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Bioethics

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Articles 1 - 30 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Epistemic Injustice And Suicidality, Sam Lilly May 2019

Epistemic Injustice And Suicidality, Sam Lilly

Honors Program Theses

This paper extends both Miranda Fricker's framework regarding epistemic injustice, found in her book 'Epistemic Injustice, as well as Ian James Kidd and Havi Carel's essay "Epistemic Injustice and Illness" to a small population of people who identify internally with the desire to kill oneself i.e. suicidality. I argue that a certain population of suicidal people are especially vulnerable targets of epistemic injustice.


Is It Ethical To Genetically Enhance Your Future Child?, Bella Ratner Jan 2019

Is It Ethical To Genetically Enhance Your Future Child?, Bella Ratner

Scripps Senior Theses

As the science related to genetic engineering becomes more advanced, more and more ethical questions relating to technologies such as CRISPR and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) arise. If we have the opportunity to choose the genes of our future children in order have children with our desired characteristics, should we do so? Is it okay to mess with some genes of your future child and not others? In this paper, I discuss arguments and objections associated with these questions. The aim of this paper is to show that it is ethical to alter the DNA of your future child or ...


Baby M Turns 30: The Law And Policy Of Surrogate Motherhood, Eric A. Feldman Jan 2018

Baby M Turns 30: The Law And Policy Of Surrogate Motherhood, Eric A. Feldman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article marks the 30th anniversary of the Supreme Court of New Jersey’s Baby M decision by offering a critical analysis of surrogacy policy in the United States. Despite fundamental changes in both science and society since the case was decided, state courts and legislatures remain bitterly divided on the legality of surrogacy. In arguing for a more uniform, permissive legal posture toward surrogacy, the article addresses five central debates in the surrogacy literature.

First, should the legal system accommodate those seeking conception through surrogacy, or should it prohibit such arrangements? Second, if surrogacy is permitted, what steps can ...


A Game We Have To Lose: Overcoming The Harm Of Coming Into Existence, Hannah Strang Dec 2017

A Game We Have To Lose: Overcoming The Harm Of Coming Into Existence, Hannah Strang

Honors Projects

This paper explores the asymmetry of pleasure and pain as expressed in David Benatar’s book Better Never to Have Been, which is the basis for the argument that it is always an irreparable harm to bring a person into existence, and therefore we are morally obligated to pursue extinction as a species. I will examine Benatar’s argument in support of the asymmetry’s existence and analyze the strength of his argument for extinction overall, ultimately determining that his conclusion is too strong. I will defend this claim on the grounds that Benatar’s asymmetry implies the truth of ...


Fiduciary Duties And Commercial Surrogacy, Emma A. Ryman Aug 2017

Fiduciary Duties And Commercial Surrogacy, Emma A. Ryman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Since the 1980’s, surrogacy has become a popular reproductive alternative for individuals experiencing infertility. The ethical and legal analyses of surrogacy have been rich and varied. Some bioethicists have charged the commercial surrogacy industry with the exploitation of global southern women or with the impermissible commodification of children and women’s reproductive capacities. Others have praised the potential for economic empowerment and bodily autonomy that surrogacy may accord to women. However, throughout these explorations of the ethics of surrogacy, comparatively little attention has been paid to the moral status of a crucial actor: the fertility doctor. Without doctors willing ...


Human-Nonhuman Chimeras, Ontology, And Dignity: A Constructivist Approach To The Ethics Of Conducting Research On Cross-Species Hybrids, Jonathan M. Vajda Jan 2017

Human-Nonhuman Chimeras, Ontology, And Dignity: A Constructivist Approach To The Ethics Of Conducting Research On Cross-Species Hybrids, Jonathan M. Vajda

The Hilltop Review

Developments in biological technology in the last few decades highlight the surprising and ever-expanding practical benefits of stem cells. With this progress, the possibility of combining human and nonhuman organisms is a reality, with ethical boundaries that are not readily obvious. These inter-species hybrids are of a larger class of biological entities called “chimeras.” As the concept of a human-nonhuman creature is conjured in our minds, either incredulous wonder or grotesque horror is likely to follow. This paper seeks to mitigate those worries and demotivate reasonable concerns raised against chimera research, all the while pressing current ethical positions toward their ...


