part-time instructors teaching online courses. As demand for online increases, administrators are challenged to hire faculty who are knowledgeable about their content and also qualified to teach in the online environment. Since the quality of online programs depends upon the performance of faculty, community colleges that offer online programs should provide training and on-going support for their instructors. The literature indicates that a best practice in online education to facilitate student learning ...


Editors’ Notes To New Directions For Community Colleges, No. 175, Gloria Crisp, Deryl K. Hatch Oct 2016

Editors’ Notes To New Directions For Community Colleges, No. 175, Gloria Crisp, Deryl K. Hatch

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

National reform movements have placed considerable attention and pressure on community colleges to substantially and efficiently increase the number of students who earn degrees and certificates in the next decade (Harbour, 2015). The Completion Agenda, led largely by policy makers, professional organizations, and philanthropic foundations, is a national imperative and democratic obligation to increase completion rates, collect quality data regarding students’ pathways, and enact and improve policies that encourage and improve degree production. Though the aims of such an effort are welcome by community college practitioners and fit with these institutions’ long-standing missions of community responsiveness, some warn that without ...


What’S In A Name? The Challenge And Utility Of Defining Promising And High-Impact Practices, Deryl K. Hatch, Gloria Crisp, Katherine Wesley Oct 2016

What’S In A Name? The Challenge And Utility Of Defining Promising And High-Impact Practices, Deryl K. Hatch, Gloria Crisp, Katherine Wesley

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

This chapter reviews multiple complementary and divergent descriptions of practices that have been identified as holding particular promise for high impact on college student success and offers a possible map of practices to illustrate key features and relationships.

In this chapter, we seek to lay groundwork for the remainder of the volume with what should be a straightforward task but in the end was among the more difficult aspects of compiling this volume: identifying and describing high-impact and promising practices. Rather than an exhaustive accounting of the ways practices have been grouped and defined (see Hatch, Chapter 2, for an ...


Strategies For Navigating Financial Challenges Among Latino Male Community College Students: Centralizing Race, Gender, And Immigrant Generation, Elvira Abrica, Eligio Martinez Jr Oct 2016

Strategies For Navigating Financial Challenges Among Latino Male Community College Students: Centralizing Race, Gender, And Immigrant Generation, Elvira Abrica, Eligio Martinez Jr

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

This qualitative, longitudinal study explored the academic persistence of Latino men attending a two-year, public community college during the 2015-2016 academic year. Our analysis focused specifically on how participants navigated financial challenges they faced, particularly the ways in which race, gender, and immigrant generation shaped participants’ strategies for overcoming financial challenges. Findings indicate that the types of financial challenges participants faced were largely consistent with those identified in extant literature, but that they navigated and persisted despite these challenges by relying on a host of complex strategies not previously highlighted in extant literature. We offer recommendations for interventions for men ...


Implementation Of State Developmental Education Policy: A Multiple Case Study Of Community College Faculty Perceptions Of Involvement, Shirley Davenport Aug 2016

Implementation Of State Developmental Education Policy: A Multiple Case Study Of Community College Faculty Perceptions Of Involvement, Shirley Davenport

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Numerous studies have indicated that developmental education as it is currently offered in many colleges and universities produces dismal results, with student success rates averaging as low as 25%. To address this issue, legislators in some states have begun to intervene, adopting policies that vary from suggestions for improvements to mandated pedagogical approaches. However, given the higher education organizational environment, the manner in which any change is implemented can be key to its success.

The purpose of this comparative multiple case study was to describe and interpret the perceptions of developmental education faculty regarding their level of involvement in developmental ...


“We’Re Still Here … We’Re Not Giving Up”: Black And Latino Men’S Narratives Of Transition To Community College, Beth E. Bukoski, Deryl K. Hatch Jan 2016

“We’Re Still Here … We’Re Not Giving Up”: Black And Latino Men’S Narratives Of Transition To Community College, Beth E. Bukoski, Deryl K. Hatch

Faculty Publications in Educational Administration

Objective: This study examines masculinity in a manner commensurate with established feminist frameworks to deconstruct a patriarchal system that ill-serves both men and women. Method: We utilized standpoint theory and narrative analysis to examine longitudinal, qualitative data from first-year Black and Latino males as they transition into community college through their second semester. Findings: Positionality is critical to understanding the success of Black and Latino males and their response to institutional structures. In many instances, men leveraged normative constructions of masculinity as aids to their success, and their resilience and confidence were filtered through their perceived development into adults. Conclusion ...


A Fiscal Model Program Theory Proposal For Training Reentry Citizen Ex-Convicts To Remodel Abandoned Houses, James A. Hanson Dec 2015

A Fiscal Model Program Theory Proposal For Training Reentry Citizen Ex-Convicts To Remodel Abandoned Houses, James A. Hanson

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The purpose of this study was to develop and examine a fiscal program theory model and proposal for training reentry citizen ex-convicts to remodel abandoned houses. A sustainable program theory model describes ways that training and employing these citizens to remodel abandoned houses may be expected to have benefits to a community. The recently released ex-convicts will learn a construction trade, earn a sustainable wage, and the once-abandoned houses will be returned to the city tax rolls. Vocational education and workforce training are key to this program. The literature indicates that national jobless rates for recently released inmates is well ...


