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History of Christianity

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Full-Text Articles in Religion

An Historical Study Of Christian Cosmic, Ray Roennfeldt Nov 2016

An Historical Study Of Christian Cosmic, Ray Roennfeldt

Ray Roennfeldt

Cosmic dualism presented one of the most pervasive and challenging alternatives to Christian orthodoxy from early Christian times through to the Middle Ages. Manichaeism was the most prominent sect to purposefully promulgate dualism within the Christian Church, and its success can be measured by the fact that for centuries the Church tended to label anything that seemed to be dualistic as "Manichaean". The problem for the historian is to determine whether the sects on the fringe of the Church were indeed dualistic and whether they, in fact, had any common link with Manichaeism. Time and space preclude an exhaustive treatment ...


Faith And Foreign Policy In India: Legal Ambiguity, Selective Xenophobia, And Anti-Minority Violence, Chad M. Bauman Jun 2016

Faith And Foreign Policy In India: Legal Ambiguity, Selective Xenophobia, And Anti-Minority Violence, Chad M. Bauman

Chad M. Bauman

As a secular democracy, India’s constitution enshrines relatively robust safeguards for religious equality and freedom. Article 25 provides all citizens the right to “freely profess, practice, and propagate” religion, and avoids assigning to Hinduism any special role or explicit privilege (in contradistinction to the situation with Buddhism in Sri Lanka, for example). Moreover, the Indian government itself has not generally engaged in any systematic or flagrant way in the direct persecution or oppression of its religious minorities.
However, India’s religious minorities do face certain challenges. Among them are several legal and judicial issues. Judicial rulings in independent India ...


Lions In The Desert: The Significance And Symbolism Of Lions In Early Egyptian Monastic Literature, Kyler Williamsen May 2015

Lions In The Desert: The Significance And Symbolism Of Lions In Early Egyptian Monastic Literature, Kyler Williamsen

Kyler Williamsen

Early monastic literature is filled with symbolism and employs allegory to instruct future generations of faithful ascetics. Animals are regularly used in these writings to demonstrate the spiritual power and prowess of the monk. While works such as Waddell’s Beasts and Saints or O’Malley’s The Animals of St. Gregory present a wonderful summary of animals in monastic literature, an analysis of the possible symbolic nature of these animals’ behavior in monastic literature is sorely lacking. My paper, entitled Lions in the Desert, explores the symbolic roles which played charting a monk’s progress in the ascetic life ...


Sibling Rivalry Between Church And Jews: Commentaries On Esau And Jacob, Asher Finkel Ph.D. May 1997

Sibling Rivalry Between Church And Jews: Commentaries On Esau And Jacob, Asher Finkel Ph.D.

Rabbi Asher Finkel, Ph.D.

This essay is based on a paper previously delivered at the Society of Biblical Literature Conference (Anaheim, 1989) and examines the rivalry between Jews and Christians as depicted in Biblical imagery. This paper was presented at the 32nd International Conference on Medieval Studies at Western Michigan University on May 11, 1997.