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Articles 1 - 30 of 142

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Judging Well, Francis J. Mootz Iii Jan 2019

Judging Well, Francis J. Mootz Iii

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

Can judges interpret the law in a manner that is objectively verifiable, or do judges necessarily – even if unconsciously – inject their own predispositions and biases into their decisions? It is difficult to decide whether such a question is frivolous in the post-Realist age, or whether it is the is the single most important question that we can ask about our legal system. I endorse both responses. The question, as phrased, is both vitally important and unanswerable on its own terms. Rather than seeking an elusive objective standard by which to measure the correctness of “a judgment,” I argue that we ...


The Denial Of Transcendental Freedom Is Self-Refuting, Theodore Kahn Jan 2019

The Denial Of Transcendental Freedom Is Self-Refuting, Theodore Kahn

CMC Senior Theses

The questions of what kind of freedom morality requires and how to reconcile the capacity for free agency within a determined temporal sequence represent the crux of the free will debate. Traditional compatibilists claim that determinism does not preclude our capacity for moral agency. Nuanced determinists, such as Derk Pereboom, deny the existence of moral agency and argue that free will is not required to save the basic modes of our practical lives, such as our capacity to affect each other and to lead practically morallives. I will argue in favor of Kant’s view, which holds that since freedom ...


The Refutation Of Existing Proofs For The Existence Of God And The Continued Search For A Valid Proof Of The Existence Of God: A Defense And Interpretation Of Kant, Emma Houston Jan 2019

The Refutation Of Existing Proofs For The Existence Of God And The Continued Search For A Valid Proof Of The Existence Of God: A Defense And Interpretation Of Kant, Emma Houston

CMC Senior Theses

In this thesis, I use Kant's Transcendental Ideal and Fourth Antinomy in the Critique of Pure Reason as a bedrock to understand mistakes in popular spatio-temporal and transcendental proofs for the existence of God and develop a discussion of the necessity of the continued search for, and potential foundation of, an alternative proof of the existence of God. I will first attempt to instill the thought of the necessity of a commitment to the idea of the existence of God. I will then explain and clarify a) the three transcendental proofs for the existence of God and b) what ...


Missing The Apes Of The Trees For The Forest, Carlo Alvaro Jan 2019

Missing The Apes Of The Trees For The Forest, Carlo Alvaro

Publications and Research

The debate over ape personhood is of great social and moral importance. For more than twenty-five years, attorney Steven Wise has been arguing that animals who have cognitive complexities similar to humans should be legally granted basic rights of au- tonomy. In my view, granting personhood status and other rights to great apes are at- tainable goals. But how should we go about it? My worry is that Thompson’s suggest- ed strategy relies on Kantian ethics, in particular on Kant’s notion of autonomy. In fact, I am worried about Kantian ethics in general because of its influence on ...


Where Literature And Philosophy Meet And Diverge, Clare C. Hagan Apr 2018

Where Literature And Philosophy Meet And Diverge, Clare C. Hagan

Undergraduate Theses

Many writers and philosophers have asked “What is art?” or “What is philosophy?” but it is difficult to encounter a text where these questions are set beside each other. Many works of philosophy appear very literary in form and content, just as there are many literary works that are very philosophical in nature. This essay examines the intersection of literature and philosophy, using Kant’s Critique of Judgement as a way into analyzing Plato’s Phaedo, as an example of literary philosophy; and Shakespeare’s Hamlet, as an example of philosophical literature. The first section deals with literature and philosophy ...


Own Barfield: Philosophy, Poetry, And Theology. Michael Vincent Di Fuccia, Tiffany Brooke Martin Apr 2018

Own Barfield: Philosophy, Poetry, And Theology. Michael Vincent Di Fuccia, Tiffany Brooke Martin

Mythlore: A Journal of J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature

No abstract provided.


Everyone And No One: Freedom, Politics And God In Hegel's Philosophy Of Freedom, Samuel J. Copeland Jan 2018

Everyone And No One: Freedom, Politics And God In Hegel's Philosophy Of Freedom, Samuel J. Copeland

Senior Projects Spring 2018

This senior project is an exploration of G.W.F. Hegel's philosophy of freedom. It draws primarily on Hegel's texts The Phenomenology of Spirit, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Elements of the Philosophy of Right, and Lectures on the Philosophy of History. The exploration of Hegel's concept of freedom brings in an analysis of Hegel's Lordship and Bondage Dialectic, his critique of Kantian morality, his philosophy of the State and his philosophy of Religion and God.


