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2016

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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Rationality, Parapsychology, And Artificial Intelligence In Military And Intelligence Research By The United States Government In The Cold War, Guy M. Lomeo Dec 2016

Rationality, Parapsychology, And Artificial Intelligence In Military And Intelligence Research By The United States Government In The Cold War, Guy M. Lomeo

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

A study analyzing the roles of rationality, parapsychology, and artificial intelligence in military and intelligence research by the United States Government in the Cold War. An examination of the methodology behind the decisions to pursue research in two fields that were initially considered irrational.


The Moral Implications Of Software Piracy, Kyle Hamrick Dec 2016

The Moral Implications Of Software Piracy, Kyle Hamrick

Student Scholarship - Computer Science

Computer software is integrated into almost every aspect of our professional and personal lives. Much of this software requires payment for use and is legally protected by the copyright system. This paper examines and analyzes the arguments pertaining to the moral use of protected software (digital piracy). The three arguments presented are the “victimless crime” argument, the “noble justification” argument, and the “willing but unable argument.” These three arguments claim that piracy is morally justified in certain cases, and claim that software providers are not harmed in such situations. The three arguments are tested against counter-arguments, and it is discovered ...


In Continuity With The Past: Indigenous Environmentalism And Indian Christian Visions Of Flora, James Ponniah Sep 2016

In Continuity With The Past: Indigenous Environmentalism And Indian Christian Visions Of Flora, James Ponniah

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article considers whether Indian Christianity can be said to have a distinctive ecological vision. The first two parts of the article examine Christian environmentalism in two native forms of Indian Christianity: Tamil Christianity and Tribal Christianity. Continuing with the theme of conformity to the local culture—though of the elite—the third part of the article investigates how Christian Ashrams function as dynamic centers for ecological praxis. The last part of the article considers how contemporary Indian Christian communities can respond to the ecological challenges confronting them.


Compassion As A Practical And Evolved Ethic For Conservation, David Ramp, Marc Bekoff Sep 2016

Compassion As A Practical And Evolved Ethic For Conservation, David Ramp, Marc Bekoff

Marc Bekoff, PhD

The ethical position underpinning decisionmaking is an important concern for conservation biologists when setting priorities for interventions. The recent debate on how best to protect nature has centered on contrasting intrinsic and aesthetic values against utilitarian and economic values, driven by an inevitable global rise in conservation conflicts. These discussions have primarily been targeted at species and ecosystems for success, without explicitly expressing concern for the intrinsic value and welfare of individual animals. In part, this is because animal welfare has historically been thought of as an impediment to conservation. However, practical implementations of conservation that provide good welfare outcomes ...


Computational Interpersonal Communication: Communication Studies And Spoken Dialogue Systems, David J. Gunkel Sep 2016

Computational Interpersonal Communication: Communication Studies And Spoken Dialogue Systems, David J. Gunkel

communication +1

With the advent of spoken dialogue systems (SDS), communication can no longer be considered a human-to-human transaction. It now involves machines. These mechanisms are not just a medium through which human messages pass, but now occupy the position of the other in social interactions. But the development of robust and efficient conversational agents is not just an engineering challenge. It also depends on research in human conversational behavior. It is the thesis of this paper that communication studies is best situated to respond to this need. The paper argues: 1) that research in communication can supply the information necessary to ...


Similarity, Adequacy, And Purpose: Understanding The Success Of Scientific Models, Melissa Jacquart Aug 2016

Similarity, Adequacy, And Purpose: Understanding The Success Of Scientific Models, Melissa Jacquart

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A central component to scientific practice is the construction and use of scientific models. Scientists believe that the success of a model justifies making claims that go beyond the model itself. However, philosophical analysis of models suggests that drawing inferences about the world from successful models is more complex. In this dissertation I develop a framework that can help disentangle the related strands of evaluation of model success, model extendibility, and the ability to draw ampliative inferences about the world from models.

