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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Presence In Nursing Practice: A Critical Hermeneutic Analysis, Alicia Laurel Bright Oct 2016

Presence In Nursing Practice: A Critical Hermeneutic Analysis, Alicia Laurel Bright

Alicia Bright

Research Topic

Presence, although it involves action at times, is a humanitarian quality of relating that is ethically generated and has real-world implications for both patient and nurse. It is an interpersonal process characterized by sensitivity, holism, intimacy, vulnerability, and adaptation to unique circumstances that results in enhanced mental wellbeing for nurses and patients, and improved physical wellbeing for patients. Knowing and being with are foundational to being present.

Theory and Protocol

This research is grounded in critical hermeneutics and follows an interpretive approach to field research and data analysis (Herda 1999). This orientation places the researcher and participants in ...


Compassion As A Practical And Evolved Ethic For Conservation, David Ramp, Marc Bekoff Sep 2016

Compassion As A Practical And Evolved Ethic For Conservation, David Ramp, Marc Bekoff

Marc Bekoff, Ph.D.

The ethical position underpinning decisionmaking is an important concern for conservation biologists when setting priorities for interventions. The recent debate on how best to protect nature has centered on contrasting intrinsic and aesthetic values against utilitarian and economic values, driven by an inevitable global rise in conservation conflicts. These discussions have primarily been targeted at species and ecosystems for success, without explicitly expressing concern for the intrinsic value and welfare of individual animals. In part, this is because animal welfare has historically been thought of as an impediment to conservation. However, practical implementations of conservation that provide good welfare outcomes ...


Aquatic Animals, Cognitive Ethology, And Ethics: Questions About Sentience And Other Troubling Issues That Lurk In Turbid Water, Marc Bekoff Sep 2016

Aquatic Animals, Cognitive Ethology, And Ethics: Questions About Sentience And Other Troubling Issues That Lurk In Turbid Water, Marc Bekoff

Marc Bekoff, Ph.D.

In this general, strongly pro-animal, and somewhat utopian and personal essay, I argue that we owe aquatic animals respect and moral consideration just as we owe respect and moral consideration to all other animal beings, regardless of the taxonomic group to which they belong. In many ways it is more difficult to convince some people of our ethical obligations to numerous aquatic animals because we do not identify or empathize with them as we do with animals with whom we are more familiar or to whom we are more closely related, including those species (usually terrestrial) to whom we refer ...


Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell Aug 2016

Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Rationale: The ethical debate concerning the use of animals in biomedical and pharmacological research continues to be replete with misunderstandings about whether animals have moral standing. Objectives: This article briefly reviews the central ethical positions and their relationship to the basic parameters of research regulation from an international perspective. The issues associated with the validation of animal models will then be discussed. Finally, suggestions for empirical ethics research will be presented. Methods: Recent literature reviews were accessed and analyzed. Results: This review summarizes the pertinent ethical and research literature. Conclusions: In summary, regardless of the ethical perspective one favors, there ...


Animals In Biomedical Research: The Undermining Effect Of The Rhetoric Of The Besieged, John P. Gluck, Steven R. Kubacki Aug 2016

Animals In Biomedical Research: The Undermining Effect Of The Rhetoric Of The Besieged, John P. Gluck, Steven R. Kubacki

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

It is correctly asserted that the intensity of the current debate over the use of animals in biomedical research is unprecedented. The extent of expressed animosity and distrust has stunned many researchers. In response, researchers have tended to take a strategic defensive posture, which involves the assertation of several abstract positions that serve to obstruct resolution of the debate. Those abstractions include the notions that the animal protection movement is trivial and purely anti-intellectual in scope, that all science is good (and some especially so), and the belief that an ethical consensus can never really be reached between the parties.


Institutional Animal Care And Use Committees: A Flawed Paradigm Or Work In Progress?, John P. Gluck, F. Barbara Orlans Aug 2016

Institutional Animal Care And Use Committees: A Flawed Paradigm Or Work In Progress?, John P. Gluck, F. Barbara Orlans

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

In his challenging article, Steneck (1997) criticized the creation of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) system established by the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act. He saw the IACUC review and approval of biomedical and behavioral research with animals as an unnecessary "reassignment" of duties from existing animal care programs to IACUC committees. He argued that the committees are unable to do the work expected of them for basically three reasons: (a) the membership lacks the expertise in matters relevant to animal research and care, (b) there exists an inherent and disabling conflict of interest, and ...


Harry F. Harlow And Animal Research: Reflection On The Ethical Paradox, John P. Gluck Aug 2016

Harry F. Harlow And Animal Research: Reflection On The Ethical Paradox, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

With respect to the ethical debate about the treatment of animals in biomedical and behavioral research, Harry F. Harlow represents a paradox. On the one hand, his work on monkey cognition and social development fostered a view of the animals as having rich subjective lives filled with intention and emotion. On the other, he has been criticized for the conduct of research that seemed to ignore the ethical implications of his own discoveries. The basis of this contradiction is discussed and propositions for current research practice are presented.


Animals, Ethics And Geography, William S. Lynn Aug 2016

Animals, Ethics And Geography, William S. Lynn

William S. Lynn, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Canada’S Commercial Seal Hunt: It’S More Than A Question Of Humane Killing, David M. Lavigne, William S. Lynn Aug 2016

Canada’S Commercial Seal Hunt: It’S More Than A Question Of Humane Killing, David M. Lavigne, William S. Lynn

William S. Lynn, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Contested Moralities: Animals And Moral Value In The Dear/Symanski Debate, William S. Lynn Aug 2016

Contested Moralities: Animals And Moral Value In The Dear/Symanski Debate, William S. Lynn

William S. Lynn, Ph.D.

