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Full-Text Articles in Community College Leadership

Promoting The Value Of Career Education Programs, David Howell, Maryanne Serignese, Shawn Anderson, Rachel Dodson, Joshua Mcdowell, Jesse Miller, Dana Newcomer, Regina Sanders, Brooklyn Shehan Jul 2019

Promoting The Value Of Career Education Programs, David Howell, Maryanne Serignese, Shawn Anderson, Rachel Dodson, Joshua Mcdowell, Jesse Miller, Dana Newcomer, Regina Sanders, Brooklyn Shehan

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

12.5 million secondary and postsecondary students are currently enrolled in Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs in the United States (“Career,” 2019). CTE programs provide students with the academic skills, technical skills, knowledge, and training necessary to succeed in future careers and to become lifelong learners (“Career,” 2019). Students are prepared for the workplace as a result of a competency-based learning approach and through partnerships with local employers who provide hands-on experience and work-based learning opportunities (“Career,” 2019). By 2020, 65 percent of American jobs will require some postsecondary education or training, with half of these positions requiring an ...


Increasing Diversity Of Faculty And Administrators In The Virginia Community College System, Nicole Munday, Rachel Angel, Mahzar Anik, Sylvia Clay, Lorraine Justice, Cheri Maea, Gena Mckinley, Tim Merrill, Aaron Rosenthal Jul 2019

Increasing Diversity Of Faculty And Administrators In The Virginia Community College System, Nicole Munday, Rachel Angel, Mahzar Anik, Sylvia Clay, Lorraine Justice, Cheri Maea, Gena Mckinley, Tim Merrill, Aaron Rosenthal

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

In 2013, Chancellor DuBois convened a Task Force on Diversity with the aim of making the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) a model for diversity by “increasing the demographic diversity of the VCCS so that teaching faculty and leaders look more like the communities we serve” (Chancellors Diversity Task Force, 2014, p. 3). The hard work of the Task Force members culminated in a report that summarized their findings and recommendations, including a “Call to Action” list of 11 steps, many of which have been implemented or are in progress. Several of these key initiatives have put the VCCS on ...


Improving Transferability Case Studies: 'Building A Better Bridge To The Bachelor's', Tamra Lipscomb, Cindy Wallin, David Braun, Katherine Clatterbuck, Faison Dana, Leonda Keniston, John Lipp, Christian Mason Jul 2019

Improving Transferability Case Studies: 'Building A Better Bridge To The Bachelor's', Tamra Lipscomb, Cindy Wallin, David Braun, Katherine Clatterbuck, Faison Dana, Leonda Keniston, John Lipp, Christian Mason

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Many Virginians aspiring to earn a four-year degree intentionally begin their journey at one of the 23 community colleges within the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). In concert with those aspirations, the VCCS is committed to providing its residents an affordable and accessible program of study that prepares them to transfer and earn a bachelor’s degree at any one of Virginia’s colleges and universities. The establishment of an affordable and accessible pathway was one of the emanating purposes of the community college (Mellow & Heelan, 2015). The dream of affordable transfer education is one of three key legislative efforts ...


Blending Credit & Non-Credit Courses: Best Practices, Opportunities, Barriers, Keisha Samuels, M. Todd Estes, Heather Eckman, Kelly Gillerlain, Shanda Jenkins, Wendy Miller-Edwards, Olivia Reinauer, Nicole Walker Jul 2019

Blending Credit & Non-Credit Courses: Best Practices, Opportunities, Barriers, Keisha Samuels, M. Todd Estes, Heather Eckman, Kelly Gillerlain, Shanda Jenkins, Wendy Miller-Edwards, Olivia Reinauer, Nicole Walker

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Community colleges offer an array of programs designed to help students meet different goals. Noncredit education provides training for students seeking targeted, often shorter, courses for personal and professional enrichment (Cohen, Brawer, & Kisker, 2014). Many community colleges are now increasingly emphasizing noncredit workforce education as they support regional workforce development efforts and strive to meet the needs of their local industry partners (Van Noy, Jacobs, Korey, Bailey, & Hughes, 2008). Despite the millions of students enrolled in these courses and their potential to generate revenue for the institutions delivering programs, Voorhees and Milam (2005) refer to noncredit community college education as ...


