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Full-Text Articles in Religion

Art Of The Cadaver: Spiritual And Secular In The East And West, Wanyan Ma May 2020

Art Of The Cadaver: Spiritual And Secular In The East And West, Wanyan Ma

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

How does the image of the decrepit dead body manifest itself in art? Enlightenment thought had problematically conceived of Europe as at the forefront of knowledge while the rest of the world lagged behind. Christ's body is the original cadaver in Western images, but around the seventeenth century the trend of more secular understandings and depictions of the dead body arose. European anatomical knowledge was also making its way to East Asia around the same time. Non-Europeans were presumed to either lack the investigative spirit or more sinisterly, lack the skill. However, Japanese Buddhist art of the kusozu, or ...


False Prophets/Profits: The Effects Of Post-Wwii Consumerism On Religious Values In Flannery O'Connor's Fiction, Cody Turner May 2020

False Prophets/Profits: The Effects Of Post-Wwii Consumerism On Religious Values In Flannery O'Connor's Fiction, Cody Turner

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Flannery O'Connor's Wise Blood and "The River" suggest the rise in consumerism, especially since WWII, has become an "alternative religion," eroding traditional religious values such as compassion, humility, and authenticity. The false prophets of consumerism--such as tent revivalists, televangelists, and salesmen--value the material more so than human connection and community. This transition to a "post-Christian" world has previously been examined by cultural critics such as Quentin Schultze and John Collins. Collins argues that the "religionless religion" of consumerism threatens to destroy the Christian religion and its institutions. While O'Connor's prose (Mystery and Manners) appears to support ...


The Political Animal: Aristotle's Man And The Natural Political Life, Joseph Rodriguez May 2020

The Political Animal: Aristotle's Man And The Natural Political Life, Joseph Rodriguez

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Aristotle's Politics offers what may be called a "political anthropology". I argue that Aristotle's conception of the polis as natural derives from the specifically human kind of partnership that is tied to the exercise of the specifically human capacity for logos. I assert that Aristotle's political naturalism is rooted in two claims: (a) the claim that humans are the most political animal and (b) the claim that the polis is naturally prior to the individual. Together these two claims constitute Aristotle's argument that the polis alone has the potential to fully satisfy our unique human capacity ...


Absurdity And Veracity: Religion In Warhol's Paintings, Yuchen Wang May 2020

Absurdity And Veracity: Religion In Warhol's Paintings, Yuchen Wang

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Besides the most famous works like Marilyn and soup cans, Andy Warhol left us with a lot of works and questions together due to his public image. We know Warhol's LGBTQ + and Byzantine Catholic identities, but these seemed peripheral to an understanding of his art, which is segregated at the public and private levels. This binary oppositional divergence and contradiction constitute Warhol's Life. Warhol's life as a Byzantine Catholic does not seem to fit our impression of the conservative tradition of Orthodox Christians. But for Warhol scholars, what they obtained through the surface did not explain all ...


A Missionary On A Mission: David Zeisberger And His Work With The Lenape People, Kate Dobbs May 2020

A Missionary On A Mission: David Zeisberger And His Work With The Lenape People, Kate Dobbs

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

I will present at the symposium my research paper on a forgotten missionary from the mid 1700s named, David Zeisberger and his work with the Delaware/Lenape people. Zeisbeger was a Moravian missionary who was vastly different from that of the other missionaries during the period. My work begins by explaining briefly who he was and where he and his Christian and conversion beliefs originate from. I then dive into his actions during his time as a missionary. Modern day perception of conversion is cruel and heinous, however, the way that Zeisberger performed his conversion during the period was incredibly ...


Mass Media's Ideology Of Middle Eastern Terror And The Impossibility Of The Individual, Mohammed Khalid May 2020

Mass Media's Ideology Of Middle Eastern Terror And The Impossibility Of The Individual, Mohammed Khalid

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

The so-called "war on terror" launched in the aftermath of 9/11 created a seismic shift in public discourse about a terrorism threat. Shaping this discourse was a galvanized U.S. media with a dominating ideology about the Middle Eastern terrorist, the ISIS member, the Jihadist, etc. As Arabs and Muslims became increasingly visible to the U.S. public, panic-riddled reactions to this "Middle Eastern terrorist" immediately mutated to drumbeats of war to punish "others" for acts of terrorism, a group of others. This project examines how U.S. media is an important influencer in shaping public opinion throughout the ...