I present and critically assess two leading accounts of model assessment, arguing that neither is sufficient to provide ...


Institutional Animal Care And Use Committees: A Flawed Paradigm Or Work In Progress?, John P. Gluck, F. Barbara Orlans Aug 2016

Institutional Animal Care And Use Committees: A Flawed Paradigm Or Work In Progress?, John P. Gluck, F. Barbara Orlans

John P. Gluck, PhD

In his challenging article, Steneck (1997) criticized the creation of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) system established by the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act. He saw the IACUC review and approval of biomedical and behavioral research with animals as an unnecessary "reassignment" of duties from existing animal care programs to IACUC committees. He argued that the committees are unable to do the work expected of them for basically three reasons: (a) the membership lacks the expertise in matters relevant to animal research and care, (b) there exists an inherent and disabling conflict of interest, and ...


Sentential Logic, Tony Roy Jul 2016

Sentential Logic, Tony Roy


Textbook for symbolic logic, beginning at a level appropriate for beginning students, continuing through Godel's completeness and incompleteness theorems. Excerpted from the longer text including chapter 1 and the first parts of chapters 2 - 7.

From the preface: There is, I think, a gap between what many students learn in their first course in formal logic, and what they are expected to know for their second. While courses in mathematical logic with metalogical components often cast only the barest glance at mathematical induction or even the very idea of reasoning from definitions, a first course may also leave these ...


Symbolic Logic, Tony Roy Jul 2016

Symbolic Logic, Tony Roy


Textbook for symbolic logic, beginning at a level appropriate for beginning students, continuing through Godel's completeness and incompleteness theorems.


From the preface: There is, I think, a gap between what many students learn in their first course in formal logic, and what they are expected to know for their second. While courses in mathematical logic with metalogical components often cast only the barest glance at mathematical induction or even the very idea of reasoning from definitions, a first course may also leave these untreated, and fail explicitly to lay down the definitions upon which the second course is based ...


The Philosophy Of Mathematics, Erin Wilding-Martin Jun 2016

The Philosophy Of Mathematics, Erin Wilding-Martin

Erin Wilding-Martin

The philosophy of mathematics considers what is behind the math that we do. What is mathematics? Is it some cosmic truth we discover, or is it created by humans? Do mathematical objects such as numbers and functions really exist, or are they just symbols we have invented? Two of the great debates in the history of mathematical philosophy center around ontology and epistemology. Where did mathematics come from? How do we know that it is true? Where did mathematics come from? Is it discovered or created? Ontological questions are concerned with the nature and status of mathematical objects. Some people ...


Primality Proving Based On Eisenstein Integers, Miaoqing Jia Jun 2016

Primality Proving Based On Eisenstein Integers, Miaoqing Jia

Honors Theses

According to the Berrizbeitia theorem, a highly efficient method for certifying the primality of an integer N ≡ 1 (mod 3) can be created based on pseudocubes in the ordinary integers Z. In 2010, Williams and Wooding moved this method into the Eisenstein integers Z[ω] and defined a new term, Eisenstein pseudocubes. By using a precomputed table of Eisenstein pseudocubes, they created a new algorithm in this context to prove primality of integers N ≡ 1 (mod 3) in a shorter period of time. We will look at the Eisenstein pseudocubes and analyze how this new algorithm works with the Berrizbeitia ...


Reading Between The Lines: Verifying Mathematical Language, Tristan Johnson Jun 2016

Reading Between The Lines: Verifying Mathematical Language, Tristan Johnson

Honors Theses

A great deal of work has been done on automatically generating automated proofs of formal statements. However, these systems tend to focus on logic-oriented statements and tactics as well as generating proofs in formal language. This project examines proofs written in natural language under a more general scope of mathematics. Furthermore, rather than attempting to generate natural language proofs for the purpose of solving problems, we automatically verify human-written proofs in natural language. To accomplish this, elements of discourse parsing, semantic interpretation, and application of an automated theorem prover are implemented.


