Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Philosophy Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Philosophy

2015

Discipline
Institution
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 84

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Schaffer And Monism: Validating The Priority Of The Whole, Phillip Av Pennell Dec 2015

Schaffer And Monism: Validating The Priority Of The Whole, Phillip Av Pennell

CMC Senior Theses

Philosophy Thesis


An Incongruent Amalgamation: John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism On Naturalism, Jeffrey M. Robinson Dec 2015

An Incongruent Amalgamation: John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism On Naturalism, Jeffrey M. Robinson

Eleutheria

John Stuart Mill's utilitarian principle of the greatest happiness for the greatest number, often surfaces in cultural debates in the contemporary West over the extent and foundations of moral duties. Given the drift from its historical Judeo-Christian moorings, naturalism now provides much of the epistemic grounding in Western culture in relation to moral duties. The amalgamation of Mill’s utilitarianism and naturalism has resulted in a cultural and epistemic disconnect. Naturalism is hard-pressed to provide consistent epistemic support for Mill’s utilitarian principle. This essay provides a number of suggestions as to why Mill’s utilitarianism may be inconsistent ...


Judgment, Philippe Nonet Dec 2015

Judgment, Philippe Nonet

Philippe Nonet

No abstract provided.


Do You Sincerely Want To Be Radical, Phillip Johnson Dec 2015

Do You Sincerely Want To Be Radical, Phillip Johnson

Phillip Johnson

No abstract provided.


What Is Positive Law, Philippe Nonet Dec 2015

What Is Positive Law, Philippe Nonet

Philippe Nonet

No abstract provided.


The Politics Of Representation: The Role Of The Gaze In Pornography, Jennifer Jeffers Dec 2015

The Politics Of Representation: The Role Of The Gaze In Pornography, Jennifer Jeffers

Jennifer M. Jeffers

An accessible reader/text for beginning students of philosophy, this volume offers a broad scope of diverse classic and contemporary selections – with a narrative and format that presents difficult issues and readings in a simplified but not condescending manner. The readings are grouped around major philosophic themes: logic, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of religion, philosophy of art, and social and political philosophy. It also offers a selection of readings from Eastern philosophy.


Contextualizing Aesthetics: From Plato To Lyotard, Jennifer Jeffers Dec 2015

Contextualizing Aesthetics: From Plato To Lyotard, Jennifer Jeffers

Jennifer M. Jeffers

History. The ancient (Greek and Roman) period ; The modern (18th- and 19th-century) period -- The analytic critique of the aesthetic. The analytic critique of aesthetic experience ; The problem of defining art ; The status of the work of art ; The analytic critique of the expression theory of art -- Continental and contemporary theory. Myths of modernism ; Art and postmodernity ; The critique of truth ; Cultural materialism ; The postmodern sublime


Rhetoric And Platonism In Fifth-Century Athens, Damian Caluori Dec 2015

Rhetoric And Platonism In Fifth-Century Athens, Damian Caluori

Damian Caluori

There are reasons to believe that relations between Platonism and rhetoric in Athens during the fifth century CE were rather close. Both were major pillars of pagan culture, or paideia, and thus essential elements in the defense of paganism against increasingly powerful and repressive Christian opponents. It is easy to imagine that, under these circumstances, paganism was closing ranks and that philosophers and orators united in their efforts to save traditional ways and values. Although there is no doubt some truth to this view, a closer look reveals that the relations between philosophy and rhetoric were rather more complicated. In ...


Divine Practical Thought In Plotinus, Damian Caluori Dec 2015

Divine Practical Thought In Plotinus, Damian Caluori

Damian Caluori

Plotinus follows the Timaeus and the Platonist tradition before him in postulating the existence of a World Soul whose function it is to care for the sensible world as a whole. It is argued that, since the sensible world is providentially arranged, the World Soul’s care presupposes a sort of practical thinking that is as timeless as intellectual contemplation. To explain why this thinking is practical, the paper discusses Plotinus’ view on Aristotle’s distinction between praxis and poiêsis. To explain why it is timeless, it studies Plotinus’ view on Aristotle’s distinction between complete and incomplete actuality. The ...


