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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Left-Libertarianism As A Promising Form Of Liberal Egalitarianism, Peter Vallentyne Jan 2009

Left-Libertarianism As A Promising Form Of Liberal Egalitarianism, Peter Vallentyne

Philosophic Exchange

Left libertarianism is a theory of justice that is committed to full self-ownership and to an egalitarian sharing of the value of natural resources. It is, I shall suggest, a promising way of capturing the liberal egalitarian values of liberty, security, equality, and prosperity.


Stories And The Meaning Of Life, John Martin Fischer Jan 2009

Stories And The Meaning Of Life, John Martin Fischer

Philosophic Exchange

This paper argues that the value of acting freely and responsibly is a species of the value of self-expression. When I act freely, I write a sentence in the story of my life, and this gives my life the shape of a narrative, which, in turn, gives my life a unique sort of meaning and value.


Atheism: Young Hegelian Style, Andrew Levine Jan 2009

Atheism: Young Hegelian Style, Andrew Levine

Philosophic Exchange

In the decade after the death of Hegel in 1833, a group of young philosophers sought to extend some of Hegel’s ideas to criticize contemporary thought and society. These were the so-called “Young Hegelians,” which included the young Karl Marx. With interest in Marx and Marxism on the wane, interest in the Young Hegelians has also subsided. That is unfortunate, since the Young Hegelians have much to teach us. This paper recounts the Young Hegelians’ critique of religion, beginning with that of Ludwig Feuerbach in his seminal work, The Essence of Christianity.


Wittgenstein's Radical Alternative, Newton Garver Nov 2008

Wittgenstein's Radical Alternative, Newton Garver

Philosophic Exchange

Wittgenstein’s achievement in the history of philosophy consists in turning philosophy away from logical analysis toward contextual explication, and even more in undermining the dominance of epistemology in mainstream philosophy. However, since a majority of academic philosophers continue to work in ways that Wittgenstein disdained, it is unclear how much he affected the discipline.


The Search For The Semantic Grail, John Perry Jan 2003

The Search For The Semantic Grail, John Perry

Philosophic Exchange

One factor that has engendered skepticism about semantic content is the idea that there can be content only if there is exactly one thing that performs all the functions that have been associated with content. This paper argues that there is no such thing as content in this unified sense. Rather, what exists is a structure of related contents. Instead of a single grail, there is more of a semantic tea service.


Why Obey The Laws Of Logic?, Robert J. Fogelin Jan 2002

Why Obey The Laws Of Logic?, Robert J. Fogelin

Philosophic Exchange

The status of the law of noncontradiction is the ultimate battleground on which the traditional forces of rationalism and anti-rationalism have met. This conflict is the topic of this essay. People who reject the law of noncontradiction obliterate any significant difference between speech acts of asserting and denying. In doing so, they deprive themselves of the significant use of their own speech acts. Thus they are self-silencers. This is Aristotle’s “negative demonstration” of the law of noncontradiction, and I find it entirely persuasive.


The Rational Physician, Eli Hirsch Jan 2000

The Rational Physician, Eli Hirsch

Philosophic Exchange

In recent years, some professors of medicine have applied the results of decision theory to the practice of medicine. This paper argues that this agenda is deeply flawed and potentially unethical.


On The Banality Of Literary Truths, Peter Kivy Jan 1997

On The Banality Of Literary Truths, Peter Kivy

Philosophic Exchange

The propositional theory of literary truth says that the purpose of literary works is to express propositions. One objection to this theory is that the propositions that can be extracted from literary works are too banal to constitute the purpose of those works. This paper defends the propositional theory against this objection.


Predictability And Explanation In The Social Sciences, Alasdair Macintyre Jan 1972

Predictability And Explanation In The Social Sciences, Alasdair Macintyre

Philosophic Exchange

Scientific explanation requires a certain type of predictability. The particulars that are studied by the social sciences do not possess that kind of predictability. Therefore the aspiration to construct scientific explanations in the social sciences is bound to fail.


A Response To Macintyre, Charles Taylor Jan 1972

A Response To Macintyre, Charles Taylor

Philosophic Exchange

I agree with a great deal of Professor Macintyre’s paper. However, his argument can be formulated without any appeal to unpredictability. The unpredictability of many human events is due to the role of self-interpretation in the constitution of those very same events.


