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California Institute of Integral Studies

Ketamine

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Making Ketamine Work In The Long Run, Terrence S. Early Jul 2014

Making Ketamine Work In The Long Run, Terrence S. Early

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Treatments such as ketamine psychotherapy face substantial financial and regulatory obstacles to dissemination into widespread use. Newly patented medications are able to generate enough capital to pay for studies required for FDA approval, personnel to apply for coverage on insurance plans, and marketing to establish a successful launch. Ketamine is an older drug with considerable evidence of efficacy for treatment resistant depression, and almost 50 years of data concerning safety as an anesthetic agent. However, it can no longer be patented, so there is no incentive for pharmaceutical companies to help get it into widespread use. In this paper we ...


Psychedelic Experiential Pharmacology: Pioneering Clinical Explorations With Salvador Roquet (How I Came To All Of This: Ketamine, Admixtures And Adjuvants, Don Juan And Carlos Castaneda Too): An Interview With Richard Yensen, Philip E. Wolfson Jul 2014

Psychedelic Experiential Pharmacology: Pioneering Clinical Explorations With Salvador Roquet (How I Came To All Of This: Ketamine, Admixtures And Adjuvants, Don Juan And Carlos Castaneda Too): An Interview With Richard Yensen, Philip E. Wolfson

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Richard Yensen was a research fellow at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center from 1972 to 1976. He studied psychedelic psychotherapy with Stanislav Grof, M.D. and other senior staff. During this time he treated patients with substance abuse disorders, cancer, neurosis, and other health professionals seeking a training experience. Dr. Yensen did his Ph.D. dissertation on the use of MDA in psychotherapy with neurotic outpatients and conducted his research at the MPRC. Through many years of experience in governmentsanctioned psychedelic research, he has evolved a non-drug shamanistic psychotherapy called Perceptual Affective Therapy. In the 1990’s Richard was co-holder ...


Ketamine For Depression: A Mixed-Methods Study, Philip E. Wolfson Jul 2014

Ketamine For Depression: A Mixed-Methods Study, Philip E. Wolfson

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Prior studies have reported variously on the presence or absence of dissociative effects at subanesthtetic doses of ketamine administered for treatment-resistant depression. This mixedmethods study emulated the protocol used for the studies in question, with IV administration of 0.5mg/kg over 40 minutes with eight experienced ketamine users. Quantitative measures were generally insignificant since this was not a population reporting depression; blood pressure increased as expected by 20-30mm systolic and 6-20mm diastolic, falling rapidly by 20 minutes after completion of the infusion. Individual qualitative reports reports of relaxation, pleasant sensation, decreased cognitive function, and some disabling of ordinary capacities ...


Ketamine Psychedelic Psychotherapy: Focus On Its Pharmacology, Phenomenology, And Clinical Applications, Eli Kolp, Harris L. Friedman, Evgeny Krupitsky, Karl Jansen, Mark Sylvester, M. Scott Young, Anna Kolp Jul 2014

Ketamine Psychedelic Psychotherapy: Focus On Its Pharmacology, Phenomenology, And Clinical Applications, Eli Kolp, Harris L. Friedman, Evgeny Krupitsky, Karl Jansen, Mark Sylvester, M. Scott Young, Anna Kolp

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Meant to be an authoritative guide for psychiatrists and others interested in understanding and applying ketamine psychedelic psychotherapy (KPP), this paper focuses on its pharmacology, phenomenology, and clinical applications. Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic widely used by physicians and veterinarians in the United States. In addition to its anesthetic and dissociative properties, ketamine also has a multitude of other psychological and pharmacological properties, which include analgesic, sedative, neuroprotective, anxiolytic, antidepressant, stimulant, euphoriant, and hallucinogenic effects. The literature on the clinical application of KPP is comprehensively reviewed, practical advice for using KPP is given, and the pharmacology and phenomenology of ketamine-induced ...


Ethnographic Accounts Of Ketamine Explorations In Psychedelic Culture, Kenneth Ring, Ralph Metzner, Philip E. Wolfson Jul 2014

Ethnographic Accounts Of Ketamine Explorations In Psychedelic Culture, Kenneth Ring, Ralph Metzner, Philip E. Wolfson

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Off-label use of ketamine as a mind-altering substance did not begin in the laboratory, but in the psychedelic culture that grew out of the 1960s counterculture movement. Whatever the risks and limitations of such experimentation, without them the remarkable therapeutic effects of the drug might well have gone unnoticed, and unresearched. The following personal accounts—both inspiring and cautionary—offer glimpses into the cultural contexts that found ketamine to be much more than a reliable anesthetic.


Ketamine And Depression: A Review, Wesley C. Ryan, Cole J. Marta, Ralph J. Koek Jul 2014

Ketamine And Depression: A Review, Wesley C. Ryan, Cole J. Marta, Ralph J. Koek

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Ketamine, via intravenous infusions, has emerged as a novel therapy for treatment-resistant depression, given rapid onset and demonstrable efficacy in both unipolar and bipolar depression. Duration of benefit, on the order of days, varies between these subtypes, but appears longer in unipolar depression. A unique property is reduction in suicidality although data are more limited. Strategies to extend duration, via multiple doses, maintenance treatment, or subsequent augmenting medications have yielded mixed results. There is a relative paucity of data regarding alternate methods of administration such as intramuscular, intranasal, and oral routes, though preliminary results are promising. Adverse effects most reliably ...


Regarding The Transpersonal Nature Of Ketamine Therapy: An Approach To The Work, Jeffrey Becker Jul 2014

Regarding The Transpersonal Nature Of Ketamine Therapy: An Approach To The Work, Jeffrey Becker

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Recent evidence has shown that ketamine treatment can facilitate psychological insight and symptom resolution in various psychiatric disorders. To aid this process, psychotherapeutic support should be considered a fundamental aspect of treatment. The psychedelic experience produced by ketamine can be a deeply meaningful source of enduring change and personal growth. The author has repeatedly observed a rapid realignment of self-perception away from shame, fear, and dread toward authentic self-acceptance and gratitude, offering patients opportunity for insight and the consideration of new potentialities. The experience produced by ketamine is similar in quality to transpersonal experiences described by Jung and induced by ...