Political Culture And Abortion Policy, Caleb J. Evans May 2020

Political Culture And Abortion Policy, Caleb J. Evans

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Abortion policy in the United States varies greatly from state to state. The general understanding is that states controlled by Democrats are friendly towards abortion and states controlled by Republicans are more hostile towards abortion rights. In the research paper, this is displayed by the state of Oklahoma. However, the states of Rhode Island and Montana both defy this generally accepted trend. Rhode Island is a Democratically controlled state with a strong history of abortion restrictions, while Montana is a Republican-controlled state with a track record of more lax policy on reproductive rights. This research paper delves into the political ...


Normalizing New Religious Movements: A Deeper Look Into The Effects Of Social Opinion On New Religious Movements In The Southeastern United States, Erica Marie Bennett May 2020

Normalizing New Religious Movements: A Deeper Look Into The Effects Of Social Opinion On New Religious Movements In The Southeastern United States, Erica Marie Bennett

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

The early 1960s brought a rise in new religious thought and expression in the United States, along with an increase in fear and rejection of new religious movements (NRMs). There have been many organizations, using fear, outlandish claims, and scare tactics in the media, aimed at stopping new religious movements from gaining new members, credibility, and acceptance. The campaign against new religious movements has in part been successful, because the very term "cult" has become an intensely negative term, and it is often used this way against new religions. Thus, anyone associated with an NRM is often seen as ethically ...


What Prevents Us From Achieving Freedom?: A Freudian And Nietzschean View Of Freedom, Dipin Subedi May 2020

What Prevents Us From Achieving Freedom?: A Freudian And Nietzschean View Of Freedom, Dipin Subedi

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Freedom, a ubiquitous word in Western Civilization, can be interpreted as the entitlement of a citizen to speak, act, or think without repression from certain authorities. It is true that as a citizen of a democratic country, a citizen is free to participate in political deliberations that pertain their right to debate and vote. This definition, however, applies to citizens of a state, not the individuals who are a part of the broader civilization. As soon as a citizen transforms into an individual residing in society, they are still haunted by the fetters that strip their freedom away from them ...


Representations Of Religious Injustice In The Works Of François Villon And Emile Zola, Alexis Windecker May 2020

Representations Of Religious Injustice In The Works Of François Villon And Emile Zola, Alexis Windecker

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

François Villon and Emile Zola are two French authors who critiqued society and its structures in their time. Although Villon and Zola are separated by four centuries and by stylistic differences, a theme that is pervasive in each author's writing is that of religious injustice. Both authors suggest that the structure of organized religion in their era creates a false hope in the power of the Church to save humanity. In Zola's novella, L'Inondation [The Flood], his critique is subtle, and the reader is forced to view his work through an allegorical lens to discern his underlying ...


The Legacy Of Jesse Mercer: His Influence On Journalism And Education As Components Of Religious Journalism, Madilyn Grace Harrell May 2020

The Legacy Of Jesse Mercer: His Influence On Journalism And Education As Components Of Religious Journalism, Madilyn Grace Harrell

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

By analyzing religious journalism under the influence of Jesse Mercer as a defender of religious liberty and looking at how his impact on religious journalism provoked journalism and education, the future of the topic can be discussed and better understood. Based on evidence of religious journalism in Georgia from Mercer to today, there are positives and negatives that will affect religious journalism in the future. The goal of the project is to report on Jesse Mercer as a pioneer of religious journalism and to give a history of his legacy. I will present the findings of my research in order ...


Hypatia's Life And Death From Ancient To Modern Centuries, Kaitlyn Morrison May 2020

Hypatia's Life And Death From Ancient To Modern Centuries, Kaitlyn Morrison

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Hypatia, an educator and philosopher in 4th-century Alexandria, has lived many lives and died many deaths since she reportedly took her last breath before the Caesarum's altar. She emerges in fifth-century texts as virtuous pagan philosopher murdered in the streets by a crowd of monks, with St. Cyril, bishop of Alexandria at the time, to blame. Contemporarily, a Greek text written for a pagan audience describes Hypatia as a beautiful martyr who unfairly reaped the destruction of true philosophy at the behest of Roman Christianization. Three centuries later, she would be called a witch who tricked men to turn ...


