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2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 572

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Origin Of Human Consciousness, Milan Meszaros Dec 2007

Origin Of Human Consciousness, Milan Meszaros

Milan Meszaros physicist

There are certain conditions regarding the expansion of man’s existence on Earth, but these are not identical to those conditions regarding man’s existence itself. Thus in the violating the symmetry of the fundamental processes of consciousness, man’s intellectual development can become multi-dimensional.

Our conscious functioning with its non-Earth lifebase gives rise to the following questions: how and why did our consciousness come to be on Earth? Where did we originate from?

The search of solution is recommendable to all those who are interested in a scientific, high level, responsible approach to the experiments and solutions concerning the ...


Aristotle's Analytic Tools, Mary Mulhern Dec 2007

Aristotle's Analytic Tools, Mary Mulhern

The Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy Newsletter

Aristotle developed analytic tools to deal with conceptual difficulties that were important in his time. Some of these tools are his explicit analysis of homonymy, his eightfold classification of subjects and predicates and its elaboration into the predicaments and predicables, his syntactical analysis of ordinary language sentences, and his construction of a formal language for deductive and demonstrative syllogistic. Some of these conceptual difficulties are traceable to theories of Ideas, in which definitory predicates were not distinguished from non-definitory ones, as for instance in Hypothesis V of the Parmenides, where it is argued that the (non-existent) one is not equal ...


Studying Mathematics For The Sake Of The Good, Andrew Payne Dec 2007

Studying Mathematics For The Sake Of The Good, Andrew Payne

The Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy Newsletter

In the Republic, Socrates describes the good as the end of all human action: “Every soul pursues the good and does what it does for its sake. It divines that the good is something but it is perplexed and cannot adequately grasp what it is or acquire the sort of stable beliefs it has about other things, and so it misses the benefits, if any, that even those other things may give.” I wish to examine how humans act for the sake of the good in the sections of the Republic following this passage. Human action is oriented toward the ...


Carlo Michelstaedter: Persuasion And Rhetoric, Massimiliano Moschetta Dec 2007

Carlo Michelstaedter: Persuasion And Rhetoric, Massimiliano Moschetta

Philosophy Theses

Carlo Michelstaedter's Persuasion and Rhetoric (1910) is one of best examples of what Massimo Cacciari calls the early twentieth century "metaphysics of youth." Persuasion and Rhetoric is the result of Michelstaedter's academic investigation on the concepts of "persuasion" and "rhetoric" in Plato and Aristotle. Michelstaedter saw in Plato's corpus the gradual abandonment of Parmenidean "being" and Socrates' dialogical philosophy. He reinterpreted the notions of "persuasion" and "rhetoric" terms of a radical dichotomy, using them to represent two opposed ontological modalities, two epistemological attitudes, and two existential alternatives. If "rhetoric" comprehends language, institutional knowledge, and all manifestations of ...


Never Mind Grendel! Can Beowulf Conquer The 21st-Century Guilt Trip?, Stephen Asma Dec 2007

Never Mind Grendel! Can Beowulf Conquer The 21st-Century Guilt Trip?, Stephen Asma

Stephen T Asma

The writer casts doubt on whether the emasculated Beowulf put forward by J. R. R. Tolkien and in the recent movie version of the story transcends and nullifies the heroic original. He suggests that both Beowulfs may be necessary.


Three Kinds Of Idealization, Michael Weisberg Dec 2007

Three Kinds Of Idealization, Michael Weisberg

Departmental Papers (Philosophy)

Philosophers of science increasingly recognize the importance of idealization: the intentional introduction of distortion into scientific theories. Yet this recognition has not yielded consensus about the nature of idealization. Thee literature of the past thirty years contains disparate characterizations and justifications, but little evidence of convergence towards a common position.


Evaluating The Book “Triz: The Right Solutions At The Right Time”, Umakant Mishra Dec 2007

Evaluating The Book “Triz: The Right Solutions At The Right Time”, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

The book has 10 chapters, all on different approaches and methods of solving problems. Each chapter tries to solve problems using different techniques of TRIZ. The book not only describes all 40 Inventive Principles, 76 Inventive Standards, 39 Contradiction Parameters and other Techniques of TRIZ, but also illustrates a series of 114 practical problems and their solutions. The book has been translated into many languages including Japanese. This is undoubtedly one of the most impressive and essential textbooks on TRIZ.


Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride Dec 2007

Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride

Cillian McBride

No abstract provided.


Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Shane O'Neill Dec 2007

Introduction: Theorising Politics, Cillian Mcbride, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Shane O'Neill

Jurgen De Wispelaere

This is the introduction to a special issue of Irish Political Studies on "Recognition, Equality, Democracy", to appear in December 2007 as a journal and sometime in 2008 as an edited collection published by Taylor & Francis.