Improving Completion Rates For Underrepresented Populations, Jen Daniels, Lynn Bowers, Megan Cook, Mark D'Antonio, Amber Foltz, Carlita Mccombs, John Sound, Jenni Vancuren Jul 2019

Improving Completion Rates For Underrepresented Populations, Jen Daniels, Lynn Bowers, Megan Cook, Mark D'Antonio, Amber Foltz, Carlita Mccombs, John Sound, Jenni Vancuren

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Most experienced educators recognize that many students will not complete optional assignments, and often those students who need additional help do not seek assistance. Current research demonstrates that students in underrepresented populations (see definition below) are less likely to seek support than others because they see needing help as a confirmation that they don’t really “belong” in college in the first place. Research shows that those who do access currently optional supports such as tutoring are more likely to succeed, so this research group looked for ways to build structured connections between underrepresented students and resources.

We found that ...


Increasing Success With Online Degree Courses And Programs In The Vccs, Thomas Chatman, Dave Dick, Paula Ford, Pamela Henry, Kim Hobert, Miles Keller, Kevin Riley, Christina Tidwell, Roberta Wright Jul 2019

Increasing Success With Online Degree Courses And Programs In The Vccs, Thomas Chatman, Dave Dick, Paula Ford, Pamela Henry, Kim Hobert, Miles Keller, Kevin Riley, Christina Tidwell, Roberta Wright

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Over the last three years, 724,116 online courses were attempted within the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). From these attempts, 206,533 resulted in a grade of D or F or a withdrawal, accounting for 29% of all attempted online courses (Virginia Community College System, 2015). This does not account for the students who may have dropped the course early in the semester to avoid academic and/or financial consequences. Studies have shown that students who do not experience success in their courses drop out significantly more than their counterparts (Thayer, 1973). Additionally, these students experience delayed degree or ...


Using Artificial Intelligence To Enhance Educational Opportunities And Student Services In Higher Education, Mandy Barrett, Lisa Branson, Sheryl Carter, Frank Deleon, Justin Ellis, Cirrus Gundlach, Dale Lee Jul 2019

Using Artificial Intelligence To Enhance Educational Opportunities And Student Services In Higher Education, Mandy Barrett, Lisa Branson, Sheryl Carter, Frank Deleon, Justin Ellis, Cirrus Gundlach, Dale Lee

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology is becoming the basis for business. Most businesses use it to improve the customer experience. The education community is just beginning to find ways to successfully implement AI for staff and students. Artificial Intelligence should be leveraged to create a better student experience. For example, Elon University uses AI to assist students with tracking previously taken courses and helps them apply the information to their course-planning (Gardner, 2018). Georgia State University uses Pounce, a chatbot built by AdmitHub, reducing summer melt by over 20% by reaching out to students via text when they have not completed ...


Accelerating Student Success: The Case For Corequisite Instruction, Maggie Emblom-Callahan, Nekisha Burgess-Palm, Sandra Davis, Amanda Decker, Heather Diritto, Shana Dix, Camisha Parker, Eric Styles Jul 2019

Accelerating Student Success: The Case For Corequisite Instruction, Maggie Emblom-Callahan, Nekisha Burgess-Palm, Sandra Davis, Amanda Decker, Heather Diritto, Shana Dix, Camisha Parker, Eric Styles

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

The successes of corequisite remediation courses and supplemental instruction over traditional remediation courses such as the modular Math Essentials have been widely and recently documented (Logue, Watanabe-Rose, & Douglas, 2016). Corequisite reform is an important strategy to improve student completion of higher education goals. A robust corequisite model integrates gateway course content with lifelong tools such as time management and study skills that help students beyond the scope of one course. Corequisite remediation may not completely eliminate developmental courses; however, “a fundamental redesign of the support system for academically underprepared students” will include corequisite remediation (Vandal, 2014). This broader “support system” may integrate corequisite courses with the current (or similar) modular curriculum with non-modular precollege courses such as MTH 5 or MTH 9 in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS). Student placement into the optimal teaching/learning mode may be as key as course level placement (Bickerstaff, 2016). Corequisite remediation provides the ...