Deliberation, Practical Reasoning And Problem-Solving, Douglas Walton, Alice Toniolo May 2016

Deliberation, Practical Reasoning And Problem-Solving, Douglas Walton, Alice Toniolo

OSSA Conference Archive

We present a series of realistic examples of deliberation and discuss how they can form the basis for building a typology of deliberation dialogues. The observations from our examples are used to suggest that argumentation researchers and philosophers have been thinking about deliberation in overly simplistic ways. We argue that to include all the kinds of argumentation that make up realistic deliberations, it is necessary to distinguish between different kinds of deliberations. We propose a model including a problem-solving type of deliberation based on practical reasoning, characterised by revisions of the initial issue made necessary by the agents’ increased knowledge ...


Exploring Argumentation, Objectivity, And Bias: The Case Of Mathematical Infinity, Ami Mamolo May 2016

Exploring Argumentation, Objectivity, And Bias: The Case Of Mathematical Infinity, Ami Mamolo

OSSA Conference Archive

This paper presents an overview of several years of my research into individuals’ reasoning, argumentation, and bias when addressing problems, scenarios, and symbols related to mathematical infinity. There is a long history of debate around what constitutes “objective truth” in the realm of mathematical infinity, dating back to ancient Greece (e.g., Dubinsky et al., 2005). Modes of argumentation, hindrances, and intuitions have been largely consistent over the years and across levels of expertise (e.g., Brown et al., 2010; Fischbein et al., 1979, Tsamir, 1999). This presentation examines the interrelated complexities of notions of objectivity, bias, and argumentation as ...


Fundamental Awareness: A Framework For Integrating Science, Philosophy And Metaphysics, Neil D. Theise, Menas Kafatos May 2016

Fundamental Awareness: A Framework For Integrating Science, Philosophy And Metaphysics, Neil D. Theise, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world ...


Principles Of Anti-Discriminatory Design, D. E. Wittkower May 2016

Principles Of Anti-Discriminatory Design, D. E. Wittkower

Philosophy Faculty Publications

Technical design can produce exclusionary and even discriminatory effects for users. A lack of discriminatory intent is insufficient to avoid discriminatory design, since implicit assumptions about users rarely include all relevant user demographics, and in some cases, designing for all relevant users is actually impossible. To minimize discriminatory effects of technical design, an actively anti-discriminatory design perspective must be adopted. This article provides examples of discriminatory user exclusion, then defining exclusionary design in terms of disaffordances and dysaffordances. Once these definitions are in place, principles of anti-discriminatory design are advanced, drawing upon a method of phenomenological variation employed in the ...


A Constitutional Political Economy Perspective On The Colonization Of Mars, Shashank Sirivolu Apr 2016

A Constitutional Political Economy Perspective On The Colonization Of Mars, Shashank Sirivolu

Honors Theses (PPE)

NASA has released an account of the agency's plans for a mission to Mars. Private organizations, like SpaceX, too have expressed a goal to visit or, in some cases, even establish settlements on Mars. Yet the prospect of establishing settlements, that is, colonizing - as opposed to simply exploring - raises a number of issues. The focus of this study is on the emergence of institutions and organizations on an extraterrestrial planet like Mars. Specifically, the thesis will explore the conscious design of organizations and institutions of collective action, from the Constitutional Political Economy perspective.


