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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Textures Of The Ordinary: Doing Anthropology After Wittgenstein [Table Of Contents], Veena Das May 2020

Textures Of The Ordinary: Doing Anthropology After Wittgenstein [Table Of Contents], Veena Das

Philosophy

Textures of the Ordinary: Doing Anthropology After Wittgenstein is an exploration of everyday life in which anthropology finds a companionship with philosophy. Based on two decades of ethnographic work among low-income urban families in India, Das shows how the notion of texture allows her to align her ethnography with stunning anthropological moments in Wittgenstein and Cavell as well as in literary texts from India. Das poses a compelling question – how might we speak of a human form of life when the very idea of the human has been put into question? The response to this question, Das argues, does not ...


Anarchaeologies: Reading As Misreading [Table Of Contents], Erin Graff Zivin Jan 2020

Anarchaeologies: Reading As Misreading [Table Of Contents], Erin Graff Zivin

Literature

How do we read after the so-called death of literature? If we are to attend to the proclamations that the representational apparatuses of literature and politics are dead, what aesthetic, ethical, and political possibilities remain for us today? Our critical moment, Graff Zivin argues, demands anarchaeological reading: reading for the blind spots, errors, points of opacity or untranslatability in works of philosophy and art.

Rather than applying concepts from philosophy in order to understand or elucidate cultural works, the book exposes works of philosophy, literary theory, narrative, poetry, film, and performance art and activism to one another. Working specifically with ...


Xenotransplantation, Subsistence Hunting And The Pursuit Of Health: Lessons For Animal Rights-Based Vegan Advocacy, Nathan M. Nobis Sep 2019

Xenotransplantation, Subsistence Hunting And The Pursuit Of Health: Lessons For Animal Rights-Based Vegan Advocacy, Nathan M. Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, PhD

I argue that, contrary to what Tom Regan suggests, his rights view implies that subsistence hunting is wrong, that is, killing animals for food is wrong even when they are the only available food source, since doing so violates animal rights. We can see that subsistence hunting is wrong on the rights view by seeing why animal experimentation, specifically xenotransplanation, is wrong on the rights view: if it’s wrong to kill an animal to take organs to save a human life, it’s wrong to kill an animal to eat that animal to save a human life or improve ...


Care Of The Sexual Self: Askesis As A Route To Sex Education, Shaun Douglas Miller Jul 2019

Care Of The Sexual Self: Askesis As A Route To Sex Education, Shaun Douglas Miller

Dissertations (2009 -)

In adolescent sex education, the contemporary debate has developed into two camps: the paternalistic view and the liberal view. I argue that both sides of the camp have been too focused on actions and behavior and are assuming a heteronormative background. This dissertation argues that the way to take care of the self is through exercises, techniques, self-discipline, and self-cultivation—what the ancient Greeks called áskēsis. By applying áskēsis to sex education, students will gain the character of taking care of the sexual self and have a robust outlook of themselves via sexuality.After looking at countless syllabi, I reduce ...


Legal And Ethical Considerations For Policing Nongovernmental Actors In Space, Sara Langston Jun 2019

Legal And Ethical Considerations For Policing Nongovernmental Actors In Space, Sara Langston

Sara Langston


The increasing scope of private actors engaging in the use and exploration of outer space, now and in the future, is proffering a myriad of activities directed towards and conducted in outer space. These include human space transportation, space resource utilization, space tourism, space stations and prospective human settlements, as well as an influx of supporting space-based assets and platforms. Consequently, it is likely that as access to space opens and the number of multi-national/ multi-cultural space actors expands, the interests and concerns for protecting the rights, safety and security of these nongovernmental entities and their agents will become a ...


Computer Vision Machine Learning And Future-Oriented Ethics, Abagayle Lee Blank Jun 2019

Computer Vision Machine Learning And Future-Oriented Ethics, Abagayle Lee Blank

Honors Projects

Computer Vision Machine Learning (CVML) in the application of facial recognition is currently being researched, developed, and deployed across the world. It is of interest to governments, technology companies, and consumers. However, fundamental issues remain related to human rights, error rates, and bias. These issues have the potential to create societal backlash towards the technology which could limit its benefits as well as harm people in the process. To develop facial recognition technology that will be beneficial to society in and beyond the next decade, society must put ethics at the forefront. Drawing on AI4People’s adaption of bioethics for ...