The Lens That Sees Itself: Fruitful Interactions Of Film And Philosophy, Travis Wheeler Dec 2015

The Lens That Sees Itself: Fruitful Interactions Of Film And Philosophy, Travis Wheeler

Cinesthesia

Much of film theory holds that film is primarily an act of communication, whose message the audience understands. While this allows us great insights into the ideological and subconscious functions of a great many films, it falls short of this success with more enigmatic films. In instances such as these, where films are not easily understood, a different paradigm is necessary. Using philosophical texts as comparative tools in film analysis provides the answer to this "blindspot" in film criticism.


Impartialist Ethics And Psychic Disintegration: A Talking Cure, Roman Nakia Briggs Dec 2015

Impartialist Ethics And Psychic Disintegration: A Talking Cure, Roman Nakia Briggs

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation deals with integrity understood as a state of the psyche. Its primary interlocutor is Professor Bernard Williams, and its point of departure is my interpretation of his Objection from Integrity to impartialist moral theories. Against Williams, I hope to show that the active adherent of impartialist ethical systems (e.g., act utilitarianism) may retain both moral integrity and integrity. In demonstrating this, I make use of a variant of Roy Schafer’s action language approach to psychoanalysis, and what I call practical aestheticism.


Disentangling Embodied Cognition: An Examination Of The State, Problems, And Possibilities Of Embodied Cognition, Cody Cash Dec 2015

Disentangling Embodied Cognition: An Examination Of The State, Problems, And Possibilities Of Embodied Cognition, Cody Cash

Theses and Dissertations

Embodied cognition has received a fair amount of attention in philosophical, neuroscientific, and robotic research during the past several decades, yet the precise nature of its goals, methods, and claims are unclear. This dissertation will ascertain and examine the primary themes in the field of embodied cognition as well as why, and if, they offer significant challenges to traditional cognitive science models. Though many theories believe they are providing accounts that should replace traditional models, to do so they will have to overcome the very difficult challenge of arguing that mental content and capabilities derived from sensorimotor activity can continue ...


Is There Less Bullshit In For Marx Than In Reading Capital?, William S. Lewis Nov 2015

Is There Less Bullshit In For Marx Than In Reading Capital?, William S. Lewis

Philosophy Faculty Scholarship

This paper explores G. A. Cohen’s claim that Althusser’s Marxist philosophy is bullshit. This exploration is important because, if we are persuaded by Cohen’s assertion that there are only three types of Marxism: analytic, pre-analytic, and bullshit and, further, that only analytic Marxism is concerned with truth and therefore “uniquely legitimate” then, as political philosophers interested in Marxism’s potential philosophical resources, we may wish to privilege its analytic form. However, if Cohen’s attribution is misplaced, then we may wish to explore why Cohen was so insistent in this ascription and what this insistence reveals about ...


Politics After Macintyre, Philip E. Devine Oct 2015

Politics After Macintyre, Philip E. Devine

Philosophy Department Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Preserving The Autographic/Allographic Distinction, P.D. Magnus, Jason R. D'Cruz Oct 2015

Preserving The Autographic/Allographic Distinction, P.D. Magnus, Jason R. D'Cruz

Philosophy Faculty Scholarship

In his study of forms of representation, Nel- son Goodman sought to explain why some representations, like words or musical scores, are considered replicable while others, such as paintings, are not. He named the replicable rep- resentations allographic and the ones we consider nonreplicable autographic (Goodman 1976, 113). His explanation of what grounds this distinction is in his theory of notations (chaps. IV–V). That theory essentially seeks to secure the possibility of identity for representations, as well as the possibility of knowing such identity, by setting out a number of requirements. Unless a repre- sentational practice satisfies the requirements ...


Department Of Philosophy Colloquium Series, University Of Maine Department Of Philosophy Oct 2015

Department Of Philosophy Colloquium Series, University Of Maine Department Of Philosophy

Cultural Affairs Distinguished Lecture Series

The Department of Philosophy Colloquium Series exposes students and other attendees to discussions of different philosophical topics and viewpoints. Two of the speakers this year will address environmental themes.