Better Together Apr 2016

Better Together

DePaul Magazine

Faculty have taken full advantage of the university's innovative intercollegiate grant program, and the resulting research is as interesting and diverse as the collaborators themselves. What is resulting is research on "Patient and Primary Care Provider Perspectives on Recreational and Therapeutic Cannabis Use Within a Changing Socioculltural and Political Context;" a new minor in climate change science and policy; a new class, Communication, Coding and Entrepreneurship; brain inflammation research; and the project "Cosmology Meets Continental Philosophy: Natural Laws and Why There Is Something Rather Than Nothing"


Tests For Intrinsicness Tested, Kelvin J. Mcqueen, René Van Woudenberg Feb 2016

Tests For Intrinsicness Tested, Kelvin J. Mcqueen, René Van Woudenberg

Philosophy Faculty Articles and Research

Various tests have been proposed as helps to identify intrinsic properties. This paper compares three prominent tests (we call them Perfect Duplication, Real Change, and Lonely) and shows that they fail to pass adequate verdicts on a set of three properties. The paper examines whether improved versions of the tests can reduce or remove these negative outcomes. We reach the sceptical conclusion that whereas some of the tests must be discarded as inadequate because they don’t yield definite results, the remaining tests depend for their application on the details of fundamental particle physics so much so that they cannot ...


A Beautiful Proof By Induction, Lars-Daniel Öhman Jan 2016

A Beautiful Proof By Induction, Lars-Daniel Öhman

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

The purpose of this note is to present an example of a proof by induction that in the opinion of the present author has great aesthetic value. The proof in question is Thomassen's proof that planar graphs are 5-choosable. I give a self-contained presentation of this result and its proof, and a personal account of why I think this proof is beautiful.

A secondary purpose is to more widely publicize this gem, and hopefully make it part of a standard set of examples for examining characteristics of proofs by induction.


Environmental Ethics And The Electric Power Grid: A Case For Technological Momentum, Paul A. Povlock Jan 2016

Environmental Ethics And The Electric Power Grid: A Case For Technological Momentum, Paul A. Povlock

Ph.D. Dissertations (Open Access)

This qualitative analysis examines the effects of a growing environmental ethic on the electric power grid in southeastern New England from the late nineteenth century to the start of the new millennia. The increased awareness of the environment evolved into a new belief system of the population and altered the methods of construction, operation and maintenance of the advanced technology system of the electric power grid. The manner in which this occurred suggests that technological momentum is a better concept than technological determinism with which to examine the development of technological systems in the modern world.

This dissertation examines the ...


The Physicist - Philosophers: The Legacy Of James Clerk Maxwell And Herrmann Von Helmholtz, Peter Skiff Jan 2016

The Physicist - Philosophers: The Legacy Of James Clerk Maxwell And Herrmann Von Helmholtz, Peter Skiff

Faculty Books & Manuscripts

One of the most effective, and most mysterious, tools of modern theoretical physics is a mathematical method including what is here called “field theory.” The success of this procedure in unraveling the “zoology” of fundamental particles and their behavior is a marvel. The philosophical context of this marvel is the source of endless academic controversy. The core of the method is a blend of mathematics and description created by “physicist-philosophers,” from Maxwell and Helmholtz to Einstein and Schrödinger. This book tries to unravel the mystery, or at least chronicle it.


Folk Filmmaking, Adam Perou Hermans Amir Jan 2016

Folk Filmmaking, Adam Perou Hermans Amir

Environmental Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Wildlife conservationists often come into conflict with local communities. To resolve conflict, conservationists conduct education and sensitization programs to raise awareness and teach the value of wildlife. This “missionary approach” raises issues of epistemic and social injustice. Just as conservation often requires local communities to relinquish sovereignty over land and natural resources, conservation education challenges local values and morality.

Invited to produce conservation education media for communities living near the critically endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli), I used the opportunity to pursue a more just method for moral debates over wildlife in contexts of unequal power and unshared ...


Higher Commutator Theory For Congruence Modular Varieties, Andrew Paul Moorhead Jan 2016

Higher Commutator Theory For Congruence Modular Varieties, Andrew Paul Moorhead

Mathematics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

We develop the theory of the higher commutator for congruence modular varieties.