Big Data And The Reference Class Problem. What Can We Legitimately Infer About Individuals?, Catherine Greene May 2019

Big Data And The Reference Class Problem. What Can We Legitimately Infer About Individuals?, Catherine Greene

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

Big data increasingly enables prediction of the behaviour and characteristics of individuals. This is ethically concerning on privacy grounds. However, this article discusses other reasons for concern. These predictions usually rely on generalisations about what certain sorts of people tend to do. Generalisations of this sort are often under scrutiny in legal cases, where, for example, lawyers argue that people with prior convictions are more likely to be guilty of the crime they are currently on trial for. This article applies criteria for distinguishing acceptable from unacceptable generalisations in legal cases to a number of big data examples. It argues ...


Autonomous Vehicles And The Ethical Tension Between Occupant And Non-Occupant Safety, Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert, Keith W. Miller May 2019

Autonomous Vehicles And The Ethical Tension Between Occupant And Non-Occupant Safety, Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert, Keith W. Miller

Computer Ethics - Philosophical Enquiry (CEPE) Proceedings

Autonomous vehicle manufacturers, people inside an autonomous vehicle (occupants), and people outside the vehicle (non-occupants) are among the distinct stakeholders when addressing ethical issues inherent in systems that include autonomous vehicles. As responses to recent tragic cases illustrate, advocates for autonomous vehicles tend to focus on occupant safety, sometimes to the exclusion of non-occupant safety. Thus, we aim to examine ethical issues associated with non-occupant safety, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and riders of motorized scooters. We also explore the ethical implications of technical and policy ideas that some might propose to improve non-occupant safety. In addition, if safety (writ large ...


Ethical Implications Of Population Growth And Reduction, Tiana Sepahpour May 2019

Ethical Implications Of Population Growth And Reduction, Tiana Sepahpour

Student Theses 2015-Present

No abstract provided.


The Ethics Of Occultic Communication: An Invocation Of Joshua Gunn And Sissela Bok, James Thomas Begley Jr. May 2019

The Ethics Of Occultic Communication: An Invocation Of Joshua Gunn And Sissela Bok, James Thomas Begley Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Occultic rhetoric, according to Joshua Gunn, is a genre of discourse concerned with the study and practice of secret communications. The strategic sharing of secret messages involves a host of methods and conventions designed for the selective disclosure of hidden knowledge, thus controlling the boundaries of (and accessibility to power between) insider and outsider groups. Occultic rhetoric has its uses in everyday encounters, but the abuse of such manipulative strategies, especially by those in the academy and other positions of power and trust, calls for an ethical response. This dissertation submits occultic rhetoric to moral investigation by incorporating the works ...


Ethical Problems With Plastic In The Ocean, Brennan Cotter May 2019

Ethical Problems With Plastic In The Ocean, Brennan Cotter

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

In the year 2018 this paper argues that plastic use and waste is destroying our oceans and that we should address the problem by fully adopting the principle and practices of sustainability. The first section outlines the advent of our plastic disposable culture. The second section gives evidence of how plastic waste is negatively affecting marine life. The third section draws from literature in environmental philosophy to develop the concept of sustainability, and the concluding section outlines several steps we can take as individuals and nations to practice sustainability.


The Contradiction Of Representation In Levinas's Command Of The Other And The Possibility Of Responding Through The Dialogicality Of The Self, Robert Claflin May 2019

The Contradiction Of Representation In Levinas's Command Of The Other And The Possibility Of Responding Through The Dialogicality Of The Self, Robert Claflin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Emmanuel Levinas views the phenomenological tradition as being predicated on an asymmetrical relationship between the self and the other in which the self possesses the power to dominate and represent the other. This leads to the reduction of the other to the same. Instead, he wants to flip this relationship in favor of the other by showing how the very qualities of alterity and infinity enable the other to resist the self’s attempts at representation. Furthermore, he conceives of an ethics in which the self is compelled to listen to the other’s command and respond accordingly. The inherent ...