Taking The Leap (Learner Engaged Advising Programs): Vccs Advising Practices And Recommendations, Valerie Burge-Hall, Latoya Garrison, Leigh Giles-Brown, Dan Lepore, Melanie Mcnall, Christine Pauly, Andrew Quinn, Lisa Vaughn Jordan Jul 2019

Taking The Leap (Learner Engaged Advising Programs): Vccs Advising Practices And Recommendations, Valerie Burge-Hall, Latoya Garrison, Leigh Giles-Brown, Dan Lepore, Melanie Mcnall, Christine Pauly, Andrew Quinn, Lisa Vaughn Jordan

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

The Virginia Community College System (VCCS) administration identified the need for adequate and proactive advising programs to foster student success. This paper presents a review of “best practices” in advising to determine commonalities, provides a comparison with current VCCS advising practices, and offers recommendations that support the goal of ensuring high quality advising programs.


Communication And Data Sharing Between K-12 And Community Colleges, Beth Page, Jacob Surratt, Debbie Bond, Mitzi Jones, Josh Meyer, Amy Webster, Brian Wright Jul 2019

Communication And Data Sharing Between K-12 And Community Colleges, Beth Page, Jacob Surratt, Debbie Bond, Mitzi Jones, Josh Meyer, Amy Webster, Brian Wright

Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges

This report investigates communication and data sharing between K-12 and community colleges to identify best practices. This wide-ranging topic encompassed many efforts that impact student recruitment, retention and success in their postsecondary education. To prioritize the most pressing issues, this report focuses on recent system-wide findings and recommendations. In 2016, the Virginia General Assembly directed the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) to review the VCCS, a process that had not been done since 1991. The JLARC report in 2017 stated that a relatively low percentage of community college students obtain a degree or credential (39 percent). In addition ...


The Credentialed Workforce: Examining Success Rates Across Short-Term Noncredit Training Programs Aligned With Industry Credentials, Rochelle Fisher May 2019

The Credentialed Workforce: Examining Success Rates Across Short-Term Noncredit Training Programs Aligned With Industry Credentials, Rochelle Fisher

Masters Theses

A new grant program implemented to provide subsidized training costs for students enrolling in short-term noncredit programs aligned with high-demand industry credentials leading to middle-skill jobs was implemented in July 2016. The grant program follows a pay-for-performance model where students are given a two-thirds discount on tuition but required to pay back an additional one-third if they do not successfully complete their short-term noncredit training. An exploratory study was conducted to provide training program completion and credential attainment rates for the overall program and by student demographic groups (age, race, and gender). Results showed little variation among training program completion ...


Expanding The Conversation: The Value Proposition Of For-Profit Institutions For African-American Post-Secondary Students, Thomasina O. Lawson, Mario Jackson Apr 2019

Expanding The Conversation: The Value Proposition Of For-Profit Institutions For African-American Post-Secondary Students, Thomasina O. Lawson, Mario Jackson

Journal of Research Initiatives

This article presents a different discourse to promote access to and equity in higher education by re-examining the value of for-profit education and its attractiveness to African-American students underserved by traditional institutions. The authors suggest that for-profit institutions face similar challenges to traditional schools in the matriculation of African-American students but to a larger degree. Guided by the spirit of researchers Asa G. Hilliard and Barbara Sizemore, the article offers a progressive view of improving African-American students’ access to higher education. Additionally, the article suggests ways to engage in meaningful conversations on how to improve higher education by replacing traditional ...


The Industrial Revolution Of Higher Education, Adriel Adon Hilton, Kevin Mcclain, Donavan L. Outten Jul 2018

The Industrial Revolution Of Higher Education, Adriel Adon Hilton, Kevin Mcclain, Donavan L. Outten

Journal of Research Initiatives

For generations, higher education has accommodated its scholars through analog forms of instruction akin to blackboards and textbooks. As society blossomed into a globalized marketplace with information readily available at the stroke of a button, higher education has had to meet the needs of an evolving student population. Through the use of business models like Six Sigma, higher education has attempted to adapt and keep up with the times. This article will highlight the key impacts Six Sigma has had on higher education and supplementary improvements needed within the marketplace.