Geography is experiencing a ‘moral turn’ in its research interests and practices. There is also a flourishing interest in animal geographies that intersects this turn, and is concurrent with wider scholarly efforts to reincorporate animals and nature into our ethical and social theories. This article intervenes in a dispute between Michael Dear and Richard Symanski. The dispute is over the culling of wild horses in Australia, and I intervene to explore how geography deepens our moral understanding of the animal/human dialectic. I begin by situating the inquiry into ethics and animals in geography. Next, I provide a synopsis of ...


Ethical Issues In Geriatric Feline Medicine, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

Ethical Issues In Geriatric Feline Medicine, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, Ph.D.

Most veterinarians hold a ‘pediatric’ rather than ‘garage mechanic’ view of their function. In recent years, sophisticated medical modalities have allowed veterinarians to keep animals alive, and increased value of companion animals in society has increased demand for such treatment. But whereas humans can choose to trade current suffering for extended life, animals seem to lack the cognitive apparatus required to do so. Thus, veterinarians must guard against keeping a suffering animal alive for too long. Clients may be emotionally tied to the animal and blind to its suffering. Part of the veterinarian’s role, therefore, is to lead the ...


Rodeo And Recollection-Applied Ethics And Western Philosophy, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

Rodeo And Recollection-Applied Ethics And Western Philosophy, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Reasonable Partiality And Animal Ethics, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

Reasonable Partiality And Animal Ethics, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, Ph.D.

Moral psychology is often ignored in ethical theory, making applied ethics difficult to achieve in practice. This is particularly true in the new field of animal ethics. One key feature of moral psychology is recognition of the moral primacy of those with whom we enjoy relationships of love and friendship -philia in Aristotle's term. Although a radically new ethic for animal treatment is emerging in society, its full expression is severely limited by our exploitative uses of animals. At this historical moment, only the animals with whom we enjoy philia - companion animals - can be treated with unrestricted moral concern ...


Ethics And Euthanasia, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

Ethics And Euthanasia, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


An Ethicist's Commentary On Whether Veterinarians Should Report Cruelty, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

An Ethicist's Commentary On Whether Veterinarians Should Report Cruelty, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Definition Of The Concept Of "Humane Treatment" In Relation To Food And Laboratory Animals, Bernard E. Rollin Jun 2016

Definition Of The Concept Of "Humane Treatment" In Relation To Food And Laboratory Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, Ph.D.

The very title of this talk makes a suggestion which must be forestalled, namely the idea that laboratory and food animals enjoy some exceptional moral status by virtue of the fact that we use them. In fact, it is extremely difficult to find any morally relevant grounds for distinguishing between food and laboratory animals and other animals and, far more dramatically, between animals and humans. The same conditions which require that we apply moral categories to humans rationally require that we apply them to animals as well. While it is obviously pragmatically impossible in our current sociocultural setting to expect ...


Abortion And Animal Rights: Does Either Topic Lead To The Other?, Nathan M. Nobis Dec 2015

Abortion And Animal Rights: Does Either Topic Lead To The Other?, Nathan M. Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, Ph.D.

Should people who believe in animal rights think that abortion is wrong? Should pro-lifers accept animal rights? If you think it’s wrong to kill fetuses to end pregnancies, should you also think it’s wrong to kill animals to, say, eat them? If you, say, oppose animal research, should you also oppose abortion?
Some argue ‘yes’ and others argue ‘no’ to either or both sets of questions.The correct answer, however, seems to be, ‘it depends’: it depends on why someone accepts animal rights, and why someone thinks abortion is wrong: it depends on their reasons.

https://whatswrongcvsp.com ...


Review Of Sherry F. Colb And Michael C. Dorf Beating Hearts: Abortion And Animal Rights, Nathan M. Nobis Dec 2015

Review Of Sherry F. Colb And Michael C. Dorf Beating Hearts: Abortion And Animal Rights, Nathan M. Nobis

Nathan M. Nobis, Ph.D.


In this book[1], law professors Sherry F. Colb and Michael C. Dorf argue that:
  1. many non-human animals, at least vertebrates, are morally considerable and prima facie wrong to harm because they are sentient, i.e., conscious and capable of experiencing pains and pleasures;
  2. most aborted human fetuses are not sentient -- their brains and nervous systems are not yet developed enough for sentience -- and so the motivating moral concern for animals doesn't apply to most abortions[2];
  3. later abortions affecting sentient fetuses, while rare, raise serious moral concerns, but these abortions -- like all abortions -- invariably involve the interests and ...


Negotiating Deliberative Ideals In Theory And Practice: A Case Study In Hybrid Design, Ann Mongoven, Danielle L. Lake, Jodyn Platt, Sharon Kardia Dec 2015

Negotiating Deliberative Ideals In Theory And Practice: A Case Study In Hybrid Design, Ann Mongoven, Danielle L. Lake, Jodyn Platt, Sharon Kardia

Danielle L Lake

Much literature on deliberation is derived from ideal theory. However, deliberations are inevitably nonideal
in two ways: (1) many deliberative ideals are in tension with each other; and 2) intended balancing
of ideals cannot be attained perfectly amidst the messiness of real-world recruitment and conversation.
This essay explores both kinds of non-ideality in respect to a case study: the 2011 community
deliberative processes on a state public health “biobank,” the Michigan BioTrust for Health. We follow
two recommendations from major contemporary theorists of deliberation: to be transparent about how
competing deliberative goals are negotiated in deliberative design; and to publicize ...