How Hinduism Rooted Itself In Film, Emma Dennis May 2020

How Hinduism Rooted Itself In Film, Emma Dennis

Scholars Day Conference

Movies are a universal language. Almost every person has seen a movie. Genres differ based on personality and interests. Romantic Comedies for the people who just want to watch happiness unfold. Horror for those who like to feel scared in their own home. Even documentaries for those who want to learn as much as they can. More than likely, your favorite movie will not be the same as the old man sitting next to you on the bus, or the student studying in the same coffee shop as you. The film industry is an integral part of human life, no ...


Minorities In Islam, Sara Patterson May 2020

Minorities In Islam, Sara Patterson

Scholars Day Conference

I began my research on Islam by talking to my childhood friend, Gizman Baraso, about her Muslim faith. From listening to her describe her own personal experience, I was able to determine the direction I wanted to take with my research. Gizman is a female Ethiopian Sunni Muslim; she feels that much of her perspective on life is affected by being a triple minority, and she has noticed ways that the Muslim religious community responds to her gender and race. In this essay, I will use information from Gizman’s story and incorporate insight from additional sources to better understand ...


Village Saints And A Little Black Magic: The Benefits Of A Mission Trip Opportunity For Natural Science Students In A Culturally Diverse Southern Mexico, Brooke Sanderford-Bester May 2020

Village Saints And A Little Black Magic: The Benefits Of A Mission Trip Opportunity For Natural Science Students In A Culturally Diverse Southern Mexico, Brooke Sanderford-Bester

Scholars Day Conference

My thesis project shares my personal experiences of a Summer 2019 medical mission trip to Oaxaca, Mexico. An Honors travel grant allowed me to walk the dirt roads and streets to learn the fascinating history of these people, to visit their shrines and churches to better understand their religious beliefs, and to travel mountainous, hand paved roads to a remote village that welcomed me with coffee sweetened with cane sugar and fresh bread baked in outdoor ovens. The groundwork has been laid for future Natural Sciences students to serve through an annual medical mission trip to Oaxaca.


The Search For Mere Purgatory, Tucker Douglass May 2020

The Search For Mere Purgatory, Tucker Douglass

Scholars Day Conference

Purgatory has been a contentious point of discussion since the Protestant Reformation. However, there are some versions that seem to nourish Christian ideas about sanctification rather than hinder them. In this paper, I examine two primary models of purgatory and which might be the better candidate for the title of "mere purgatory."


Spiders In A Window: How Dangerous Stories Lead To Dangerous Women, Mattie Mae Motl May 2020

Spiders In A Window: How Dangerous Stories Lead To Dangerous Women, Mattie Mae Motl

Scholars Day Conference

Christian women have been marginalized, suppressed, and forgotten by Christian men for centuries. In many cases, these actions are polite when compared to the horrors which self-proclaimed Christ-followers have afflicted on women. Countless sexual abuse cases have been discovered within the walls of the Southern Baptist Church, and the headlines have not stopped printing. Articles from major news outlets such as the Houston Chronicle and San Antonio Express-News have revealed that Southern Baptist pastors, youth leaders, and deacons have assaulted hundreds of women over the past twenty years—and those numbers only include the women who are confident enough to ...


The Sermon On The Mount: A Call To Obedience, Rylee Roberts May 2020

The Sermon On The Mount: A Call To Obedience, Rylee Roberts

Scholars Day Conference

I recently went snorkeling in Hanauma Bay of the Hawaiian Island, Oahu. Coral reefs and big, brightly-colored fish fill the Bay. Without goggles, I could only float on top, unaware of the depth and beauty below. When I put them on, however, I could observe the life and beauty of the ecosystem for myself. I could dive under the surface and explore what I had not known was there. I could find firm places to plant my feet when I needed to stand. I have found studying Scripture to be a similar experience. Learning more about historical and particularly cultural ...


Seeking The Feminine Divine: Theology And Authority In Mormon Women's Contemporary Poetry, Kaitlin Hoelzer May 2020

Seeking The Feminine Divine: Theology And Authority In Mormon Women's Contemporary Poetry, Kaitlin Hoelzer

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Literary theorist Helene Cixous has written about l'ecriture feminine, a deconstructive force which allows female writers more freedom from male-dominated areas. Because Christianity has been historically male-dominated, Christian women have long used this idea to great effect, using their writing as a space in which they are free to assert power and authority. Mormonism, which arose in the 1830s during the Second Great Awakening, has grown to reinforce a patriarchal model for both family and church leadership, making Cixous's separate space of writing necessary for Mormon women of the twenty-first century. The Mormon poet Rachel Hunt Steenblik exemplifies ...