Taking From The Dead: An Examination Of Cadaveric Organ Procurement, Alexander Zambrano Jan 2017

Taking From The Dead: An Examination Of Cadaveric Organ Procurement, Alexander Zambrano

Philosophy Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Within the last 40 years, post mortem organ transplantation has emerged as a reliable and effective life-saving medical therapy. Since an integral part of organ transplantation involves organ donors, this dissertation considers a series of interrelated ethical and policy questions on donor autonomy.

In Chapter 1, I consider presumed consent policies of organ procurement, which presume that people have consented to organ donation if they fail to “opt-out” of donation. I give and defend a novel argument, which implies that the main argument typically offered in favor of a presumed consent policy is unsound.

In Chapter 2, I discuss the ...


Before The Birth Of Bioethics: The Shaping Of Physicians’ Ethics In Canada, 1940-1970, Maureen Muldoon Jan 2017

Before The Birth Of Bioethics: The Shaping Of Physicians’ Ethics In Canada, 1940-1970, Maureen Muldoon

The Canadian Society for Study of Practical Ethics / Société Canadienne Pour L'étude De L'éthique Appliquée — SCEEA

Students who study bioethics today usually learn very little about the medical ethics of physicians prior to the 1970’s. The practices of earlier physicians are often characterized as being paternalistic and lacking in respect for patient autonomy and justice. Yet just as the emergence of bioethics was shaped by social context, so was the medical ethics that preceded it.

This paper is a work in “descriptive ethics,” which explores the de facto morality of physicians roughly between 1940 and 1970. De facto morality refers to the profession’s officially endorsed standards as stated in its codes of ethics and ...


Is Proxy Consent For An Invasive Procedure On A Patient With Intellectual Disabilities Ethically Sufficient?, Sonya Charles, Stephen Corey, Peter Bulova Apr 2016

Is Proxy Consent For An Invasive Procedure On A Patient With Intellectual Disabilities Ethically Sufficient?, Sonya Charles, Stephen Corey, Peter Bulova

Philosophy & Comparative Religion Department Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Ethical Dilemmas When Refusing Medical Treatment: Modernized Bioethical Principle Of Autonomy, Melissa A. Micek Mar 2016

Ethical Dilemmas When Refusing Medical Treatment: Modernized Bioethical Principle Of Autonomy, Melissa A. Micek

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

In 1978, Mary C. Northern was admitted to Tennessee Nashville General Hospital for an infection in both of her feet. It was discovered that Ms. Northern was suffering from untreated and severely gangrenous frostbite, which is deemed fatal if left untreated. The healthcare professionals agreed that in order to prevent the gangrene from spreading, both of her feet would need to be amputated. However, Ms. Northern strongly refused the life-saving operation. Ms. Northern posed no threat to anyone; however, it is questionable what the most ethical course of action is when a patient refuses treatment. This raises the question, should ...


Ability And Abnormality, Jessica West Jan 2016

Ability And Abnormality, Jessica West

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis addresses questions relating to perceptions of abilities and abnormalities found in everyday life. Abilities in this paper range from a total lack of ability to function in extreme disability to a level of ability expected by society to enhanced and radically enhanced abilities and their place in the realm of abnormality. We begin by establishing the differences between abilities and enhancements. Following this is a discussion regarding the ethical concerns of human enhancement. After this we turn to a discussion of abnormality and the social experience of abnormality. These discussions lead into establishing a basis for how many ...


Autonomy And Distributive Justice At The End Of Life, Corinna Fukushima Jan 2016

Autonomy And Distributive Justice At The End Of Life, Corinna Fukushima

Scripps Senior Theses

Discussions of autonomy at the end of life in health care contexts is no new phenomenon. However, what seems to have changed in issues of autonomy is cases where patients want to refuse a treatment to cases where patients are demanding more treatment when medical professionals may not agree or be able to provide them with the medical treatment. Some key competing interests impacting patient autonomy include beneficence-doing what is in the best interests of the health or well-being of the patient- and resource limitations. Here, I will explore distributive justice theories that impact the end of life and how ...


