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Full-Text Articles in Real Estate

Hotval Toolkit, Crocker H. Liu Oct 2019

Hotval Toolkit, Crocker H. Liu

Center for Real Estate and Finance Tools

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Scroll down to "Additional Files" to access the HOTVal Toolkit.

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HOTVal is a hotel valuation spreadsheet based on a regression model discussed in the Center for Real Estate and Finance at Cornell called Cornell Hotel Indices: Second Quarter 2012: The Trend is Our Friend by Crocker H. Liu, Adam D. Nowak, and Robert M. White, Jr. The model which will be continually updated, provides a rough estimation of the value of a hotel property once the user inputs information on whether the hotel is a large or small hotel, the year and quarter of the valuation, the state where the ...


Third Quarter 2019: Is Bad News Fake News?, Crocker H. Liu, Adam D. Nowak, Robert M. White Jr Oct 2019

Third Quarter 2019: Is Bad News Fake News?, Crocker H. Liu, Adam D. Nowak, Robert M. White Jr

Cornell Real Estate Market Indices

Only hotels in the South Atlantic region experienced a positive price momentum during this period.* The performance of hotels in non-gateway cities declined at a faster rate relative to those in gateway cities. Hotel financial operating performance has finally returned to positive profitability with operating profit exceeding both a hotel property’s operating costs as well as financial (borrowing) cost, based on economic value analysis (EVA). The price of larger hotels has spiraled downward at a faster rate than that of smaller hotels and repeat sale hotels. The cost of hotel debt financing, as well as equity financing, has declined ...


The Mountain West: Affordable Housing Opportunities, Kaylie Pattni, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown Sep 2019

The Mountain West: Affordable Housing Opportunities, Kaylie Pattni, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown

Housing & Real Estate

This fact sheet provides selected data pertaining to the Mountain West region from, The Gap: A Shortage of Affordable Homes, a 2018 report by the National Low Income Housing Coalition. The report includes statistics “based on data from the 2016 American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). THE ACS is an annual nationwide survey of approximately 3.5 million addresses.”


China's Unethical Economic Development Practices, Kimberly A. Madsen Aug 2019

China's Unethical Economic Development Practices, Kimberly A. Madsen

The Hilltop Review

The purpose of this research paper is to inform the public about some of the unethical economic development practices that China is performing with their citizens and global partners. These activities include escalating the national GDP at the detriment of their citizens through forced relocations in order to build new cities, dividing families with harmful public policies, and the imbalance between their citizens’ annual earnings and housing costs. Also discussed is the environmental pollution of the air, water, and soil, and poorly treating their international constituents when asked to provide consulting services to their nation.


Social Media And The C-Suite: The Ethical And Legal Implications, Toni P. Mulvaney J.D., Melissa Baldo J.D., Marleen Swerdlow J.D., Frank Cavaliere J.D. Aug 2019

Social Media And The C-Suite: The Ethical And Legal Implications, Toni P. Mulvaney J.D., Melissa Baldo J.D., Marleen Swerdlow J.D., Frank Cavaliere J.D.

Southwestern Business Administration Journal

The last twenty years has seen phenomenal growth of social media, with companies such as Facebook, Linked In, and Twitter seeing their registered users growing into the hundreds of millions worldwide (and, in the case of Facebook, over a billion). The advantages of using social media have been touted by many, and fortunes have been made by savvy practitioners with a deft hand at using social media to their advantage. However, as with any new technology unintended consequences have begun to unfold. These consequences have been thrust to the forefront as several high-profile corporate executives and celebrities have sabotaged their ...


The Flipped Class: Experiential Learning Manifested, Johnnie Williams, Olusegun Felix Ayadi, Carlton Perkins, Ladelle M. Hyman Aug 2019

The Flipped Class: Experiential Learning Manifested, Johnnie Williams, Olusegun Felix Ayadi, Carlton Perkins, Ladelle M. Hyman

Southwestern Business Administration Journal

Through the “flipped class,” students are introduced to new material outside the classroom before the traditional in-class lecture occurs. Ideally, flipping the class challenges students to engage in the lower levels cognitive work (remembering and understanding) outside of class. Students, then, are free to focus on higher order cognitive work (application, analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation) in class, where they have the support of their peers and the instructor. To drive the requisite higher order cognitive work inside the classroom, it is important that in-class teaching and learning methodologies extend beyond simple information dissemination. Experiential learning, the process of transforming ...