An In-Depth Case Study Of A Prospective Black Male Teacher Candidate With An Undisclosed Disability At A Historically Black College And University, Julius Davis, Lynne Long, Sarah Green, Yvonne M. Crawford, Jeannette Blackwood Jun 2018

An In-Depth Case Study Of A Prospective Black Male Teacher Candidate With An Undisclosed Disability At A Historically Black College And University, Julius Davis, Lynne Long, Sarah Green, Yvonne M. Crawford, Jeannette Blackwood

Journal of Research Initiatives

As scholarship of Black male collegians is growing, there is limited research attentive to Black males with disabilities and in teacher education programs. The research focused on pre-service Black male teachers with disabilities attending HBCUs and the federal laws impacting their education and supports is absent. This research study fills the void by examining the individual experiences of a Black male pre-service teacher with a disability attending an HBCU. The research team used Black males with disability theory and single-subject case study methodology to describe Christopher “CJ” Jackson’s journey navigating his program of study as an English education major ...


The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen Jun 2018

The Lived Experience Of New Community College Student Affairs Professionals, Eric L. Mullen

Dissertations

This qualitative study explores the experiences of new student affairs professionals who have begun their careers at community colleges. Research in the field of higher education has examined the preparation and socialization of new professionals within the field of higher education student affairs. However, this body of research has primarily focused on the experiences of those who go on to work in four-year colleges and universities. Little has been examined regarding those who graduate from these programs and whose first professional role is in a community college setting.

Through this phenomenological inquiry, the participants share rich details about their socialization ...


Muslim International Student And Higher Education: A Qualitative Study Of Students' Experiences Against A Backdrop Of Islamophobia, Donna M. Seppy May 2018

Muslim International Student And Higher Education: A Qualitative Study Of Students' Experiences Against A Backdrop Of Islamophobia, Donna M. Seppy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

International student enrollment at institutions of higher education in the United States continues to rise. Despite political and social tensions, students from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) nations continue to enroll in record numbers, yet there is minimal literature focused on the experiences of this sub-group of international students.

This qualitative study sought to understand the lived-experiences and perceived needs of Muslim International students from Middle East and North Africa nations enrolled in an institution of higher education in the northeast United States. This study employed a phenomenological approach to discovery aimed to develop new understandings of their ...


A Forgotten Demographic: Low-Income First-Generation College Students, Ryan Joseph-Lee Haynes Dec 2017

A Forgotten Demographic: Low-Income First-Generation College Students, Ryan Joseph-Lee Haynes

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

The focus of this Capstone is on the need for support for low-income first-generation college students. An evidence based argument is made that these students are at a major disadvantage as compared to their counterparts. Consideration of the issue, should include the perspectives of high school students who will be the first in their family to apply and go to college. Three action options emerged from the analysis of data. Based on an analysis of the data and the relevant research literature, the researcher used what he learned to formulate an action that responded to the focus issue in a ...


Speaking Out Despite White Noise: Examining The Leadership Of African American Female Technical College Presidents And Vice Presidents, Ashley Morris Jan 2017

Speaking Out Despite White Noise: Examining The Leadership Of African American Female Technical College Presidents And Vice Presidents, Ashley Morris

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological, qualitative study was to explore the experiences of African American female leaders in higher education. More specifically, this study examined the experiences of these leaders who assume the role of presidents and vice presidents at Georgia technical colleges. The study contextualized the experiences of these leaders and illustrated how those experiences influence their leadership methods and the establishment of their leadership presence. The results of this study form a context for understanding the leadership methods of African American female leaders.