Abortion And Animal Rights: Does Either Topic Lead To The Other?, Nathan M. Nobis Dec 2015

Abortion And Animal Rights: Does Either Topic Lead To The Other?, Nathan M. Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, Ph.D.

Should people who believe in animal rights think that abortion is wrong? Should pro-lifers accept animal rights? If you think it’s wrong to kill fetuses to end pregnancies, should you also think it’s wrong to kill animals to, say, eat them? If you, say, oppose animal research, should you also oppose abortion?
Some argue ‘yes’ and others argue ‘no’ to either or both sets of questions.The correct answer, however, seems to be, ‘it depends’: it depends on why someone accepts animal rights, and why someone thinks abortion is wrong: it depends on their reasons.

https://whatswrongcvsp.com ...


Review Of Sherry F. Colb And Michael C. Dorf Beating Hearts: Abortion And Animal Rights, Nathan M. Nobis Dec 2015

Review Of Sherry F. Colb And Michael C. Dorf Beating Hearts: Abortion And Animal Rights, Nathan M. Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, Ph.D.


In this book[1], law professors Sherry F. Colb and Michael C. Dorf argue that:
  1. many non-human animals, at least vertebrates, are morally considerable and prima facie wrong to harm because they are sentient, i.e., conscious and capable of experiencing pains and pleasures;
  2. most aborted human fetuses are not sentient -- their brains and nervous systems are not yet developed enough for sentience -- and so the motivating moral concern for animals doesn't apply to most abortions[2];
  3. later abortions affecting sentient fetuses, while rare, raise serious moral concerns, but these abortions -- like all abortions -- invariably involve the interests and ...


A Response To Peter Singer: The Logic Of Effective Altruism, András Miklós Jun 2015

A Response To Peter Singer: The Logic Of Effective Altruism, András Miklós

András Miklós

The effective altruism movement championed by Peter Singer could have even greater impact if it did not focus exclusively on individual philanthropy. Firms also need guidance in order to do the most good, in the face of claims about their special responsibility to, on the one hand, shareholders and, on the other, employees and those who might suffer from corporate profit-seeking.


An Assessment Of The Therapeutic Fib: The Ethical And Emotional Role Of Therapeutic Lying In The Caregiving Of Alzheimer's Disease Patients By Non-Medical Caregivers, Dina Green Feb 2015

An Assessment Of The Therapeutic Fib: The Ethical And Emotional Role Of Therapeutic Lying In The Caregiving Of Alzheimer's Disease Patients By Non-Medical Caregivers, Dina Green

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study qualitatively assesses the various aspects of the use of the therapeutic lie in care giving for Alzheimer's Disease patients while examining the ethics of lying associated in and out of the medical setting. The objectives of this study are to: gain an understanding of the role therapeutic lying plays in the care given by non-medical caregivers through a series of focus groups and interviews; examine the moral and emotional issues related to the use of this practice with a focus on non-medical caregivers; gather knowledge of the use of therapeutic lying in order to improve care for ...


Philosophical Foundations Of Physician-Assisted Death And Euthanasia Legislation In Oregon And The Netherlands: A Comparative Analysis, Rebecca F. Stein Jan 2015

Philosophical Foundations Of Physician-Assisted Death And Euthanasia Legislation In Oregon And The Netherlands: A Comparative Analysis, Rebecca F. Stein

Honors Theses (PPE)

No abstract provided.


Justification For Conscience Exemptions In Health Care, Lori Kantymir, Carolyn Mcleod Jan 2014

Justification For Conscience Exemptions In Health Care, Lori Kantymir, Carolyn Mcleod

Philosophy Publications

Some bioethicists argue that conscientious objectors in health care should have to justify themselves, just as objectors in the military do. They should have to provide reasons that explain why they should be exempt from offering the services that they find offensive. There are two versions of this view in the literature, each giving different standards of justification. We show these views are each either too permissive (i.e. would result in problematic exemptions based on conscience) or too restrictive (i.e. would produce problematic denials of exemption). We then develop a middle ground position that we believe better combines ...