Putting Expectations In Order, Alan Richard Baker Dec 2007

Putting Expectations In Order, Alan Richard Baker

Philosophy Faculty Works

In their paper, “Vexing Expectations,” Nover and Hájek (2004) present an allegedly paradoxical betting scenario which they call the Pasadena Game (PG). They argue that the silence of standard decision theory concerning the value of playing PG poses a serious problem. This paper provides a threefold response. First, I argue that the real problem is not that decision theory is “silent” concerning PG, but that it delivers multiple conflicting verdicts. Second, I offer a diagnosis of the problem based on the insight that standard decision theory is, rightly, sensitive to order. Third, I describe a new betting scenario—the Alternating ...


Religious Knowledge, John Hawthorne Dec 2007

Religious Knowledge, John Hawthorne

Philosophic Exchange

This paper will examine two strategies by which religious believers might attempt to defend the rationality of religious belief. The first strategy is a “fine tuning argument.” The main shortcoming of that strategy is that it ignores the crucial issue of the appropriate prior probabilities. The second strategy is what might be called a “trust” strategy. According to this strategy, a belief that is based on trusting someone who knows something is thereby also an instance of knowledge. This strategy might suffice in some respects, but it involves reliance on a mechanism that is doubtful as a prototype for all ...


Britain's Bomb: What's Next? (Book Review), Brian Stiltner Dec 2007

Britain's Bomb: What's Next? (Book Review), Brian Stiltner

Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies Faculty Publications

Book review by Brian Stiltner.

Wicker, Brian and Hugh Beach, eds. Britain's Bomb: What Next? London: SCM Press, 2006.

ISBN 9780334040965

By the time this review is published, Tony Blair will no longer be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He pushed for a decision to be taken by the next general election: he wanted the UK to commit to replacing the current Trident system (a stock of 58 missiles and under 200 warheads, some of these housed on four nuclear submarines) with a new generation of nuclear weapons and submarines. The British Trident submarines are scheduled for retirement ...


The Stem Cell Debate Continues: The Buying And Selling Of Eggs For Research, Françoise Baylis, Carolyn Mcleod Dec 2007

The Stem Cell Debate Continues: The Buying And Selling Of Eggs For Research, Françoise Baylis, Carolyn Mcleod

Philosophy Publications

Now that stem cell scientists are clamouring for human eggs for cloning-based stem cell research, there is vigorous debate about the ethics of paying women for their eggs. Generally speaking, some claim that women should be paid a fair wage for their reproductive labour or tissues, while others argue against the further commodification of reproductive labour or tissues and worry about voluntariness among potential egg providers. Siding mainly with those who believe that women should be financially compensated for providing eggs for research, the new stem cell guidelines of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) legitimise both reimbursement ...


Sagp Newsletter 2007/8.1 (December), Anthony Preus Dec 2007

Sagp Newsletter 2007/8.1 (December), Anthony Preus

The Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy Newsletter

Includes the SAGP Programs with the Eastern Division (December 28, 2007) in Baltimore, with the American Philological Association (January 4, 2008) in Chicago, with the Pacific Division (March 2008) in Pasadena, and with the Central Division (April 2008) in Chicago.


Social And Psychological Determinants Of Sexual Activity And Contraceptive Use: A Hierarchical Analysis Among Youth In Southern Ghana, Ernest A. Alema-Mensah Dec 2007

Social And Psychological Determinants Of Sexual Activity And Contraceptive Use: A Hierarchical Analysis Among Youth In Southern Ghana, Ernest A. Alema-Mensah

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of risky sexual behavior by an integrated approach using proximate determinants (intentions index, skills index and situational factors index), intermediate variables (perceived benefits and perceived barriers,index, perceived norms index and perceived self efficacy index) and wider background factors (gender, relationship status, access to information and supplies index and actual knowledge about health behavior index). The indices evolved from behavioral theories addressing social, psychological and cultural factors that influenced Ghanaian youth. Two hundred and ninety (290) respondents were recruited from high schools, youth clubs, youth workshops and marketplaces from six ...


Between Being And Nothingness: The Metaphysical Foundations Underlying Augustine's Solution To The Problem Of Evil, Brian Keith Kooy Nov 2007

Between Being And Nothingness: The Metaphysical Foundations Underlying Augustine's Solution To The Problem Of Evil, Brian Keith Kooy

Philosophy Theses

Several commentators make the claim that Augustine is not a systematic thinker. The purpose of this thesis is to refute that claim in one specific area of Augustine's thought, the metaphysical foundations underlying his solutions to the problem of evil. Through an exegetical examination of various works in which Augustine writes on evil, I show that his solutions for both natural and moral evil rely on a coherent metaphysical system, conceived of and expounded upon within a Platonically influenced Christian context.