An Exploration Of The Impostor Phenomenon And Its Impact On Black Women Administrators In Higher Education In The South, Marian Muldrow Jan 2016

An Exploration Of The Impostor Phenomenon And Its Impact On Black Women Administrators In Higher Education In The South, Marian Muldrow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Numerous studies document Black student and faculty underrepresentation in higher education and the obstacles blocking their access to the classroom either as students or as instructors. As Black women students work toward graduate degrees, Black women administrators are needed so these students can see their identity reflected in their academic leaders.

As a result, this study focused on the particular challenges that limit upward mobility to senior-level administrative positions and highlighted some of the obstacles and conflicts that arise when Black women pursue leadership positions at institutions of higher education. The highlighted historical events related to education, as well as ...


Use Of Preponderance Of Evidence In Campus Adjudication Of Sexual Misconduct, Elizabeth Sommer Dec 2015

Use Of Preponderance Of Evidence In Campus Adjudication Of Sexual Misconduct, Elizabeth Sommer

All NMU Master's Theses

How higher education institutions (HEI) handled sexual misconduct cases matters. It matters for survivors, accused, administrators, parents, HEI leaders, regulatory bodies (such as the Office for Civil Rights), and the general public. The 2011 Dear Colleague Letter published by the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights mandated the use of preponderance of evidence in all sexual misconduct cases (Ali, 2011). The change to utilize a low burden of proof, preponderance of evidence, was and is controversial. Despite a large literature base of legal opinions on the use of preponderance of evidence in the campus adjudication process, there are ...


Retention Of Community College Students In Online Courses, Sarah Krajewski Dec 2015

Retention Of Community College Students In Online Courses, Sarah Krajewski

Dissertations

The issue of attrition in online courses at higher learning institutions remains a high priority in the United States. A recent rapid growth of online courses at community colleges has been instigated by student demand, as they meet the time constraints many nontraditional community college students have as a result of the need to work and care for dependents. Failure in an online course can cause students to become frustrated with the college experience, financially burdened, or to even give up and leave college. Attrition could be avoided by proper guidance of who is best suited for online courses. This ...


Agricultural Communication Transfer Student Guide, Carly Victoria Boudreau Jun 2015

Agricultural Communication Transfer Student Guide, Carly Victoria Boudreau

Agricultural Education and Communication

The purpose of this project was to create a brochure students will use as an informational tool that would in turn make them successful in the agricultural communication major.

The final product was a brochure designed to provide information that will guide students from when they are accepted into Cal Poly agriculture communication major until they graduate. Areas of focus include advising, involvement, opportunities, internship, and graduation requirements.


Comparative State Community College Return On Investment: State Funding, Local Funding, Tuition And Graduation Rates For Community Colleges, Christopher Neary Jan 2015

Comparative State Community College Return On Investment: State Funding, Local Funding, Tuition And Graduation Rates For Community Colleges, Christopher Neary

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

America’s community colleges have recently been thrust into the national spotlight as people look to retrain or find economic alternatives to higher education. This substantial increase in accountability is met with the constraints of financial resources and other limiting factors structured into community college systems. In this paper I examine community college return on investment by states, which govern the responsibility of educating America’s workforce through their diverse community college systems. To improve America’s postsecondary education competency is to optimize collective action of U.S. state community college systems. While colleges and universities contribute to national education ...


Adapting To A Virtual Learning Environment, Winston H. Maddox Jan 2015

Adapting To A Virtual Learning Environment, Winston H. Maddox

Dissertations & Theses

This participatory action research (PAR) dissertation examines the experiences of five experienced faculty transitioning from teaching in a traditional classroom to a virtual learning environment. The research participants used technology to deliver course material and reflected on the changes in their pedagogical practice. Data were collected using four phased sessions, including the completion of interview questions, individual interview video sessions, and group video sessions and the review of participant video validation postings. Research participants used journaling to reflect on their values, beliefs, assumptions, and experiences associated with teaching and learning. Research participants teaching in virtual learning environments were provided an ...


Creating Course Curriculum For A Community College, Carol E. Reis May 2014

Creating Course Curriculum For A Community College, Carol E. Reis

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Projects

ABSTRACT OF A PROJECT

Creating college courses for a community college is the main focus of this project. The specific college is Erie Community College in Western New York. Three areas of course development that have been targeted are: recreation, creative studies, and therapeutics.