Mapping The Modern History Of Philosophy Of Religion With Machine Learning, Jackson C. Foster Apr 2020

Mapping The Modern History Of Philosophy Of Religion With Machine Learning, Jackson C. Foster

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

A current debate in the philosophy of religion ("PoR") is about future routes for scholarship (see Bilimoria and Irvine 2010; Crockett, Putt, and Robbins 2014; Wildman 2010). Yet, while many scholars have assessed where the field should expand, few have addressed the disciplines' modern history. Making use of new methods in the digital humanities, this project proposes a history of the field based on empirical evidence, a meaningful foundation for future growth. "Mapping the History" utilizes various computational techniques to process twenty-thousand research articles from fifteen journals in PoR and religious studies, spanning a period of over ninety years (from ...


A Rothian Analysis Of Walt Disney's Pastoral Symphony, Hailey Megan Ritchey Apr 2020

A Rothian Analysis Of Walt Disney's Pastoral Symphony, Hailey Megan Ritchey

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Through the use of music, visualization, and the written word, artists, of all mediums bring beauty and depth to a cold, factual world. These masterpieces, at the hands of academia, can be interwoven and used to create new works, stories, or even political statements. Philip Roth, a primary author among scholars of Jewish-American literature, uses his writing to comment on the struggles faced by the Jewish community in America. Many of Roth's novels, including Goodbye, Columbus, American Pastoral, and The Plot Against America explore the importance of Jewish identity and livelihood among the Jewish communities of Newark, New Jersey ...


Religious Food Ethics: Categorizing Religious Perceptions Of Diet And Agriculture, Avalon Jade Theisen Apr 2020

Religious Food Ethics: Categorizing Religious Perceptions Of Diet And Agriculture, Avalon Jade Theisen

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

"As religion and food affect everyone everywhere, studying religious motivations for agricultural and consumption patterns is vital. To understand this topic, food-related views of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Rastafarianism, Hinduism, Orang Asli, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Daoism, and Wicca are analyzed. Most belief systems include taboos on meat, genetic modification, and biocides. The reasoning for their food ethics determined each faith's categorization as Western or Eastern.

Western-type religions focus on respecting their God's intentions. Christianity forbids meat, excepting fish, during certain holy seasons to honor God. One sect, Greek Orthodox, requires believers to eat vegan 1-3 days weekly. Judaism and ...


The Quaker Paradox: A Case Study Of David Barclay As A Malevolent Slave Trading Banker And A Benevolent Abolitionist, Anny Lu Apr 2020

The Quaker Paradox: A Case Study Of David Barclay As A Malevolent Slave Trading Banker And A Benevolent Abolitionist, Anny Lu

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

In the eighteenth century, the British Quaker community faced a dilemma regarding their morals to pioneer the abolition movement and their economic interests to facilitate the slave trade. Members of the Society of Friends were expected to be established bankers, and many of them lent out loans to slave traders. At the same time, they were pacifist pioneers of the abolition movement in Britain. The research analyzes how British Quakers of this time upheld both positions of this paradox through a case study of David Barclay, founder of Barclays Bank as well as a well-respected member of the Society of ...


"God Sometimes You Don't Come Through:" The Presentation Of Religious Trauma Syndrome Through Rock Music, Maggie Elizabeth Parker Apr 2020

"God Sometimes You Don't Come Through:" The Presentation Of Religious Trauma Syndrome Through Rock Music, Maggie Elizabeth Parker

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Religious Trauma Syndrome (RTS) was a term coined by Marlene Winell in 2011. Winell is a popular educator and writer who has done psychological research on human development, and decided to research religious trauma after her own experiences. She became a licensed psychologist and began to explore the changes that adolescents go through as they age. Most of her work revolves around personal growth and healing, as she teaches about "thriving and not surviving." In this paper, I will focus on the negative effects that religion can have on different individuals and the ways in which these individuals must use ...