Determinantes Macroeconómicos En El Incremento Del Salario Mínimo En Colombia Entre Los Años 2001-2017, Tatiana Catherine Vega Ramírez Aug 2019

Determinantes Macroeconómicos En El Incremento Del Salario Mínimo En Colombia Entre Los Años 2001-2017, Tatiana Catherine Vega Ramírez

Economía

El incremento del salario mínimo en las compañías aseguradoras es importante ya que mediante el aumento anual del salario mínimo, se estima el cálculo del pago de las rentas vitalicias que las aseguradoras deben realizar a sus clientes.

Las rentas vitalicias son una forma de pensión vida-ahorro donde el individuo o beneficiario (Pensionado) acuerda con su aseguradora el pago de una renta periódica hasta su fallecimiento a cambio de una prima única.

El salario se define como todo lo que involucre alguna retribución de servicios, es entonces, no sólo la remuneración ordinaria, fija o variable, sino además todo lo que ...


Tiny Houses In Metropolitan Areas Of Nebraska: Seasonal Or Permanent Living Environments, Michele L. Hybner Aug 2019

Tiny Houses In Metropolitan Areas Of Nebraska: Seasonal Or Permanent Living Environments, Michele L. Hybner

Interior Design Program: Theses

This study is designed to determine if tiny houses offer a viable seasonal and/or permanent living environment for Nebraska residents. Two objectives are used to assess the viability of tiny housing in this Midwestern state. The first analyzes the economics (demand, supply, and cost) of tiny housing in metropolitan areas of Nebraska. The second identifies barriers to occupancy of tiny houses in the state. The results of this research are significant because tiny housing presents a means to address the state’s need for more affordable housing options available to Nebraska residents. At the time of this study, 11 ...


Designing Single-Family Residences: A Study Of The Positive Impact Of Interior Design In Creating New Home Value, Shawn M. Falcone Aug 2019

Designing Single-Family Residences: A Study Of The Positive Impact Of Interior Design In Creating New Home Value, Shawn M. Falcone

Interior Design Program: Theses

This study seeks to demonstrate that interior designers should be included as primary stakeholders in the home construction market. The market demand for new single-family homes in America is a relative constant. The primary stake and role that land developers, architects, draftsman, home builders, bankers, appraisers, real estate agents, and buyers have in the home construction market is clear. What is less clear is the role in value an interior designer has in the home construction market. This thesis examines the impact designers have on home value when their expertise is utilized in space planning (i.e.: layout, function, room ...


The Impact Of Hardening In The Homeowner's Insurance Market On Ohio Residential Real Estate Brokerage Markets, Joseph Coleman, James E. Larsen Jul 2019

The Impact Of Hardening In The Homeowner's Insurance Market On Ohio Residential Real Estate Brokerage Markets, Joseph Coleman, James E. Larsen

James Larsen

A recently released study sponsored by the National Association of REALTORS® (NAR) documents hardening in the homeowner’s insurance market nationwide; i.e., property insurance premiums have increased sharply and coverage availability has often been limited. The NAR study did not, however, investigate the impact of this hardening on residential real estate transactions, nor did it include an examination of the transactional impact resulting from the increasing propensity of insurance companies to require property modifications as a condition of issuing a policy. In the present study, survey data collected from 406 members of the Ohio Association of REALTORS® (OAR) is ...


An Investigation Of Promotional Outlet Effectiveness For Ohio Real Estate Brokers, James E. Larsen, Joseph Coleman, Charles S. Gulas Jul 2019

An Investigation Of Promotional Outlet Effectiveness For Ohio Real Estate Brokers, James E. Larsen, Joseph Coleman, Charles S. Gulas

James Larsen

This monograph presents survey data gathered from both Ohio residents and members of the Ohio Association of REALTORS®. The results of the public survey provide interesting information that may enable real estate licensees to effectively target their promotional efforts. The results suggest that if the objective is self promotion, any advertising medium is likely to have limited effectiveness. A large percentage of respondents indicated that they located the agent who assisted them in their housing transaction via reference from a friend or relative. Referrals are so important that a licensee should make every effort to cultivate this activity. Perhaps periodic ...


The Consequences Of Reit Index Membership For Return Patterns, Andrey Pavlov, Eva Steiner, Susan Wachter Jul 2019

The Consequences Of Reit Index Membership For Return Patterns, Andrey Pavlov, Eva Steiner, Susan Wachter

Eva Steiner

The impact of stock market index membership on REIT stock returns is unclear. Returns may become more like those of other indexed stocks and less like those of their underlying properties. Taking advantage of the inclusion of REITs in major S&P indexes starting in 2001, we find that shared index membership significantly increases the correlation between REIT returns. However, index membership also enhances the link between REIT returns and the underlying real estate, consistent with improved pricing efficiency.