Just as the needs in society change, the need for a college to change to fit the needs of society coexists. A function of higher education is to train students to be competitive in the existing job market. The final outcome of a college certificate and/or degree is best suited to students if the certificates ...


Increasing Access To Post-Secondary Education: A Mixed Methods Study Of The Charleston Clemente Program, Mariane A. Doyle Oct 2013

Increasing Access To Post-Secondary Education: A Mixed Methods Study Of The Charleston Clemente Program, Mariane A. Doyle

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

There is an economic gap that favors adults who have higher levels of educational attainment (United States Department of Labor, 2010). With more than 9.3 million Americans over the age of 25 facing unemployment as of June 2012 and over 79% or 7.4 million of those unemployed Americans having attained less than a Bachelor’s degree (U.S. Department of Labor, 2012), the current need for college access measures and programs that address the adult population is an imperative one.

The Charleston Clemente Program provides a tuition-free course in the Humanities to economically-disadvantaged adult students for a total ...


Perceptions Of Political, Academic, And Corporate Leaders: Higher Education Accountability In Georgia, Leslie Gene Fout May 2013

Perceptions Of Political, Academic, And Corporate Leaders: Higher Education Accountability In Georgia, Leslie Gene Fout

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine Georgia political, academic, and corporate leaders’ perceptions of higher education accountability. A case study design was used to gain in-depth information. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 participants.

The findings of the study included the following:

  1. Nearly every participant believed the mission and purpose higher education involved providing students with the skills and abilities needed to obtain gainful employment, and thereby make a positive impact on the economic development of the state of Georgia.
  2. Approximately half of the participants believed higher education should cultivate an engaged citizenry.
  3. No consensus was ...


Promoting Undergraduate Research In Minnesota: A Luoma Leadership Academy Project, Jason A. Kaufman, Marilyn Swan, Mark Johnson, Michelle Malott, James Grabowska Jan 2013

Promoting Undergraduate Research In Minnesota: A Luoma Leadership Academy Project, Jason A. Kaufman, Marilyn Swan, Mark Johnson, Michelle Malott, James Grabowska

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

As participants in the 2011-2012 class of the Luoma Leadership Academy, the authors comprised an action team charged to investigate how undergraduate research is currently incorporated into collegiate studies in Minnesota. We developed a survey that was delivered to Deans at all Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU) institutions using the MnSCU Deans listserv. Respondents to the survey represented all 7 universities and all 30 of the community colleges. This suggests that the findings of our action project have real generalization within the system and potentially similar public systems of higher education in other states. We offer data-driven recommendations and ...


The Neglected Minority: Interviews With Successful Community College Students From Poverty, Heather Hollifield-Hoyle Aug 2012

The Neglected Minority: Interviews With Successful Community College Students From Poverty, Heather Hollifield-Hoyle

Theses and Dissertations

Poverty in the US is growing at an alarming rate. The current economic climate demands higher education to embrace the economic diversity of all students and to prepare them, regardless of economic class, for a globally competitive workplace. Unfortunately, the higher education community is not as adept at serving low-income students, as it is middle- and upper- income students. Low-income students are less likely than their more affluent peers to enroll in college or graduate. Employing qualitative narrative methods, this dissertation explores the factors that contributed to the persistence and success of 18, low-income, community college students. This study addresses ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Opportunities For Students To Participate In Community College Intercollegiate Athletics Programs And Their Aspirations To Attend College, Ashley B. Knight Feb 2012

Exploring The Relationship Between Opportunities For Students To Participate In Community College Intercollegiate Athletics Programs And Their Aspirations To Attend College, Ashley B. Knight

Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the opportunity to participate in community college athletics and students’ aspirations regarding higher education. Students who may not have considered a college education due to a lack of family support, financial resources, or underperformance in secondary education may decide to attend college because of the opportunities to excel in college sports. This interest in sports motivates some student-athletes towards academic accomplishments including completion of a college degree.

This study employed a partially mixed methods approach, which included a survey of community college athletes, focus groups of community college student-athletes ...