Apriority In Naturalized Epistemology: Investigation Into A Modern Defense, Jesse Giles Christiansen Nov 2007

Apriority In Naturalized Epistemology: Investigation Into A Modern Defense, Jesse Giles Christiansen

Philosophy Theses

Versions of naturalized epistemology that overlook or reject apriority ignore innate belief-forming processes that provide much of the grounding for epistemic warrant. A rigorous analysis reveals that non-experiential ways of viewing apriority, such as innateness, establish the domain for a plausible naturalistic theory of a priori warrant. A moderate version of naturalistic epistemology that embraces the non-experiential feature of apriority and motivates future cognitive scientific research is the preferred account.


Atmospherics: Abortion Law And Philosophy, Anita L. Allen Nov 2007

Atmospherics: Abortion Law And Philosophy, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In 1934, Karl N. Llewellyn published a lively essay trumpeting the dawn of legal realism, “On Philosophy in American Law.” The charm of his defective little piece is its style and audacity. A philosopher might be seduced into reading Llewellyn’s essay by its title; but one soon learns that by “philosophy” Llewellyn only meant “atmosphere”. His concerns were the “general approaches” taken by practitioners, who may not even be aware of having general approaches. Llewellyn paired an anemic concept of philosophy with a pumped-up conception of law. Llewellyn’s “law” included anything that reflects the “ways of the law ...


Review Of Ethical Theory By Russ Shafer-Landau, Matthew Pianalto Nov 2007

Review Of Ethical Theory By Russ Shafer-Landau, Matthew Pianalto

Matthew Pianalto

Any anthology on a topic as broad as moral philosophy risks committing sins of omission. In lieu of what Shafer-Landau calls the "point-counterpoint" approach usually taken in ethics readers, in which the audience is presented with positive accounts of particular views and critical responses, Shafer-Landau has chosen, particularly the sections on distinctive moral theories (such as consequentialism and deontological ethics), to focus on various defenses and articulations of the moral theories under consideration. Thus, "Readers will not have criticisms of the theories presented and ready to hand. As a compensation, however, they will have a more nuanced target to aim ...


Kerr, William Bugg, 1894-1993 (Sc 1317), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Nov 2007

Kerr, William Bugg, 1894-1993 (Sc 1317), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 1317. William Bugg Kerr, a Bowling Green, Kentucky educator, businessman and farmer, records his philosophy and his reminiscences, for his family, in his paper titled "The High Road."


Nietzsche On Naturalism, Egoism And Altruism, Derrick Phillip Nantz Nov 2007

Nietzsche On Naturalism, Egoism And Altruism, Derrick Phillip Nantz

Philosophy Theses

In this thesis I provide an overview of Nietzsche's ethics with an emphasis on showing how his naturalistic approach to ethics leads him to advance an egoistic moral code. I argue that this, though radical in the light of conventional morality, is not irrational, unprincipled, or proscriptive of other-regarding moral considerations. On the contrary, it demands the highest degree of foresight and integrity. While Nietzsche's writings are meant for a select group of people, namely "higher men," whose flourishing may be undercut by their unwitting acceptance of a self-destructive morality. I explain that Nietzsche places the highest degree ...


The Menace Of Security, Chandan Gowda Nov 2007

The Menace Of Security, Chandan Gowda

Chandan Gowda

No abstract provided.


The Ideal Ifr Is No Ifr: Criticism To The Triz Concept Of Ideality, Umakant Mishra Nov 2007

The Ideal Ifr Is No Ifr: Criticism To The Triz Concept Of Ideality, Umakant Mishra

Umakant Mishra

The limitations of TRIZ concept of Ideality hail from its root philosophy of Idealism. As the “ideas” are there in human minds/brains they are subjective in nature. The concept of “Ideal” and IFR may vary from person to person as they are biased by individual judgments. Similarly the IFR may vary from system to system and at different phases of the development of a system.

However, the same limitations may be considered as the strengths of Idealism. As the IFRs can be different for different people and groups, the solution developer should not always take his own IFR for ...