Where, When And How Do Sophisticated Investor Respond To Flood Risk?, Piet M. A. Eichholtz, Eva Steiner, Erkan Yönder Jul 2019

Where, When And How Do Sophisticated Investor Respond To Flood Risk?, Piet M. A. Eichholtz, Eva Steiner, Erkan Yönder

Eva Steiner

While the empirical evidence on the pricing of flood risk exposure in residential real estate held by uninformed households is mixed, this study shows that sophisticated investors in commercial real estate markets rationally respond to heightened flood risk by bidding down the prices of exposed assets. Using a detailed property-level database on commercial real estate transactions completed in New York, Boston, and Chicago before and after the shift in the salience of flood risk caused by Hurricane Sandy, we document that properties exposed to flood risk experience slower price appreciation after the storm than equivalent unexposed properties. We further show ...


The Rate Of Return On Real Estate: Long-Run Micro-Level Evidence, David Chambers, Christian Spaenjers, Eva Steiner Jul 2019

The Rate Of Return On Real Estate: Long-Run Micro-Level Evidence, David Chambers, Christian Spaenjers, Eva Steiner

Eva Steiner

We provide evidence that direct real estate investments are less profitable and more risky in the long run than previously thought. We hand-collect property-level data on realized income, expenses, and transaction prices from the archives of four large institutional investors in the U.K.—historically important Oxbridge colleges—for the period 1901–1970. Gross income yields mostly fluctuate around 5%, but trend to lower (higher) levels for agricultural and residential (commercial) real estate near the end of our sample period. Operating costs mean that net yields are about one third lower than gross yields on average. Long-term real income growth ...


Financial Flexibility And Manager-Shareholder Confict: Evidence From Reits, Timothy Riddiough, Eva Steiner Jul 2019

Financial Flexibility And Manager-Shareholder Confict: Evidence From Reits, Timothy Riddiough, Eva Steiner

Eva Steiner

Using equity REIT data, we show empirically that the use of unsecured debt, which contains standardized covenants that place limits on total leverage and the use of secured debt, is associated with lower leverage outcomes. We then show that firm value is sensitive to leverage levels, where lower leverage is associated with higher firm value. In the presence of weak managerial governance, our results suggest that unsecured debt covenants function as a managerial commitment device that preserves the firm’s debt capacity to enhance financial flexibility.


Is There An Economic Case For The Olympic Games?, Chris Dempsey, Victor Matheson Jul 2019

Is There An Economic Case For The Olympic Games?, Chris Dempsey, Victor Matheson

Economics Department Working Papers

The Olympic Games are a major undertaking that promise both large costs and potentially large benefits to host cities. This paper lays out the potential economic benefits of hosting the Olympics and details how, in the vast majority of cases, these gains are unlikely to cover the costs of hosting the event. The ideas are then applied to the experience of Boston in its ultimately unsuccessful bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics.


Second Quarter 2019: Gradual Hotel Slowdown: Has The Party Ended?, Crocker H. Liu, Adam D. Nowak, Robert M. White Jr Jul 2019

Second Quarter 2019: Gradual Hotel Slowdown: Has The Party Ended?, Crocker H. Liu, Adam D. Nowak, Robert M. White Jr

Cornell Real Estate Market Indices

In this issue, we introduce our new regional indices of hotel performance. Based on these indices, hotels in the Midwest and Mountain regions (mostly hotels in Arizona, Colorado, and Nevada) have outperformed other regions, while hotels in the Pacific region (primarily California) and South Atlantic region (mostly Florida) have grown at a more moderate pace in the post-recession era. The performance of hotels in gateway cities declined this quarter, narrowing the gap in performance relative to hotels in non-gateway cities. Hotel financial performance overall is now in the red zone: operating profit stands below a hotel property’s borrowing cost ...