Being And The Good: Natural Teleology In Early Modern German Philosophy, Nabeel Hamid Jan 2018

Being And The Good: Natural Teleology In Early Modern German Philosophy, Nabeel Hamid

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the problem of teleology in early modern German philosophy. The problem, briefly, is to account for the proper sources and conditions of the use of teleological concepts such as design, purpose, function, or end in explaining nature. In its modern guise, the status of these concepts becomes problematic with the rise of modern science in the seventeenth century, which reconceived the physical world as fundamentally inert and purposeless and rejected the medieval view of the world as governed by goal-directed powers. This disssertation argues that the reception of the new science in Germany was deeply conditioned by ...


From Justice To Fairness: Does Kant's Doctrine Of Right Imply A Theory Of Distributive Justice?, Michael Nance, Jeppe Von Platz Jan 2018

From Justice To Fairness: Does Kant's Doctrine Of Right Imply A Theory Of Distributive Justice?, Michael Nance, Jeppe Von Platz

Philosophy Faculty Publications

The fact that Kant does not articulate a theory of distributive justice has not kept political philosophers from citing Kant as inspiration and support for whatever theory of distributive justice they favor - including those who argue that the notion of distributive justice is itself mistaken. This widespread reliance on Kant invites the question, "Does the Doctrine of Right imply a theory of distributive justice?"

To address this question, we discuss Paul Guyer's argument that Kant's Doctrine of Right implies, roughly, the principles of distributive justice as found in Rawls's justice as fairness. Guyer's argument is that ...


A Song Of Confusion And Annoyance: Kant On The Beauty Of Absolute Music, Ryan Walton Turner Jan 2018

A Song Of Confusion And Annoyance: Kant On The Beauty Of Absolute Music, Ryan Walton Turner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Kant's evaluation of music in the Critique of Judgement stands as a blemish on an otherwise appealing system of judgments of beauty and of assigning aesthetic worth. In order to resolve this tension, I will present an argument in three parts. First, I will delve further into Kantian judgments of beauty to provide solid contextual grounds for why he draws his conclusions about music and will further elaborate on his various positions concerning music. Second, I will look at a few potential answers for the problem of music given by others in the philosophy of music and briefly evaluate ...


The Revelation Of God, East And West: Contrasting Special Revelation In Western Modernity With The Ancient Christian East, Nathan A. Jacobs Nov 2017

The Revelation Of God, East And West: Contrasting Special Revelation In Western Modernity With The Ancient Christian East, Nathan A. Jacobs

Philosophy Faculty Publications

The questions of whether God reveals himself; if so, how we can know a purported revelation is authentic; and how such revelations relate to the insights of reason are discussed by John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, René Descartes, G. W. Leibniz, and Immanuel Kant, to name a few. Yet, what these philosophers say with such consistency about revelation stands in stark contrast with the claims of the Christian East, which are equally consistent from the second century through the fourteenth century. In this essay, I will compare the modern discussion of special revelation from Thomas Hobbes through Johann Fichte with the ...


Rational Engagement As A Way Of Showing Respect To Oneself And Others: How We Ought To Respond To Persons Who Hold Unreasonable Beliefs, Elizabeth Cargile Williams Aug 2017

Rational Engagement As A Way Of Showing Respect To Oneself And Others: How We Ought To Respond To Persons Who Hold Unreasonable Beliefs, Elizabeth Cargile Williams

Masters Theses

We often encounter persons who hold unreasonable beliefs. I explore how respect informs our response to these persons. I conclude that we ought to be willing or disposed to engage in rational discussion sometimes and to some extent with persons who hold unreasonable beliefs as a way of recognizing and respecting their rational nature. I describe what the duty of rational engagement looks like in practice and apply the duty to individual cases. I then explore various considerations, including the consideration of self-respect, that influence whether we have reason to engage and how we should respond in different cases.


Kant On The Beautiful, Justin P. Amoroso May 2017

Kant On The Beautiful, Justin P. Amoroso

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis looks at Kant’s question about the antagonism between freedom and determinism and how he tried to reconcile them through aesthetics. I begin the thesis by sketching the influences on Kant’s aesthetics, by looking at the problem that arose after he completed his first two critiques, and by defining his three faculties. From there I examine his four moments of beauty. Next, I ask how beauty symbolizes morality. In the conclusion I submit a possible answer how beauty can resolve the antagonism between freedom and determinism. The tentative answer is as follows.

According to Kant, beauty doesn ...