Philosophy: A Short Visual Introduction, Scott Paeth Sep 2015

Philosophy: A Short Visual Introduction, Scott Paeth

Scott R. Paeth

Philosophy: A Short, Visual Introduction is the ideal path to understanding the philosophical ideas that influence Christian theology.

Scott Paeth's fast-paced introduction covers the most important movements and thinkers with precision and clarity. The major ideas are creatively illustrated by artist Joseph Novak, whose crisp, modern style brings big concepts to life for readers.

The result is an articulate, no-nonsense approach that guides readers from the ideas of ancient philosophers to contemporary thinkers and movements that impact Christians today.

Philosophy is part of the Christianity and the Liberal Arts series, which recognizes that many Christians are eager to deepen ...


What Difference Does It Make? An Essay Review Of Beyond Versus: The Struggle To Understand The Interaction Of Nature And Nurture; James Tabery; Mit Press: Cambridge, Ma, 2014, Peter J. Taylor Sep 2015

What Difference Does It Make? An Essay Review Of Beyond Versus: The Struggle To Understand The Interaction Of Nature And Nurture; James Tabery; Mit Press: Cambridge, Ma, 2014, Peter J. Taylor

Working Papers on Science in a Changing World

Beyond versus makes its contribution to the thriving industry of books that clarify or recast nature-nurture issues through seven conceptual moves. The first is to posit a divide between sociological and philosophical inquiry. As Tabery depicts them, commentators on the science invoked in nature-nurture debates often focus on the racist or other political views of disputants or on their flawed understanding of scientific concepts. Tabery, in contrast, as a philosopher of science, explains past and present disagreements as stemming from “a disagreement concerning how explanation works in science.” (The other moves include explanatory and terminological divides, connecting associations to mechanisms ...


Syllabus: Faith And Science, Nicanor Austriaco Aug 2015

Syllabus: Faith And Science, Nicanor Austriaco

Spring 2015, Faith and Science

No abstract provided.


Puzzles, Paradoxes, And Problems: An Introductory Reader For Philosophy, Peter French, Curtis Brown Aug 2015

Puzzles, Paradoxes, And Problems: An Introductory Reader For Philosophy, Peter French, Curtis Brown

Curtis Brown

This anthology features uncommonly interesting readings, both classical and contemporary, which approach central problems of philosophy of the intriguing puzzles, paradoxes, and problems.


Why Philosophy Is Important For Administrators In Education, Nicolas Michaud Aug 2015

Why Philosophy Is Important For Administrators In Education, Nicolas Michaud

Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education

The fact that “philosophy,” to many people, is just a mysterious word that brings to mind images of white beards and mysticism is no surprise. Contemporary society seem to have little reason to value a field devoted to ideas rather than production. Simply, philosophy is impractical, a distraction from the important world of growing an economy and living real life. What, perhaps, is more surprising is that philosophy is now, also, a dying field within academia itself. As research and inquiry becomes more specialized, there is little reason to indulge the pedantic meanderings of those who do not wish to ...


Free Will And Agency: A Scoping Review And Map, Paul Fehrmann Aug 2015

Free Will And Agency: A Scoping Review And Map, Paul Fehrmann

Paul Fehrmann

Systematic reviews (SR) are important in the health and social sciences, and could have value for theoretical and philosophical psychology (TPP). Three objectives are addressed in this paper: 1. To identify a SR framework for topics in TPP. 2. To assess current SR methods use in the TPP literature. 3. Scoping is a type of SR, and a third objective is to explore using scoping SR on this broad topic: how is the topic of “free will and agency” addressed in the TPP literature? Corresponding to the three objectives, these methods were used: 1. Major systematic review guidelines and recent ...


Berkeley And The Mind Of God, Craig Berchet Knepley Aug 2015

Berkeley And The Mind Of God, Craig Berchet Knepley

Theses and Dissertations

I tackle a troubling question of interpretation: Does Berkeley's God feel pain? Berkeley's anti-skepticism seems to bar him from saying that God does not feel pain, for this would mean there is something to reality 'beyond' the perceptible. Yet Berkeley's concerns for common sense and orthodoxy bar him from saying that God does have an idea of pain. For Berkeley to have an idea of pain just is to suffer it, and an immutable God cannot suffer. Thus solving the pain problem requires answers to further questions: What are God's perceptions, for Berkeley? What are God ...