Where, When And How Do Sophisticated Investor Respond To Flood Risk?, Piet M. A. Eichholtz, Eva Steiner, Erkan Yönder Jun 2019

Where, When And How Do Sophisticated Investor Respond To Flood Risk?, Piet M. A. Eichholtz, Eva Steiner, Erkan Yönder

Working Papers

While the empirical evidence on the pricing of flood risk exposure in residential real estate held by uninformed households is mixed, this study shows that sophisticated investors in commercial real estate markets rationally respond to heightened flood risk by bidding down the prices of exposed assets. Using a detailed property-level database on commercial real estate transactions completed in New York, Boston, and Chicago before and after the shift in the salience of flood risk caused by Hurricane Sandy, we document that properties exposed to flood risk experience slower price appreciation after the storm than equivalent unexposed properties. We further show ...


The Rate Of Return On Real Estate: Long-Run Micro-Level Evidence, David Chambers, Christian Spaenjers, Eva Steiner Jun 2019

The Rate Of Return On Real Estate: Long-Run Micro-Level Evidence, David Chambers, Christian Spaenjers, Eva Steiner

Working Papers

We provide evidence that direct real estate investments are less profitable and more risky in the long run than previously thought. We hand-collect property-level data on realized income, expenses, and transaction prices from the archives of four large institutional investors in the U.K.—historically important Oxbridge colleges—for the period 1901–1970. Gross income yields mostly fluctuate around 5%, but trend to lower (higher) levels for agricultural and residential (commercial) real estate near the end of our sample period. Operating costs mean that net yields are about one third lower than gross yields on average. Long-term real income growth ...


Financial Feasibility Of Leed Certified Buildings For Developers And Investors, Erik P. Henriksen Jun 2019

Financial Feasibility Of Leed Certified Buildings For Developers And Investors, Erik P. Henriksen

Construction Management

This is a case study on a small to mid-size private equity firm that deals with real estate development as well as investment to find out the financial feasibility of LEED certified buildings in today’s building climate. Interviews with two investment analysts at this firm who are versed in LEED certification about how it is looked at in their company as well as the broader industry will give insights into the feasibility of developing or investing in environmentally friendly buildings. This impacts the real estate and construction industries due to the fact that developers and investors are often times ...


The Profitability Of Converting Single-Family Residences Into Multi-Unit Rental Housing In San Luis Obispo, George L. Procida Jun 2019

The Profitability Of Converting Single-Family Residences Into Multi-Unit Rental Housing In San Luis Obispo, George L. Procida

Construction Management

This paper explains how a comparative case study was conducted to determine why some single-family homeowners in the San Luis Obispo area are converting their residences into multi-unit rental properties that can be rented out to several students rather than one family or couple. Through individual, semi-structured interviews, information was gathered on the homeowners' thoughts and experiences regarding the process and results of construction, the rental market as a whole, and the newly realized convenience or difficulties associated with the change in client base. It is important to note that one of the properties is divided into two sections. One ...


Revitalizing The Street Of Dreams: A North 24th Street Case Study, Tiffany Hunter May 2019

Revitalizing The Street Of Dreams: A North 24th Street Case Study, Tiffany Hunter

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The purpose of this study is to analyze the North 24th Street corridor in Omaha, Nebraska, to highlight the benefits of investing in commercial real estate development, propose tools for financing new development or redevelopment projects, and to suggest methods of building a coherent development plan to avoid gentrification. Commercial development provides the following: quality business space, accessible jobs for an underemployed populace, additional tax revenue, and a reduction in community detriments such as crime, empty lots, and low property values. The North 24th Street corridor has economic potential, as it is less than one mile from downtown ...


Architecture In Neoliberalism, Ben J. Kunz Apr 2019

Architecture In Neoliberalism, Ben J. Kunz

Theses from the M. Arch. Program

Neoliberalism, as a form of capitalism that redistributes wealth to existing accumulations of money, has reorganized our society around market relations resulting in extreme inequality. Architecture has been both captive and complicit in this process because it relies on the largess of its clients who benefit most from the process of neoliberalization. We must dissolve the dogma of architectural practice, and become free entrepreneurial operators in a neoliberal society with architecture as a core skill set, able to operate on risk and its dimensions of time, space, and money without the servitude to our risk ordered professional relationships in order ...


The Hurdles To Financing Modular Development, Daniel Feutz Apr 2019

The Hurdles To Financing Modular Development, Daniel Feutz

Cornell Real Estate Review

Revenues from the permanent modular construction (PMC) sector jumped 62% in one year to reach $3.3 billion in 2016 and its quick growth has not gone unnoticed. The industry has attracted investment from sources such as Soft Bank’s Vision Fund and Amazon’s Alexa Fund, an indication of the perceived feasibility of modular building that is further illustrated in PMC’s growing market share that increased 37% from 2014 to 2017 (Bousquin, 2019). Rising construction costs, tight labor markets, and an unprecedented demand for housing have pushed modular construction towards being one of the disruptors of an industry ...