Branching Boogaloo: Botanical Adventures In Multi-Mediated Morphologies, Diana Marie Ruggiero Jan 2016

Branching Boogaloo: Botanical Adventures In Multi-Mediated Morphologies, Diana Marie Ruggiero

Senior Projects Spring 2016

FormaLeaf is a software interface for exploring leaf morphology using parallel string rewriting grammars called L-systems. Scanned images of dicotyledonous angiosperm leaves removed from plants around Bard’s campus are displayed on the left and analyzed using the computer vision library OpenCV. Morphometrical information and terminological labels are reported in a side-panel. “Slider mode” allows the user to control the structural template and growth parameters of the generated L-system leaf displayed on the right. “Vision mode” shows the input and generated leaves as the computer ‘sees’ them. “Search mode” attempts to automatically produce a formally defined graphical representation of the ...


Pollution In Light Of Entropy, James L. Tao Jan 2016

Pollution In Light Of Entropy, James L. Tao

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores a new approach to understanding contemporary environmental issues. This approach draws on concepts in thermodynamics such as entropy, free energy, and gradient dissipation, and applies them to non-equilibrium settings to provide an alternative view of chemical pollution in the context of ecosystems and human societies. Building on the works of Boltzmann, Gibbs, Schrödinger, E.P. Odum, Prigogine, Georgescu-Roegen, and Kay, this thesis demonstrates the necessity of pollution as a consequence of large scale energy use. First a historical background of thermodynamics and entropy is provided following the description of an “entropy framework” used to analyze various pollution ...


Epistemic Skills Deficiency In The Project Management Body Of Knowledge, Alex Hosch Jan 2016

Epistemic Skills Deficiency In The Project Management Body Of Knowledge, Alex Hosch

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Information Technology (IT) projects continue to fail despite being managed by certified Project Management Professionals (PMP) and professionally trained non-certified Project Managers (PM). This study addressed PMPs and qualified PMs who continue to experience IT project failure at a high rate. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore perspectives of PMs and their understanding of project management best practices in the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). There were 5 research questions focused on IT project failures, lessons learned, trends, deficiencies in project management framework, and adherence to standard PM practices. This study ...


Effects Of Gender And Spirituality On Adults' Resilience To Daily Non-Traumatic Stressors, Lois S. Harris Jan 2016

Effects Of Gender And Spirituality On Adults' Resilience To Daily Non-Traumatic Stressors, Lois S. Harris

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Researchers have conducted several studies of spirituality as it relates to individuals' coping strategies and resilience when facing life trauma. There is less research, however, on spirituality as it relates to adults' resiliency to daily non-traumatic stressors. The purposes of the current study were to examine the relationship between spirituality and adults' resilience to daily, non-traumatic stressors and assess whether gender has a moderating effect on this relationship. A quantitative correlational study based on Lazarus's transactional model of stress and coping using convenience sampling, an online survey (N= 94) was administered. Of the 94 participants ages 19 to 68 ...


Mathematical Frameworks For Consciousness, Menas C. Kafatos, Ashok Narasimhan Jan 2016

Mathematical Frameworks For Consciousness, Menas C. Kafatos, Ashok Narasimhan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

If Awareness is fundamental in the universe, mathematical frameworks are better suited to reveal its fundamental aspects than physical models. Awareness operates through three fundamental laws which apply at all levels of reality and is characterized by three universal powers. We explore and summarize in general terms mathematical formalisms that may take us as close as possible to conscious awareness, beginning with the primary relationships between the observer with the observed, using a Hilbert space approach. We also examine insights from category theory, and the calculus of indications or laws of forms. Mathematical frameworks as fundamental languages of our interaction ...


Exploring Consciousness Through The Qualitative Content Of Equations, Ashok Narasimhan, Menas C. Kafatos Jan 2016

Exploring Consciousness Through The Qualitative Content Of Equations, Ashok Narasimhan, Menas C. Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The majority of the focus on equations in physics has been on the mathematical and computational aspects. Here we focus on the qualitative content of what the relationships expressed in equations imply. In some sense, we are asking foundational questions about the ontology of equations.