A Primer On Grant Writing For Foundation Support For First-Time Grant Writers In Academic Libraries: Challenges And Opportunities, Peter L. Kraus Sep 2015

A Primer On Grant Writing For Foundation Support For First-Time Grant Writers In Academic Libraries: Challenges And Opportunities, Peter L. Kraus

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

In a majority of academic disciplines, grant writing is a skill that is often self-taught or acquired informally by trial and error. Few academic disciplines have grant writing as standard part of their curriculum at the graduate level. In the past, grant writing has received little or no emphasis in traditional library education since library science faculty themselves have a poor record of pursuing external funding. Yet, grant writing is a critical skill for new and experienced librarians. For many librarians, the prospect and challenge of writing a grant can seem daunting; however, with institutional support and the support of ...


Understanding The Transition Experience Of Community College Transfer Students To A 4-Year University: Incorporating Schlossberg’S Transition Theory Into Higher Education, Tony A. Lazarowicz May 2015

Understanding The Transition Experience Of Community College Transfer Students To A 4-Year University: Incorporating Schlossberg’S Transition Theory Into Higher Education, Tony A. Lazarowicz

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

With over 60% of college graduates attending multiple institutions (United States Department of Education, 2006), many starting at community colleges, the importance of understanding community college transfer students’ stories is critical to retention and graduation agendas at colleges and universities nationwide. Schlossberg’s Transition Theory has recently been introduced into higher education literature as a conceptual framework for working with various student populations such as student veterans (Wheeler, 2012; Rumann, 2010); student athletes (Henderson, 2013); and students on academic probation (Tovar & Simon, 2006) among others. Minimal work has incorporated Schlossberg’s Transition Theory into studies of community college transfer students; thus this study was developed to help fill that gap of understanding their transition through that lens. The central ...


Assessing The Relationship Between Student And Faculty Perceptions Of Student Engagement At Central Mountain College, Brandi R.K. Atnip May 2015

Assessing The Relationship Between Student And Faculty Perceptions Of Student Engagement At Central Mountain College, Brandi R.K. Atnip

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

This study compared the perceptions of students versus faculty at Central Mountain College with regard to the issue of student engagement. Central Mountain College participated in the Community College Survey of Student Engagement and the Community College Faculty Survey of Student Engagement during the spring semesters of 2009, 2011, and 2013. The institution was provided with aggregate results from these survey administrations by the Center for Community College Student Engagement. Prior to this study, the survey results had not been accumulatively evaluated by the institution.

The study aimed to determine areas where there was congruence and incongruence between the students ...


Student Engagement And Action In Classroom And Community: Place-Based Education And Social Action For The High-Achieving Student, Rachel M. Jank Apr 2014

Student Engagement And Action In Classroom And Community: Place-Based Education And Social Action For The High-Achieving Student, Rachel M. Jank

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research: Department of English

This paper briefly discusses the work done in a college-preparatory, Senior English class to combat the disengagement present in many educational institutions. This disconnect does not allow for learning retention and, therefore, does not allow for students to apply the moment of learning to life outside of the secondary classroom. The work I do is based off of Jessica Singer Early, Bruce Bigelow, Linda Christensen, and many other master teachers who work with the educational designs of Place Consciousness and Social Action within their respective classrooms. The theories of John Dewey and Paulo Freire suggest that a non-traditional style of ...


Student Experiences Of The Community College Developmental Writing Classroom, Janet Kirchner Apr 2014

Student Experiences Of The Community College Developmental Writing Classroom, Janet Kirchner

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The low success rate of students in community college developmental education classes has caused not only institutions and their instructors but also those outside of the classroom to search for alternative programs and delivery methods to improve student outcomes. As college completion rates become increasingly tied to state funding, many community colleges are re-thinking their programs, considering acceleration of coursework, learning communities, and supplemental instruction as replacements for the traditional developmental sequence. While these programs have shown success in some community colleges, much of the research is quantitative in nature and based on completion rates. The purpose of this study ...


Experiences Of Community College Vocational Students Who Were Required To Begin Their Studies By Taking Remedial Courses And Successfully Attained Their Associate’S Degrees: A Phenomenological Study, Amy Margaret Morrison Goings Nov 2013

Experiences Of Community College Vocational Students Who Were Required To Begin Their Studies By Taking Remedial Courses And Successfully Attained Their Associate’S Degrees: A Phenomenological Study, Amy Margaret Morrison Goings

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The Great Recession and national skills gap crisis have reframed community college efforts to shift from access-based institutions to that of persistence and completion-focused colleges. Within the post-recession context, this research examines what success looks like for today’s vocational community college student, as well as the current research on the barriers to completion. This qualitative, phenomenological study will explore the experiences of community college students who are graduating with vocational degrees and how they overcame known barriers to complete their degrees. In addition to summarizing the responses to each of the sub-questions, three primary themes emerged from the research ...