A Biopsychological Foundation For Linguistics, Jonathan J. Life Jul 2015

A Biopsychological Foundation For Linguistics, Jonathan J. Life

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this dissertation, I defend the view that natural languages are concrete biopsychological phenomena to be studied empirically. In Section One, I begin with an historical explanation. Some analytic philosophers, I argue, misapply formal logic as an analysis of natural language, when it was in fact originally developed as an alternative to natural language, employed for scientific purposes. Abstract, quasi-mathematical philosophies of language, I argue, are partially a result of this misunderstanding. I respond to Jerrold Katz’ argument that a proper understanding of analytic truth requires this quasi-mathematical philosophy of language through a model-theoretical analysis of analytic truth in modal ...


Iris Murdoch And The Importance Of Stepping Outside The Self, Megan R. Johnson Jul 2015

Iris Murdoch And The Importance Of Stepping Outside The Self, Megan R. Johnson

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

Abstract

Iris Murdoch and the Importance of Stepping Outside the Self

Megan Johnson

Iris Murdoch was a philosopher, essayist, and novelist who utilized her fictional works such as The Green Knight to artistically depict the core values of her philosophies. Murdoch’s compilation of philosophical essays The Sovereignty of Good expounds upon her belief in the importance of unselfishness in the face of virtues and morality. Murdoch argues against Kantian philosophy which relies heavily on empirical reasoning in her essays and again as her concepts are portrayed by the characters in her novels. This essay explains both Murdoch and Kant ...


Promising To Try, Jason R. D'Cruz, Justin Kalef Jul 2015

Promising To Try, Jason R. D'Cruz, Justin Kalef

Philosophy Faculty Scholarship

We maintain that in many contexts promising to try is expressive of responsibility as a promiser. This morally significant application of promising to try speaks in favor of the view that responsible promisers favor evidentialism about promises. Contra Berislav Marusˇic´, we contend that responsible promisers typically withdraw from promising to act and instead promise to try, in circumstances in which they recognize that there is a significant chance that they will not succeed.


Monaden Im Diskurs. Monas, Monaden, Monadologien (1600 Bis 1770) By Hanss-Peter Neumann (Review), Brandon C. Look Jul 2015

Monaden Im Diskurs. Monas, Monaden, Monadologien (1600 Bis 1770) By Hanss-Peter Neumann (Review), Brandon C. Look

Philosophy Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Mackenzie, Catriona; Rogers, Wendy; And Dodds, Susan, Eds. Vulnerability: New Essays In Ethics And Feminist Philosophy (Review), Anita Superson Jul 2015

Mackenzie, Catriona; Rogers, Wendy; And Dodds, Susan, Eds. Vulnerability: New Essays In Ethics And Feminist Philosophy (Review), Anita Superson

Philosophy Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Hegels Phänomenologie Des Geistes: Ein Dialogischer Kommentar. Volume 1: Gewißheit Und Vernunft. Volume 2: Geist Und Religion By Pirmin Stekeler (Review), Daniel Breazeale Jul 2015

Hegels Phänomenologie Des Geistes: Ein Dialogischer Kommentar. Volume 1: Gewißheit Und Vernunft. Volume 2: Geist Und Religion By Pirmin Stekeler (Review), Daniel Breazeale

Philosophy Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Technological Singularity: An Ideological Critique, Phillip Stephens Jul 2015

The Technological Singularity: An Ideological Critique, Phillip Stephens

Theses and Dissertations

The Technological Singularity represents a confluence of techno-cultural narratives of progress in which the projected exponential growth of artificial intelligence and nanotechnology will usher in a moment of irrevocable change for the human race – a change that many claim is scant decades away. Although the concept saw its modern clarification by science fiction author Vernor Vinge, the Singularity sits astride both fictional and nonfictional narratives of the future. It is the aim of this study to explore the ideological discourses that emerge from texts on the Singularity and the unfathomable posthuman future it ushers in. Doing so reveals how the ...