Donating Fresh Versus Frozen Embryos To Stem Cell Research: In Whose Interests?, Carolyn Mcleod, Françoise Baylis Nov 2007

Donating Fresh Versus Frozen Embryos To Stem Cell Research: In Whose Interests?, Carolyn Mcleod, Françoise Baylis

Philosophy Publications

Some stem cell researchers believe that it is easier to derive human embryonic stem cells from fresh rather than frozen embryos and they have had in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinicians invite their infertility patients to donate their fresh embryos for research use. These embryos include those that are deemed 'suitable for transfer' (i.e. to the woman's uterus) and those deemed unsuitable in this regard. This paper focuses on fresh embryos deemed suitable for transfer - hereafter 'fresh embryos'- which IVF patients have good reason not to donate. We explain why donating them to research is not in the self-interests ...


Nietzsche's New Happiness: Longing, Boredom, And The Elusiveness Of Fulfillment, Bernard Reginster Nov 2007

Nietzsche's New Happiness: Longing, Boredom, And The Elusiveness Of Fulfillment, Bernard Reginster

Philosophic Exchange

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the elusiveness of fulfillment was a source of much perplexity. You believe that the possession of something that you desire will bring you fulfillment, but the acquisition of it leaves you dissatisfied. Arthur Schopenhauer said that this is because the objects of desire lack any intrinsic value. By contrast, Nietzsche argued that our experience of boredom reflects our desire to engage in a challenging form of activity.


The New Bureaucracies Of Virtue: Introduction, Marie-Andree Jacob, Annelise Riles Nov 2007

The New Bureaucracies Of Virtue: Introduction, Marie-Andree Jacob, Annelise Riles

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Ethics Of Surgical Training In Developing Countries, Kevin Ramsey, Charles Weijer Oct 2007

Ethics Of Surgical Training In Developing Countries, Kevin Ramsey, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

The practice of surgical trainees operating in developing countries is gaining interest in the medical community. Although there has been little analysis about the ethical impact of these electives, there has been some concerns raised over the possible exploitation of trainees and their patients. An ethical review of this practice shows that care needs to be taken to prevent harm. Inexperienced surgeons learning surgical skills in developing countries engender greater risk of violating basic ethical principles. Advanced surgical trainees who have already achieved surgical competence are best qualified to satisfy these ethical issues. All training programs need to develop a ...


El Yo Político. Concepciones Del Yo, La Política Y La Autonomía En La Teoría Política Contemporánea, Emma Norman Oct 2007

El Yo Político. Concepciones Del Yo, La Política Y La Autonomía En La Teoría Política Contemporánea, Emma Norman

Emma R. Norman

LA AUTORA EXPLORA CÓMO LOS CONCEPTOS DEL "YO" Y LA "POLÍTICA" HAN SIDO CONCEPTUALIZADOS EN DISTINTAS ÁREAS DE LA FILOSOFIA POLÍTICA CONTEMPORÁNEA. SU ARGUMENTO CENTRAL ES QUE AMBOS CONCEPTOS ESTÁN INELUDIBLEMENTE CONECTADOS Y QUE TAL INTERCONEXIÓN NO HA SIDO PLENAMENTE RECONOCIDA EN LOS DEBATES LIBERAL COMUNITARISTA, POSTESTRUCTURALISTA Y DE DEMOCRACIA DELIBERATIVA. LA AUTORA DEFIENDE UNA CONCEPCIÓN POSLIBERAL DEL YO QUE RECONOCE UNA CONEXIÓN CERCANA Y QUE ES ENSANCHADA, CON "LO POLÍTICO". BASÁNDOSE EN LA CRÍTICA DE LA POLÍTICA LIBERAL DE CARL SCHMITT Y EN LAS PERSPECTIVAS SINGULARES DE HAMRNH ARENDT, NORMAN DESARROLLA UNA VISIÓN POSARENDTIANA MODERADAMENTE AGONÍSTICA. ESTA VISIÓN DE ...


Face To Face With “It”: And Other Neglected Contexts Of Health Privacy, Anita L. Allen Oct 2007

Face To Face With “It”: And Other Neglected Contexts Of Health Privacy, Anita L. Allen

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

“Illness has recently emerged from the obscurity of medical treatises and private diaries to acquire something like celebrity status,” Professor David Morris astutely observes. Great plagues and epidemics throughout history have won notoriety as collective disasters; and the Western world has made curiosities of an occasional “Elephant Man,” “Wild Boy,” or pair of enterprising “Siamese Twins.” People now reveal their illnesses and medical procedures in conversation, at work and on the internet. This paper explores the reasons why, despite the celebrity of disease and a new openness about health problems, privacy and confidentiality are still values in medicine.


Looking Up From The Gutter: Pop-Culture And Philosophy, Stephen Asma Oct 2007

Looking Up From The Gutter: Pop-Culture And Philosophy, Stephen Asma

Stephen T Asma

No abstract provided.