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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Response To Professor Marshall Cohen, Graham Hughes Jan 1970

Response To Professor Marshall Cohen, Graham Hughes

Philosophic Exchange

At trial, a civil disobedient may appeal to his reasonable belief in the unconstitutionality of the law that he violated. However, he cannot appeal to any technical difficulties that would require him to lie about his performance of the act in question, or about the role of his conscience in motivating his action.


An Honest Ghost?, A. J. Ayer Jan 1970

An Honest Ghost?, A. J. Ayer

Philosophic Exchange

Gilbert Ryle’s The Concept of Mind purports to exorcise “the ghost in the machine” by translating all talk about the mind into talk about behavior, and sometimes Ryle asserts that he has succeeded in this endeavor. However, on closer inspection, there is still a residue of our private, mental lives left in Ryle’s account. So the ghost remains. But perhaps it is a more honest ghost, and that is still quite an achievement.


Civil Disobedience In A Constitutional Democracy, Marshall Cohen Jan 1970

Civil Disobedience In A Constitutional Democracy, Marshall Cohen

Philosophic Exchange

Civil disobedience is an action that is intended to appeal to the public, to show that they have violated principles that they otherwise generally accept. This is why acts of civil disobedience must be public acts. Acts of civil disobedience cannot involve violence to persons, for that might provoke fear, which undermines the public’s ability to listen to the appeal. The civil disobedient accepts his punishment in order to demonstrate his commitment to the rule of law, and also to demonstrate the seriousness of his commitment to the principles that have been violated by the public.


Lear And Nature, Marshall Cohen Jan 1970

Lear And Nature, Marshall Cohen

Philosophic Exchange

Morris Weitz is mistaken in his interpretation of King Lear. The distinction between good and evil is maintained clearly and sharply throughout the play, and nature actually provides the key to the difference between the two.


Remarks On Violence And Paying The Penalty, Kai Nielsen Jan 1970

Remarks On Violence And Paying The Penalty, Kai Nielsen

Philosophic Exchange

The civil disobedient need not accept his punishment in order to demonstrate his commitment to the rule of law, and in some circumstances it would be inappropriate to do so. The use of violence is justified when and only when the pain, suffering, and injustice that we overcome thereby outweighs the pain, suffering and injustice that results from our actions. There have been circumstances in recent history in which, it is plausible to believe, these conditions were met.


Weitz On The Coinage Of Man, F. E. Sparshott Jan 1970

Weitz On The Coinage Of Man, F. E. Sparshott

Philosophic Exchange

The events in Shakespeare’s King Lear are not represented as typical, nor are the judgments made in the play represented as wise or reliable. This complicates any attempt to interpret the play as making the sorts of claims that Professor Weitz attributes to it.


A Scientist’S Comments On ‘The Scientific Enterprise And Social Conscience', Robert Morison Jan 1970

A Scientist’S Comments On ‘The Scientific Enterprise And Social Conscience', Robert Morison

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Edel correctly emphasizes the ecological mode of thought. As we penetrate deeper into that ecological mode of thought, we will discover that almost every decision that we make in science will have consequences for many people. Thus, science has an obligation to consider and show, as clearly as possible, what the consequences of these decisions will be.


The Coinage Of Man: King Lear And Camus’ Stranger, Morris Weitz Jan 1970

The Coinage Of Man: King Lear And Camus’ Stranger, Morris Weitz

Philosophic Exchange

In Shakespeare’s King Lear, the universe is indifferent to human values, but human values are of the utmost importance for human life. Good and evil are not built into the fabric of nature. Rather, they rest of human prerogative. However, this does not diminish the importance of human values for human life. The plot of King Lear charts Lear’s own progress through the many stages of this realization.


A Note On Professor Edel’S Paper, Max Black Jan 1970

A Note On Professor Edel’S Paper, Max Black

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Edel’s conclusions are excessively mild. We are often frighteningly ignorant of the consequences of scientific and technological innovations. This ignorance requires a much greater degree of caution in science than Professor Edel has admitted.


From The Platitudinous To The Absurd, Sidney Hook Jan 1970

From The Platitudinous To The Absurd, Sidney Hook

Philosophic Exchange

Henry Aiken has misrepresented the history of the university, and the historical context of this debate. The university should be depoliticized in order to protect academic freedom.


The Academy Is Political, Fred F. Harcleroad Jan 1970

The Academy Is Political, Fred F. Harcleroad

Philosophic Exchange

The university is political as a matter of fact, and the people who hold the power are the people who have the money and fund the university. However, Henry Aiken is wrong about the history of General Education. It was not created for ideological purposes.


The Scientific Enterprise And Social Conscience, Abraham Edel Jan 1970

The Scientific Enterprise And Social Conscience, Abraham Edel

Philosophic Exchange

The scientific enterprise is constantly changing, and the moral conscience of society changes as well. The moral obligations of scientists to society change with both of these changes. Four such changes are especially relevant here. Over time, society has come to accept the idea of intervening to change the course of nature. Both science and society have begun to believe that there are no principled barriers to progress in science. Within society, there has emerged an “ecological mode of thought.” Finally, the relationship between theory and practice has changed. All four of these changes profoundly affect the ethics of science ...


Professor Ayer’S Honest Ghost, Justus Hartnack Jan 1970

Professor Ayer’S Honest Ghost, Justus Hartnack

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Ayer is right that Ryle’s strongest thesis is incorrect. However, I do not agree with all of Ayer’s arguments for that conclusion. I also wish that Professor Ayer had examined some other mental concepts, which also seem to resist any kind of behaviorist reduction.


Can American Universities Be Depoliticized, Henry David Aiken Jan 1970

Can American Universities Be Depoliticized, Henry David Aiken

Philosophic Exchange

Every institution in society is involved in politics, and the university is no exception. So the university cannot be depoliticized. The question is how, and to what ends the university should be involved in politics. The answer is determined by the task of the university, which is to educate men and women for life in a free society. This has some specific political implications.


Response To Professor A. J. Ayer, Richard Taylor Jan 1970

Response To Professor A. J. Ayer, Richard Taylor

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Ryle does not deny the common distinction between inner and outer, nor that between public and private. What he denies is that either of these distinctions entail a third distinction – between minds and bodies. As far as I can tell, Professor Ayer has not shown that Ryle is mistaken about that.