Health And Sickness: An Examination Of The Question Of The Affirmation Or Negation Of Life In The Face Of Suffering, Frank M. Scavelli Apr 2017

Health And Sickness: An Examination Of The Question Of The Affirmation Or Negation Of Life In The Face Of Suffering, Frank M. Scavelli

Student Publications

In this thesis, I examine a line of thought that stretches from Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), who regarded his own work merely as an interpretation and continuation Immanuel Kant’s (1724-1804) philosophy, through Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), who reacted to Schopenhauer’s negation of life with an affirmative philosophy, to Thomas Mann (1875-1955), who, operating from within this tradition, attempted a synthesis of it as well as a critical analysis of some of its aspects and their relation to seemingly-pathological fascistic sentiment he witnessed in the Germany of the 1920s and 30s. This line of thought deals with the essential question of ...


Between The Internal And The External: Kant’S And Patañjali’S Arguments For The Reality Of Physical Objects And Their Independence From Mind, Ana Laura Funes Maderey Jan 2017

Between The Internal And The External: Kant’S And Patañjali’S Arguments For The Reality Of Physical Objects And Their Independence From Mind, Ana Laura Funes Maderey

Comparative Philosophy

Although coming from two very different paths, both Kant and Patañjali present similar strategies to refute the skeptic argument that denies the real and independent existence of physical objects. This essay examines both strategies through the reconstruction of Kant’s and Patañjali’s twofold refutation of idealism: one based on the perceptual distinction between the real and the illusory, and the other one based on the ontological necessity of a permanent external object to understand change. I argue that the second strategy is philosophically stronger due to its phenomenological recognition of the body as a grounding point, and that this ...


Sublime And Anti-Sublime: Reconsidering The Relation Of The Sublime To Technology, Konstantinos Vassiliou Jan 2017

Sublime And Anti-Sublime: Reconsidering The Relation Of The Sublime To Technology, Konstantinos Vassiliou

Contemporary Aesthetics (Journal)

The aesthetic notion of the sublime has been traced in different fields in the growing spheres of technology, capitalism, and digitality. The variable character of the sublime is partly due to the fact that it is identified with specific objects or sources. It can emerge whenever there is an antithesis between the infinite extensions of reason and the limits of the representative faculty. Taking into account this variance, this article seeks to reexamine the relationship of the sublime to technology, especially in view of current digital capabilities. In doing so, I argue that the notion of the sublime involves its ...


Into The Heart Of Madness: Georg Büchner’S “Lenz” And “Woyzeck”, Kant’S Left And Right Hands, Nicholas Zyzda Jan 2017

Into The Heart Of Madness: Georg Büchner’S “Lenz” And “Woyzeck”, Kant’S Left And Right Hands, Nicholas Zyzda

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In my research project I investigate the representation of madness in Georg Büchner’s novella “Lenz” and drama “Woyzeck”. These literary fragments reveal a deep ambivalence in their expression of madness, which operates both on the surface of each text and within it, so that not only are the main characters insane, but the texts themselves are mad. This ambivalence is elaborated in terms of Büchner’s engagement with some of the deepest problems of modernity, namely the problems of spatial orientation and judgment between the rule and exception as rooted in Kant’s distinction between concepts and intuitions in ...


Sketches, Impressions And Confessions: Literature As Experiment In The Nineteenth Century, Andrew Ragsdale Lallier Dec 2016

Sketches, Impressions And Confessions: Literature As Experiment In The Nineteenth Century, Andrew Ragsdale Lallier

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, I argue for the existence and critical relevance of a program of experimental literature in the long nineteenth century, developed in the aesthetics of German Romanticism and adapted in a set of texts by Thomas De Quincey, Charles Dickens and George Eliot. My introduction positions this argument in context of larger debates concerning form, theory and literary capacity, provides points of connection between these authors, and outlines the most prominent features of experimental literature. In the first chapter, I present an unorthodox reading of Kant’s Critique of Judgment, accompanied by a brief account of the literary-critical ...


Review Of Art And Ethics In A Material World: Kant's Pragmatist Legacy By Jennifer A. Mcmahon, William Simkulet Sep 2016

Review Of Art And Ethics In A Material World: Kant's Pragmatist Legacy By Jennifer A. Mcmahon, William Simkulet

Philosophy & Comparative Religion Department Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin Aug 2016

Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Animal Sentience

Both Descartes the rationalist and Hume the empiricist, polar opposites philosophically, denied the unity and continuity of animal mind. Kant pointed out that the presence of retrievable memories entails unity of consciousness. Rowlands now argues that animals too have unity of consciousness.


Principles, Virtues, Or Detachment? Some Appreciative Reflections On Karen Stohr’S 'On Manners', Bryan William Van Norden Jun 2016

Principles, Virtues, Or Detachment? Some Appreciative Reflections On Karen Stohr’S 'On Manners', Bryan William Van Norden

Faculty Research and Reports

No abstract provided.