The Moral Argument, Existential Problems Of Evil, And A Non-Existential Alternative, Jonathan Smith Apr 2019

The Moral Argument, Existential Problems Of Evil, And A Non-Existential Alternative, Jonathan Smith

Senior Honors Theses

Within this paper, it is shown that certain ethical assumptions are implicit within the claim that certain kinds of evil exist. When taken in tandem with the moral argument for the existence of God, these assumptions can be arranged in such a way as to provide a contradiction. To avoid this contradiction, I posit a non-existential alternative to direct inductive arguments from evil, but the non-existential alternative gives rise to novel objections. When considering their respective ethical implications, both the existential and non-existential variations of direct inductive arguments fail. Since any direct inductive problem of evil must be either existential ...


Levinas Across The Lifespan: Human Development And The Face Of The Other, Elizabeth Gassin, Chad Maxson Apr 2019

Levinas Across The Lifespan: Human Development And The Face Of The Other, Elizabeth Gassin, Chad Maxson

Scholar Week 2016 - present

In this Scholar Week presentation, we will review the fundamentals of Emmanuel Levinas’ philosophy and integrate them with research from the field of developmental psychology. Levinas argued that ethics is the starting point of philosophy. The face of the other human functioned for him to communicate the primal social attachments between the Self and the Other. For Levinas, this primary sociability contains an infinite ethical obligation that shapes philosophy. Various lines of research in developmental psychology have demonstrated a chain of events that dovetails with Levinas’ claims. This chain of events links infant preference for human faces, the crucial role ...


Drone Warfare And Just War Theory, Harry Van Der Linden Apr 2019

Drone Warfare And Just War Theory, Harry Van Der Linden

Harry van der Linden

This book chapter addresses two questions. First, can targeted killing by drones in non-battlefield zones be justified on basis of just war theory? Second, will the proliferation and expansion of combat drones in warfare, including the introduction of autonomous drones, be an obstacle to initiating or executing wars in a just manner in the future? The first question is answered by applying traditional jus ad bellum (justice in the resort to war) and jus in bello (justice in the execution of war) principles to the American targeted killing campaign in Pakistan; the second question is answered on basis of principles ...


Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers Apr 2019

Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers

Philosophy Undergraduate Theses

This paper addresses the issue of applying moral guidelines to modern scientific research and who or what should have the authority to do so. It examines the role of morality in scientific research, and makes the argument that moral authority over scientific research should come from the scientific community. This argument is based on two premises: (1) that the scientific community is of sufficient moral character to guide the direction of scientific research and (2) that the scientific community has sufficient expertise to make informed moral decisions about scientific research.


Robodoc: Ethics Of Ai In Medicine, Halley Egnew Apr 2019

Robodoc: Ethics Of Ai In Medicine, Halley Egnew

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

What do we do when the doctor of the future may not be human? In order to assess the full effect of trying to replace human caregivers with AI machines, we must investigate the types of ethics that these machines would work under—implicit, explicit, and full. The type of AI that movies present us with are fully ethical AI; they have a sense of self. The possible implementation of AI in medicine forces us to confront not just new technology, but also the definition of consciousness and free will, so I advise that for now we just stick to ...


Against The Grain: A Philosophical Case For Requiring Service-Learning, Not Volunteer Hours, Among College Students, Daniel Gallegos Apr 2019

Against The Grain: A Philosophical Case For Requiring Service-Learning, Not Volunteer Hours, Among College Students, Daniel Gallegos

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

Policymakers and educators throughout the United States and abroad have long considered whether students should be required to participate in community service. Here, I provide a philosophical analysis of the issue, referring to the literature on the topic as well as the social crises which must be addressed, whether by students or otherwise. I conclude that while students should voluntarily participate in community service, they should not be required to engage merely by way of fulfilling a certain number of service hours. However, schools should require their students to participate in a service-learning curriculum with an accompanying community engagement project ...