Do Social Events Defy Scientific Prediction?, Paula G. Morrison Jan 1972

Do Social Events Defy Scientific Prediction?, Paula G. Morrison

Philosophic Exchange

If Professor Macintyre is correct, then there is not, and cannot be, any such thing as a scientific explanation or prediction of anything social, and hence there can never be any social science. This paper responds to Professor Macintyre’s argument, and rejects his position.


Linguistic Relativity: A Response To Professor Dewart, Henry Lee Smith, Jr. Jan 1972

Linguistic Relativity: A Response To Professor Dewart, Henry Lee Smith, Jr.

Philosophic Exchange

Language defines our experience. We receive impressions of the world through the distorting lenses of our linguistic systems, and we also project relationships that are not already there in the world. Thus, it is true that we can gain new insight into science and religion if we attend to our language. We can even hope for a future integration of the two.


Language And Religion, Leslie Dewart Jan 1972

Language And Religion, Leslie Dewart

Philosophic Exchange

Throughout much of the history of western philosophy, philosophers have assumed that speech is an outward sign of an inner, mental experience. However, in recent times, this assumption has been replaced by a growing realization that language plays a more active role in shaping our experience of reality. This realization opens up the possibility of a resolution of the apparent conflict between science and religion, through a transformation of the language that we use in relating to reality.


Comment On Dewart's Language And Religion, John Catan Jan 1972

Comment On Dewart's Language And Religion, John Catan

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Dewart’s thesis is every bit as much a metaphysical view as the one that he opposes. It is also unfalsifiable.


Objectivity And The Transactional Theory Of Perception, Eugene Freeman Jan 1972

Objectivity And The Transactional Theory Of Perception, Eugene Freeman

Philosophic Exchange

The visual demonstrations of Professor Adelbert Ames support the transactional theory of perception. This theory asserts that the very contents of our sense experiences are shaped by our past experiences, as well as our expectations of future experiences. This theory, in turn, supports a critical realism about the relationship between perception and reality.


Rejoiner To Professor Freeman, Harold Greenstein Jan 1972

Rejoiner To Professor Freeman, Harold Greenstein

Philosophic Exchange

I agree with Professor Freeman that critical realism is the right solution to the problem concerning the relationship between perception and reality. I also agree that critical realism is a metaphysical theory in certain respects. However, I disagree with his assertion that critical realism can be affirmed only as an article of metaphysical faith. Any claim to prove something is an empirical claim, and it can be tested like any other empirical claim.


A Psychologist's Response To Philosophical Analysis: Comments On Freeman's "Objectivity And The Transactional Theory Of Perception, M. S. Lindauer Jan 1972

A Psychologist's Response To Philosophical Analysis: Comments On Freeman's "Objectivity And The Transactional Theory Of Perception, M. S. Lindauer

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Freeman’s treatment of the psychological aspects of perception reflects a general problem which typifies most philosophical discussions of psychological topics, namely, the absence of sufficient attention to psychological details.


Records And The Man, Paul Weiss Jan 1972

Records And The Man, Paul Weiss

Philosophic Exchange

Athletic records are cherished because of their assumed impartiality and objectivity. However, athletic records do not fully and accurately describe the events that they purport to describe. That is because athletic records do not take account of the myriad factors that influence the outcome of any athletic event. Contingency, novelty, luck, obstacles and opportunities all make a difference to what is achieved. Since records abstract from all of these, they do not tell us what did occur, but only the outcome of a multitude of factors of which we take no notice. The singular goal of an athlete is to ...


On Weiss On Records, Athletic Activity, And The Athlete, Richard Schacht Jan 1972

On Weiss On Records, Athletic Activity, And The Athlete, Richard Schacht

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Weiss and I agree in denying that the end or goal of athletic activity can be adequately characterized in terms of setting records. However, we seem to disagree about the fundamental nature and goal of athletic activity. Professor Weiss’s athlete strikes me as a kind of fanatic, whose athletic activity excludes other goals and projects. By contrast, I would argue that the goal of athletic activity is the intrinsic enjoyment that one may derive from it, and this goal is perfectly compatible with having many other goals and projects in life.


On Weiss On Records And On The Significance Of Athletic Records, Warren Fraleigh Jan 1972

On Weiss On Records And On The Significance Of Athletic Records, Warren Fraleigh

Philosophic Exchange

Athletic records cannot provide complete insight into the nature of an athletic event. However, certainly they can provide at least some approximation of what happened, and that is enough to justify the significant interest that we take in athletic records.