The Limits Of Rationality: Suicidality, Affectivity, And The Rational, Maria Jennifer Kulp Jan 2014

The Limits Of Rationality: Suicidality, Affectivity, And The Rational, Maria Jennifer Kulp

Dissertations

In this project, I expose conceptual and moral difficulties with the concept of rational suicide. After offering a comprehensive list of criteria used to define rationality in the bioethics literature, I turn to the scholarship of Susan Sherwin, Susan Wolf, Rosemarie Tong, Lisa Ikemoto and others to apply feminist critiques regarding the privileging of the liberal individual and claims of value neutrality in bioethics generally to the rational suicide literature specifically. Further, using the work of Genevieve Lloyd, I argue that just as definitions of rationality have been used to marginalize vulnerable populations (e.g., women and minorities), a similar ...


The Bad Habit Of Bearing Children, H Theixos Dec 2013

The Bad Habit Of Bearing Children, H Theixos

H Theixos

Procreation – the act of having and raising biological children – is generally not a life choice that is subject to moral scrutiny. In this paper the authors argue that decisions to procreate are morally evaluable, and that such evaluation reveals that prospective parents have a defeasible obligation to prioritize adoption over procreation. The obligation is defeated by the lack of desire to become a parent, and also in certain cases where legal are logistically onerous. We conclude that for those prospective parents who are unaffected by the defeasibility conditions have a duty to prioritize adoption, regardless of the strength, power, or ...


Researchers’ Perceptions Of Ethical Challenges In Cluster Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Analysis, Andrew Mcrae, Carol Bennett, Judith Belle Brown, Charles Weijer, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Shazia Chaudhry, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Jeremy Grimshaw, Merrick Zwarenstein, Monica Taljaard Jan 2013

Researchers’ Perceptions Of Ethical Challenges In Cluster Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Analysis, Andrew Mcrae, Carol Bennett, Judith Belle Brown, Charles Weijer, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Shazia Chaudhry, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Jeremy Grimshaw, Merrick Zwarenstein, Monica Taljaard

Charles Weijer

Background

Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) pose ethical challenges for investigators and ethics committees. This study describes the views and experiences of CRT researchers with respect to: (1) ethical challenges in CRTs; (2) the ethics review process for CRTs; and (3) the need for comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs.

Methods

Descriptive qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of 20 experienced CRT researchers.

Results

Informants expressed concern over the potential for bias that may result from requirements to obtain informed consent from research participants in CRTs. Informants suggested that the need for informed consent ought to be related to ...


Bioethics In Canada, Charles Weijer, Anthony Skelton, Samantha Brennan Dec 2012

Bioethics In Canada, Charles Weijer, Anthony Skelton, Samantha Brennan

Samantha Brennan

This comprehensive introduction to bioethical issues emphasizes Canadian policies, issues, and scholars. Using the human lifespan as an organizing narrative, Bioethics in Canada explores ethical theories through a diverse selection of readings discussing traditional and cutting-edge topics in the field.

Readership : Bioethics in Canada is a core text for bioethics courses, generally offered in second- or third-year through philosophy departments at Canadian universities.

http://www.oupcanada.com/catalog/9780195440157.html


Adult Children And Eldercare: The Moral Considerations Of Filial Obligations, H Theixos Dec 2012

Adult Children And Eldercare: The Moral Considerations Of Filial Obligations, H Theixos

H Theixos

This essay investigates the demands on adult children to provide care for their elderly/ill parents from a socio-moral perspective. In order to narrow the examination, the question pursued here is agent-relative: What social and moral complexities are involved for the adult child when their parent(s) need care? First, this article examines our society’s expectation that adult children are morally obligated to provide care for their parents. Second, the essay articulates how transgressing against this normative expectation can inure significant moral criticism. The final sections present these tensions within the context of disability.


Justice, Health, And Normal Function: A Political Foundation For Just Health Distribution, Erik Randall Krag May 2012

Justice, Health, And Normal Function: A Political Foundation For Just Health Distribution, Erik Randall Krag

Doctoral Dissertations

Health is a particularly important social good, not least because it protects equality of opportunity: whatever goals we have, we need health to pursue them. Justice requires that we protect equality of opportunity, and so a just society must protect the health of its citizens. However, health resources are scarce; hence, theories of justice must consider how to distribute them fairly. Such distributional schemes must meet two requirements: first, they must fix what counts as a health need, and second, they must determine how to prioritize health needs. Existing discussions often focus on the second requirement alone, but this risks ...