An Uber Ethical Dilemma: Examining The Social Issues At Stake, Florence Chee Mar 2019

An Uber Ethical Dilemma: Examining The Social Issues At Stake, Florence Chee

Florence Chee

This paper aims to engage with the social issues emerging from the increasing reliance upon app-driven services, as they pertain to precarious labor and ethical standpoints in a digital era. Popular ride services such as Uber have been lauded for bringing much needed transportation services that are superior to expensive taxis or unpleasant or inaccessible public transit.

Design/methodology/approach

As a result of over three years of ongoing research and analysis, this paper is a comprehensive assessment of a number of social issues facing the integration of practices both signified and enacted in an economy driven by apps such ...


Just Borders: The Foundations Of Immigration Policy, Cody Fenwick Feb 2019

Just Borders: The Foundations Of Immigration Policy, Cody Fenwick

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Do countries have a presumptive right to limit immigration at their discretion? It is often assumed that they do, though both the immigration restrictions championed in practice and the purported justifications for the principled right to deny entry to foreigners are often supported by implicit (or explicit) racist prejudices. Many political philosophers have offered putatively more sophisticated and reasoned defenses of the state’s discretionary right to restrict immigration. I discuss the philosophical arguments for the restrictionist view on grounds of national territorial rights, and separately, on the grounds of nationalist partiality toward one’s fellow citizens. I will argue ...


Morality From Meaninglessness In Simone De Beauvoir's "The Ethics Of Ambiguity", Victoria L. Riggs Jan 2019

Morality From Meaninglessness In Simone De Beauvoir's "The Ethics Of Ambiguity", Victoria L. Riggs

University Honors Program Theses

In her book The Ethics of Ambiguity, French existentialist writer Simone de Beauvoir delves into the human condition and the possibilities for morality that arise from her understanding of such. Beginning with the assumption that there is no externally objective meaning or value to humanity, Beauvoir presents humanity as fundamentally free to create meaning and values for themselves. Beauvoir argues that humans are all simultaneously free to choose, yet limited in our choice by the facts of our situations, a paradoxical state of being she labels as our fundamental ambiguity. It is because of this ambiguity, she asserts, that we ...


Mystical Experience And Epistemic Injustice, Jake Hudson-Humphrey Jan 2019

Mystical Experience And Epistemic Injustice, Jake Hudson-Humphrey

CMC Senior Theses

In this paper, we explore mystical experiences and knowledge through the application of Miranda Fricker's framework of epistemic injustice. Focusing on experiences in which the usual division between Self and Other temporarily dissolves (brought about spontaneously, through contemplative or religious practice, or through the ingestion of psychedelics), we examine the knowledge gained from these experiences in its multiple forms and discuss how the mystic, when attempting to share the knowledge she has gained, may face challenges to effective testimonial exchange which constitute testimonial injustices. Similarly, due to a cultural privileging of the rational and objective, we imagine how the ...


Pro Tanto Principles In Public Policy, Marisa Galvez Jan 2019

Pro Tanto Principles In Public Policy, Marisa Galvez

CMC Senior Theses

Even when given the exact same moral dilemma, equally rational peers, colleagues, and friends will disagree about the right course of action. Pro tanto principles are one way to resolve moral conflicts such as these. When broadening the conflicts to real life situations, such as those seen in public policy, pro tanto principles prove to be an extremely useful tool. This paper explores the difference between the way that the individual interacts with pro tanto principles and the way that public policy interacts with such a moral system. In the end, difficulties in public policy attempt to be resolved by ...


Introduction To "The Oxford Handbook Of Ethics And Economics", Mark D. White Jan 2019

Introduction To "The Oxford Handbook Of Ethics And Economics", Mark D. White

Publications and Research

Economics and ethics are both valuable tools for analyzing the behavior and actions of human beings and institutions. Adam Smith, the father of modern economics, considered them two sides of the same coin, but since economics was formalized and mathematicised in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the fields have largely followed separate paths.

The Oxford Handbook of Ethics and Economics provides a timely and thorough survey of the various ways ethics can, does, and should inform economic theory and practice. The first part of the book, Foundations, explores how the most prominent schools of moral philosophy relate to economics ...