Ontological Possibilties: Sport As Play, Scott Kretchmar Jan 1972

Ontological Possibilties: Sport As Play, Scott Kretchmar

Philosophic Exchange

It is often thought that sport is highly incompatible with play, since the competitiveness of sport requires a degree of seriousness and commitment that are at odds with the freedom of play. However, this paper will argue that the competitive fullness of sport is compatible with play, even if not perfectly coextensive with it.


Locating Consent And Dissent In American Religion: A Comment, Charles Y. Glock Jan 1972

Locating Consent And Dissent In American Religion: A Comment, Charles Y. Glock

Philosophic Exchange

I agree with Professor Marty that denominational religion has on balance contributed more to maintaining social stability than to fostering social change in American history. However, I believe that this is because religion has offered direct ideological support for the status quo. It has done this by providing compensations for those who are ill served by existing social arrangements.


The Athletic Contest As A "Tragic" Form Of Art, Francis Keenan Jan 1972

The Athletic Contest As A "Tragic" Form Of Art, Francis Keenan

Philosophic Exchange

Aristotle’s model of tragedy in his Poetics emphasizes process over outcome. This paper will apply that model to athletic contests. It will be argued that the win-lose approach is not the only viable method for judging excellence in athletics. Tragedy affords another kind of meaning for an athletic contest.


Locating Consent And Dissent In American Religion, Martin E. Marty Jan 1972

Locating Consent And Dissent In American Religion, Martin E. Marty

Philosophic Exchange

Despite the legal separation of church and state in America, religion continues to play a vital role in American public life. This paper identifies the dual role of religion in American public life as both unifying and reforming. The unifying role has been more significant than the reforming role.


Some Impressions Of Martin E. Marty's Paper: "Locating Consent And Dissent In American Religion, Tad Clements Jan 1972

Some Impressions Of Martin E. Marty's Paper: "Locating Consent And Dissent In American Religion, Tad Clements

Philosophic Exchange

Martin Marty agrees with the Supreme Court that the American people are a religions people. In order to determine whether or not this is true, it is necessary to clarify exactly what it means. However, Martin Marty has not given us any account of exactly what this means, and thus he is in no position to assert it.


On Understanding Indian Philosophical Thinking, D. C. Mathur Jan 1972

On Understanding Indian Philosophical Thinking, D. C. Mathur

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Potter interprets Indian philosophy as mainly concerned with moksa or transcendental freedom. Professor Riepe offers a Marxist interpretation of Indian philosophy. The aim of this paper is to identify the strengths and limitations of each of these two views.


Indian Philosophy's Alleged Religious Orientation, Karl H. Potter Jan 1972

Indian Philosophy's Alleged Religious Orientation, Karl H. Potter

Philosophic Exchange

Until recently, it has been assumed that Indian philosophy is essentially religious. That is because it is essentially driven by the religious motivations of the Hindus and Buddhists who practice it. This paper defends this assumption against some recent revisionists who reject it.


Response To Weitz, William P. Alston Jan 1972

Response To Weitz, William P. Alston

Philosophic Exchange

Professor Weitz contends that there are no necessary conditions of human action. This paper will focus on his objections to the theories of Roderick Chisholm, Donald Davidson, and others. The disagreement turns on the correct interpretation of certain cases. For example, is falling in love an action? What about missing a target?


The Concept Of Human Action, Morris Weitz Jan 1972

The Concept Of Human Action, Morris Weitz

Philosophic Exchange

Philosophical theories of human action aim to state necessary conditions of human action. The thesis of this paper is that there are no such conditions. The concept of a human action is essentially an open concept. It is not governed by any set of necessary conditions. The paper considers and rejects several recent attempts to state necessary conditions of human action, including those of Donald Davidson and Roderick Chisholm


Unconscious Actions Emanating From The Human Cerebral Cortex, John C. Eccles Jan 1972

Unconscious Actions Emanating From The Human Cerebral Cortex, John C. Eccles

Philosophic Exchange

This paper presents some recent work of Roger Sperry and his associates on “split-brain cases.” The remarkable finding is that, after surgery, the actions that are programmed from one side of the cerebral cortex are not recognized by the other side of the cerebral cortex as belonging to the subject.