Rising Tourism In Saudi Arabia: Implications For Real Estate Investment, Ali S. Daye Apr 2019

Rising Tourism In Saudi Arabia: Implications For Real Estate Investment, Ali S. Daye

Cornell Real Estate Review

Over the last few years, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has pursued a more aggressive approach towards economic diversification in order to plan for the future of its youth as nearly 60 percent of the country’s 3 million citizens are under the age of 30 (KSA-General Authority for Statics, 2017). Saudi Arabia traditionally has relied heavily on the public sector to absorb many of the educated Saudi nationals. However, the country is now looking to the private sector to create more jobs for its burgeoning population and has enacted policies that ease doing business in the country and ...


Modular Construction: A Solution To Affordable Housing Challenges, John Thompson Apr 2019

Modular Construction: A Solution To Affordable Housing Challenges, John Thompson

Cornell Real Estate Review

The lack of affordable housing is pervasive across the United States. It affects some locations more severely than others, with each having unique challenges. Construction and land acquisition costs are frequently cited as primary drivers of multi-family housing development, and affordability is determined by a geography’s housing costs versus its median income. This paper highlights crucial components in the connection between economic conditions, public policy, and affordable housing development. It focuses on how efficiencies in modular construction present opportunities for addressing specific challenges in Maine and will propose a strategy for public-private cooperation, particularly in the site selection process ...


Opportunity Zones And New Orleans: A Chance For Affordable Housing Growth, Wilson Blum Apr 2019

Opportunity Zones And New Orleans: A Chance For Affordable Housing Growth, Wilson Blum

Cornell Real Estate Review

In the year and a half since their introduction, Opportunity Zones have quickly become one of the hottest topics in real estate development. This exciting program offers a new chance to revitalize distressed communities around the country by significantly broadening the pool of potential investors and providing them with enticing incentives to pull their money out of the market and into these locales. The success or failure of the program will hinge on the ability of public-private partnerships to bridge an often fraught line between outside investment and local community. In addition to providing an overview of the Opportunity Zone ...


The U.S. Student Housing Market: Overlooked Opportunities, Joseph A. Mcfalls Apr 2019

The U.S. Student Housing Market: Overlooked Opportunities, Joseph A. Mcfalls

Cornell Real Estate Review

Student housing has emerged in recent years as one of the most in-demand asset classes in commercial real estate. Investors, both domestic and international, have been attracted to U.S. student housing projects for many reasons, including their steady yields and reliable returns during all market cycles (The Economist, 2018). As a result, investment in and development of student housing has increased dramatically over the past few years (Brass, 2018). Even with this increased focus on the sector, opportunities still remain in the student housing industry, particularly for investors and developers with differentiated projects. This paper will examine the current ...


Tailwinds On The U.S. Gulf Coast: How The Boom In U.S. Energy Production Is Creating Opportunities For Real Estate Investment, Christopher Trahan Apr 2019

Tailwinds On The U.S. Gulf Coast: How The Boom In U.S. Energy Production Is Creating Opportunities For Real Estate Investment, Christopher Trahan

Cornell Real Estate Review

The Federal Government’s commitment to deepen the Mississippi River channel and its decision to allow the exportation of crude have created many opportunities in the U.S. Gulf Coast region for private investment and development. Yet the country’s resurgence in energy production is temporarily impeded by a lack of sufficient infrastructure necessary to match supply with demand. As the glut of U.S. crude and demand for infrastructure increases, the need for industrial facilities on the Gulf Coast continues to grow. These facilities are essential to economic development along the nation’s southern energy corridor. The real estate ...


A Taxonomy Of Coworking Space: Manhattan, Nyc, Yaoyi Zhou Apr 2019

A Taxonomy Of Coworking Space: Manhattan, Nyc, Yaoyi Zhou

Cornell Real Estate Review

The growth in the coworking inventory has accelerated over the past years, with more than 5 million square feet of new space flooding into the market in each of the past three years (Cushman & Wakefield, 2018). In 2018, over 200 coworking companies that operated in the U.S. had at least one location larger than 5,000 square feet. As competition increases, coworking markets enter periods of “specialization” in spaces of various size, business plans and clientele (Brown, 2016; Diduch, 2018), however, the lack of analysis of these characteristics make it difficult to understand the current supply of coworking space on the market.