Becoming Biophilic Beasts, Nat Tereshchenko Jan 2019

Becoming Biophilic Beasts, Nat Tereshchenko

Senior Projects Spring 2019

This project seeks, by way of experimentation with a poetic and lyrical register, to embody in its form and content the expression of the interrelated and co-constitutive relationship between human beings and other animals. It addresses through its form the limitations of philosophy and of traditional notions of rational argumentation in order to expose ways in which such methods of writing about ethics in regards to animals have fallen short of addressing that which brings us close to animals, allows us to touch and be touched by them, and ignites us to act according to a kind of felt and ...


The Revolt Against Mourning: Woolf, Joyce, Faulkner, And Beyond, Andrew Leo Beutel Jan 2019

The Revolt Against Mourning: Woolf, Joyce, Faulkner, And Beyond, Andrew Leo Beutel

Theses and Dissertations--English

The Revolt against Mourning calls into question the widespread critical alignment of literary modernism with Freudian melancholia. Focusing instead on “mourning,” through close readings of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway, James Joyce’s Ulysses, and William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury, I demonstrate how their depictions of this notion overturn both its traditional and contemporary understandings. Whereas Freud conceives mourning as a psychic labor that the subject slowly and painfully carries out, Woolf, Joyce, and Faulkner convey it as a destabilizing, subversive, and transformative force to which the subject is radically passive. For Freud, mourning is a matter ...


Developing A Counterfactual Comparative Account Of Harming By Omission, Rebecca Mullen Jan 2019

Developing A Counterfactual Comparative Account Of Harming By Omission, Rebecca Mullen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The goal of this paper is to defend the counterfactual, comparative account of harm by developing an account of when an omission harms someone. Intuitively, it seems as though omissions on the part of moral agents do sometimes count as a harm against someone else, as when a parent fails to feed their child. There are also other cases in which denying that an omission causes harm seems more natural, such as cases involving agents who could not have done otherwise or for whom acting to prevent the harm would be supererogatory. I examine several possible candidates for explaining the ...


Why Analyze A Sonnet? Avoiding Presumption Through Close Reading, Devon Madon Jan 2019

Why Analyze A Sonnet? Avoiding Presumption Through Close Reading, Devon Madon

Faculty Publications & Research

In the first session of my Introduction to Shakespeare course, I always teach one of Shakespeare's best-known sonnets: Sonnet 130, "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun:' I open with this sonnet because students frequently think that they know what the poem is about. W hen I ask the class, someone will usually give me the most common misreading of the sonnet: the speaker tells his mistress that she does not look like other women, but he loves her all the same. Rather than dismissing this reading, I ask many questions. How did you reach this conclusion? What ...


How Anti-Aggregation Is A Viable And Sensible Perspective To Maintain And Align With The Endeavor Of Saving The Lives Of People Suffering Around The World, Lauren Rosenthal Jan 2019

How Anti-Aggregation Is A Viable And Sensible Perspective To Maintain And Align With The Endeavor Of Saving The Lives Of People Suffering Around The World, Lauren Rosenthal

Undergraduate Honors Theses

By dissecting the moral permissibility and obligations surrounding the donation of discretionary funds and profits to be put towards the saving of lives of people suffering around the world, I hope to make progress in and add value to the conversation surrounding ethical behavior on a large scale. Holding people, groups, organizations, etc. accountable for their financial practices and questioning the effects of different routes of action will allow me to investigate and inch closer towards unraveling the level of moral permissibility of these actions in question, which will in turn shape the expected everyday behavior of people and groups ...


The Three Moral Questions, Russell S. Leonard Jan 2019

The Three Moral Questions, Russell S. Leonard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper examines the manner in which moral theory ought to be conducted. It focuses on three questions of ethical theory: (1) Why do we conduct moral theory; (2) How ought moral theory be grounded and explored; (3) What is morally good. While many people concern their moral investigations primarily with the third question, I argue that this question of the morally good cannot be satisfactorily answered until the motivational why and methodological how questions are thoroughly examined. To frame this argument, I examine how two famous philosophers, David Hume and Immanuel Kant, answer questions (1) and (2). Based on ...