Life, Transferable: Questioning The Commodity-Based Approach To Transplantation Ethics, David Dillard-Wright Mar 2012

Life, Transferable: Questioning The Commodity-Based Approach To Transplantation Ethics, David Dillard-Wright

Faculty Publications

Some bioethicists have proposed a legalized market in human organs as a solution to transplant waiting lists and global poverty. Solutions to organ procurement problems that are solely market-based would unfairly shift the burdens of medical procedures onto developing nations. Market advocates base their claims on the understanding of organs as property, a position that should be problematized. Instrumentalizing people in this way is made part of the broader commodification of animals and the environment. Combating the market mentality requires a return to the holistic view of bioethics that led to the founding of the field.


Telling It Like It Is: A Proposal To Improve Transparency In Biomedical Research, John Hadley Dec 2011

Telling It Like It Is: A Proposal To Improve Transparency In Biomedical Research, John Hadley

Between the Species

Recent proposals to improve public communication about animal-based biomedical research have been narrowly focused on reforming biomedical journal submission guidelines. My suggestion for communication reform is broader in scope reaching beyond the research community to healthcare communicators and ultimately the general public. The suggestion is for researchers to provide journalists and public relations practitioners with concise summaries of their ‘animal use data’. Animal use data is collected by researchers and intended for the public record but is rarely, if ever, given significant media exposure. By providing healthcare communicators with specific details about their animal use, researchers can play a role ...


The Impact Of Regulating Social Science Research With Biomedical Regulations, Brenda Braxton Durosinmi Dec 2011

The Impact Of Regulating Social Science Research With Biomedical Regulations, Brenda Braxton Durosinmi

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal agencies follow some form of the policy. The Common Rule defines basic policies for conducting biomedical and social science research. Almost from the inception of the Common Rule social scientists have expressed concerns of the policy's medical framework of regulations having its applicability also to human research ...


Wittgenstein And Aesthetic Reasoning With Stories In The Bioethics Classroom, Michael Woods Nash Aug 2011

Wittgenstein And Aesthetic Reasoning With Stories In The Bioethics Classroom, Michael Woods Nash

Doctoral Dissertations

Wittgenstein once remarked that the same kind of reasoning that occurs in ordinary conversations about works of art can be found “in Ethics, but also in Philosophy.” That observation has been almost entirely overlooked by his commentators. What is aesthetic reasoning? What does it look like in conversations about art? And where might we find examples of such reasoning “in Ethics”? To set the stage for my answers, I begin with an overview of the early Wittgenstein’s view of ethics and aesthetics, emphasizing two ideas that were retained in his later view of aesthetic reasoning: the moral importance of ...


What Is A Human Person? An Exploration & Critique Of Contemporary Perspectives, Emmanuel Cumplido May 2011

What Is A Human Person? An Exploration & Critique Of Contemporary Perspectives, Emmanuel Cumplido

Senior Honors Projects

What is a Human Person? An Exploration and Critique of Physicalist Perspectives

Emmanuel Cumplido

Faculty Sponsor: Donald Zeyl, Philosophy

Answers to the question “What is a human person?” that have garnered the allegiance of people throughout millennia fall under two broad categories: “physicalism” and “dualism”. One of the earliest renditions of physicalism was the philosophy of the ancient Greek atomists. In their view, all of reality could be explained through two principles: atoms and empty space. As a consequence, people were thought to be nothing but assemblages of atoms in space. Plato’s Phaedo presents one of the earliest philosophical ...


Ethical Issues Posed By Cluster Randomized Trials In Health Research, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Monica Taljaard, Ariella Binik, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Antonio Gallo, Andrew Mcrae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein Apr 2011

Ethical Issues Posed By Cluster Randomized Trials In Health Research, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Monica Taljaard, Ariella Binik, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Antonio Gallo, Andrew Mcrae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein

Charles Weijer

The cluster randomized trial (CRT) is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2 ...