I Want To Believe: Kant, The X Files, And Cosmopolitical Unity, Jeremy Knickerbocker May 2016

I Want To Believe: Kant, The X Files, And Cosmopolitical Unity, Jeremy Knickerbocker

Cinesthesia

Kant’s final chapter of Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, puts forth certain observations concerning the characteristics of human beings. In order for these observations to have rational validity as a proposed ‘human nature,’ however, Kant admits that it is necessary to compare between humans and another species of rational animal. Thus in an effort not to succumb to a naively anthropocentric thesis of nature, Kant still falls victim to his own anthropocentric privileging of rationality as a strictly human capacity—at least terrestrially speaking. While Kant fails to recognize any other earthly species as a rational animal ...


Naturalism And The Surreptitious Embrace Of Necessity, Kurt Mosser Apr 2016

Naturalism And The Surreptitious Embrace Of Necessity, Kurt Mosser

Kurt Mosser

In this article, two philosophical positions that structure distinct approaches in the history of metaphysics and epistemology are briefly characterized and contrasted. While one view, “naturalism,” rejects an a priori commitment to necessity, the other view, “transcendentalism,” insists on that commitment. It is shown that at the level of the fundamentals of thought, judgment, and reason, the dispute dissolves, and the naturalists' employment of “necessity for all practical purposes” is at best only nominally distinct from the transcendentalists' use of the same concept.


Moral Dilemmas And Moral Theories, Jihwan Yu Feb 2016

Moral Dilemmas And Moral Theories, Jihwan Yu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In my dissertation, I argue for the existence of moral dilemmas and draw out the implications of their existence on major moral theories. A moral dilemma arises when: a moral agent holds moral principles entailing inconsistent actions, the moral principles do not override each other, and the moral agent cannot perform all the actions entailed by moral principles at the same time. I defend the arguments for moral dilemmas by considering objections to them and offering replies to those objections. On the other hand, I raise objections to the arguments against moral dilemmas in order to refute them.

Having argued ...


Thinking About Friendship: Historical And Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives, Damian Caluori Jan 2016

Thinking About Friendship: Historical And Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives, Damian Caluori

Damian Caluori

It is hard to imagine a good life without friendship. But what precisely makes friendship so valuable? And what is friendship at all? What unites friends and distinguishes them from others? Is the preference we give to friends rationally and morally justifiable? This collection of thirteen new essays on the philosophy of friendship considers such questions. In particular, it offers new interpretations of the answers given by famous classic philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle and Kant and provides fresh answers by leading contemporary philosophers. It is organized around five topics: the nature of friendship, the unity of friendship, friendship and ...


Review Of Essays On Kant's Political Philosophy, Harry Van Der Linden Jan 2016

Review Of Essays On Kant's Political Philosophy, Harry Van Der Linden

Harry van der Linden

Article reviews the book "Essays on Kant's Political Philosophy," edited by Howard Lloyd Williams.


Review Of Kant's System Of Rights, Harry Van Der Linden Jan 2016

Review Of Kant's System Of Rights, Harry Van Der Linden

Harry van der Linden

This article reviews the book "Kant's System of Rights," by Leslie A. Mulholland.


Review Of Kant's Platonic Revolution In Moral And Political Philosophy, Harry Van Der Linden Jan 2016

Review Of Kant's Platonic Revolution In Moral And Political Philosophy, Harry Van Der Linden

Harry van der Linden

Article reviews the book "Kant's Platonic Revolution in Moral and Political Philosophy," by T.K. Seung.


Review Of From Marx To Kant, Harry Van Der Linden Jan 2016

Review Of From Marx To Kant, Harry Van Der Linden

Harry van der Linden

This article reviews the book "From Marx to Kant," by Dick Howard.


Imagination Bound: A Theoretical Imperative, Robert Michael Guerin Jan 2016

Imagination Bound: A Theoretical Imperative, Robert Michael Guerin

Theses and Dissertations--Philosophy

Kant’s theory of productive imagination falls at the center of the critical project. This is evident in the 1781 Critique of Pure Reason, where Kant claims that the productive imagination is a “fundamental faculty of the human soul” and indispensable for the construction of experience. And yet, in the second edition of 1787 Kant seemingly demotes this imagination as a mere “effect of the understanding on sensibility” and all but withdraws its place from the Transcendental Deduction.

In his 1929 Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, Martin Heidegger provided an explanation for the revisions between 1781 and 1787. Heidegger ...