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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Aristotle And Darwin: Antagonists Or Kindred Spirits?, James G. Lennox Jan 2017

Aristotle And Darwin: Antagonists Or Kindred Spirits?, James G. Lennox

Philosophic Exchange

In the decades following the forging of the so-called Neo-Darwinian Synthesis in the 1940s, a number of its philosophical defenders created a myth about what Charles Darwin was up against, a viewpoint called “typological essentialism” often attributed to Aristotle. In this paper I first sketch the history of how this myth was created. I then establish that it is a myth by providing an account of Aristotle’s essentialism as it is actually displayed in his philosophy of biology and in his biological practice. It has nothing to do with the ‘mythic’ version. We then turn to what Darwin was ...


Aristotelian Happiness, Paula Gottlieb Apr 2011

Aristotelian Happiness, Paula Gottlieb

Philosophic Exchange

Aristotle’s account of happiness aims to show that happiness is both objective and attainable. According to Aristotle, the pursuit of happiness benefits both the agent and other people too. This paper attempts to explain how Aristotle’s account supports these claims. Along the way, I argue that Aristotle’s much-maligned doctrine of the mean has some true and important implications concerning the nature and value of happiness.


"Crafting Natures": Aristotle On Animal Design, Mariska Leunissen Mar 2011

"Crafting Natures": Aristotle On Animal Design, Mariska Leunissen

Philosophic Exchange

It is a commonplace in Aristotelian scholarship that the forms of living beings and the animal species to which they give rise are “fixed.” However, Aristotle’s biological works often stress the flexibility of nature during the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to delineate the range of flexibility that Aristotle takes natures to have in the design of animals; and second, to draw out the implications of this for Aristotle’s embryology and theory of natural teleology.


Tragic Error And Agent Responsibility, Charlotte Witt Sep 2005

Tragic Error And Agent Responsibility, Charlotte Witt

Philosophic Exchange

The characters of tragedy are in some sense responsible for their errors. However, given their ignorance of the consequences of their actions, it seems that they ought not be held responsible by others for what they have done. This is a paradox. The way to resolve the paradox is to distinguish two kinds of agent responsibility: accountability and culpability. Being accountable is primarily a private affair, whereas being culpable entails the possibility of just punishment.


The Athletic Contest As A "Tragic" Form Of Art, Francis Keenan Jan 1972

The Athletic Contest As A "Tragic" Form Of Art, Francis Keenan

Philosophic Exchange

Aristotle’s model of tragedy in his Poetics emphasizes process over outcome. This paper will apply that model to athletic contests. It will be argued that the win-lose approach is not the only viable method for judging excellence in athletics. Tragedy affords another kind of meaning for an athletic contest.