The Book Of Revelation: The Apocalypse Debunked, Meghan Elizabeth Hansen Apr 2020

The Book Of Revelation: The Apocalypse Debunked, Meghan Elizabeth Hansen

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

In the psyche of the modern Christian, the Book of Revelation has become synonymous with hell and the end of the world. The believed imminent apocalypse becomes a tactic to scare people into faith, citing some of the most gruesome images of Revelation. Christians either sit on the edge of their seat, awaiting the trumpets and hellfire, or choose to ignore the book altogether. This interpretation has neglected the importance of the first century context, particularly its symbols and the purpose of Revelation. To appreciate the meaning of the Book of Revelation and its relevance today, it is crucial to ...


Against Explanatory Condemnation: Existentialistic Ethics In The Modern Divided Climate, Tyler Chang Apr 2020

Against Explanatory Condemnation: Existentialistic Ethics In The Modern Divided Climate, Tyler Chang

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

In the modern political, social, and economic in the United States (and many other parts of the world), there is a growing tension between opposing ideologies. Depictions of liberal and conservative, religious and secular, and other contrasting views have become binary, thereby leading large numbers of people to condemn others for merely disagreeing. In committing ourselves to such a violent treatment of others' explanations for their worlds, we worsen both our own and others' mental and emotional health. Nontrivial suffering (loss of loved ones, depression, etc.) that comes from a combination of mental, emotional, and physical constitutes one's existential ...


Stooping Heads And Aspiring Shoulders: An Analysis Of William Whately’S 1617 Pamphlet “A Bride-Bush”, Meredith Power Apr 2020

Stooping Heads And Aspiring Shoulders: An Analysis Of William Whately’S 1617 Pamphlet “A Bride-Bush”, Meredith Power

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

The Protestant Reformation in England began with Henry VIII's Great Matter in the early 1500s. Almost a century later, British society's understanding of what made a good and happy marriage had evolved alongside the broader shifts in church doctrine, and Puritan factions began to splinter from mainstream Anglican practices and teachings. Writing in 1617 from the Protestant stronghold of Oxfordshire, an influential minister named William Whately offered newlyweds and engaged couples advice regarding their duties to each other and to their community. This 'Bride-bush,' as he called it, sought to make marriage "a great Helpe" for those who ...


Encountering A Church In A Church: The Shape Of St.Thomas Becket Reliquary Casket, Ziqiao Wang Apr 2020

Encountering A Church In A Church: The Shape Of St.Thomas Becket Reliquary Casket, Ziqiao Wang

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

This research examines the shape of a French reliquary made in 1300 AD. under the name of the Anglo Saint Thomas Becket, who was canonized in 1170. The study asks how the form corresponded to the cult of worship of St. Becket in 13th-century England. The shape alluded to the sacredness of the medieval church symbolically, enhanced the visibility of relics on the altar; the shape also guided pilgrims' eyes to practice their devotions. This study correlates with the medieval concept of sacred space, in the context of architectural renovations, and associates with the medieval theories of seeing. Since most ...


The Conscious Evolution Of Humans: A Psychological Analysis Of Religions, Ahmed Elwan Abohamad Apr 2020

The Conscious Evolution Of Humans: A Psychological Analysis Of Religions, Ahmed Elwan Abohamad

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Through contemporary understandings of evolution, humans are known as highly evolved individuated selves that possess superior cognitive abilities and a capacity for self-reflection. The evolution of exceptional human abilities of being aware of themselves and the surrounding environments has enabled humans to consciously evolve (Heyes, 2012). Conscious evolution refers to the capability of humans to be conscious participants in the evolution of their societies through perceiving cultural and social patterns and reacting with those existing patterns. Religions are a pattern of social action that has persisted over time and is built upon certain beliefs and practices that a human group ...


Religious Motivations Can Only Get You So Far: The Impacts And Limitations Of Lutheran Educational Reforms, Abigail Schipper Apr 2020

Religious Motivations Can Only Get You So Far: The Impacts And Limitations Of Lutheran Educational Reforms, Abigail Schipper

Young Historians Conference

Winner of the Karen E. Hoppes Young Historians Award for Outstanding Research and Writing.

Education was once reserved strictly for the few, the rich, the Catholic, and the male. Along with reforming many of the theological and political practices of 16th century Europe, the Protestant Reformation also introduced educational reforms that would enhance the literacy of the Germany States, instituted compulsory education laws, and extended said compulsory education to girls. However, these reforms were hindered by that which motivated the reforms in the first place: The reformers’ primary goal was to spread a religion, not to educate a populace. Because ...