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Conference

1997

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Institution
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Articles 1 - 30 of 114

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

1997 Printed Program Nov 1997

1997 Printed Program

The C. S. Lewis & Friends Colloquium

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Krabbe, John Hoaglund May 1997

Commentary On Krabbe, John Hoaglund

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Palmer, Corrado Federici May 1997

Commentary On Palmer, Corrado Federici

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Powers, John Woods May 1997

Commentary On Powers, John Woods

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Rehg, Marcello Guarini May 1997

Commentary On Rehg, Marcello Guarini

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Russell, Richard Feldman May 1997

Commentary On Russell, Richard Feldman

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Woods, Robert C. Pinto May 1997

Commentary On Woods, Robert C. Pinto

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Rhetoric And Reason In The Civil Science Of Thomas Hobbes, William Mathie May 1997

Rhetoric And Reason In The Civil Science Of Thomas Hobbes, William Mathie

OSSA Conference Archive

In successive versions of Hobbes's political teaching we see a changing account of the nature of rhetoric, or eloquence, and of the dangers it poses for political life. In his Leviathan Hobbes expresses a new confidence that the causes of political dissolution can in principle be entirely eradicated. I argue that Hobbes's new hope is based on his account of the problem of rhetoric and of the solution to that problem developed in Leviathan. I also examine two recent and important accounts of Hobbes's understanding of rhetoric by Quentin Skinner and David Johnston.


Argumentation Theory And The Recent Philosophy Of Science, William Rehg May 1997

Argumentation Theory And The Recent Philosophy Of Science, William Rehg

OSSA Conference Archive

The thesis of my paper is that argumentation theory provides a promising heuristic framework for addressing issues raised by the rationality debates in the philosophy of science, in particular the issues connected with scientific controversies over the appraisal and choice of competing theories. The first part of the paper grounds this thesis historically. In criticizing the logical empiricists, Thomas Kuhn set the stage for the subsequent opposition between a normative, anti-sociological philosophy of science and a descriptive, anti-philosophical sociology of knowledge. But he also hinted at the main lines of a multi-dimensional theory of argumentation which might frame a wide ...


Mill’S Fallacies: Theory And Practice, Marie J. Secor May 1997

Mill’S Fallacies: Theory And Practice, Marie J. Secor

OSSA Conference Archive

In noting contemporary neglect of Mill's work on fallacy, Hansen and Pinto say that his account is tied more closely to scientific methodology than to problems of public discourse and everyday argumentation. This paper re-examines Mill's fallacies from a rhetorical perspective, assessing the extent to which his examples—drawn from the domain of popular superstition, science, philosophy, and public discussion—fits his theoretical structure. In articulating the relationship between Mill's philosophical assumptions and the discursive practices of the fields from which he draws his examples, it will suggest the ambiguities in Mill's mentalistic, rationalistic, inductivist approach ...


Argument And Conviction, Robert J. Yanal May 1997

Argument And Conviction, Robert J. Yanal

OSSA Conference Archive

Shouldn't we be convinced by good (valid) arguments and not by bad ones? But there are valid arguments with true premises that are not known to be true. What we minimally expect is that people follow the logic of the argument. How will they do this? Descartes advised us to perceive clearly and distinctly the steps in the argument. Aristotle looked toward the enthymeme so that the audience would draw the conclusion on their own. These 'thinking through' strategies are an aid to conviction but cannot guarantee it. Do we need the fallacies and other dirty tricks of rhetoric ...


Fallacies On Film, Mark Vorobej May 1997

Fallacies On Film, Mark Vorobej

OSSA Conference Archive

This paper explores the question of how films may be used to enhance the teaching of fallacies. Theoretical questions about the nature of fallacies will be addressed along with pedagogical issues. The paper is structured around a case study—an examination of various arguments from ignorance as articulated by fictional characters in the 1964 Hammer horror production of The Gorgon


From A Critical Point Of View: News As A Soap Opera, Christina Slade May 1997

From A Critical Point Of View: News As A Soap Opera, Christina Slade

OSSA Conference Archive

Traditionally reasoning skills have been taught through written examples, often anachronistic or artificial. However, students use television as their major source of information about the world and as the source of basic understanding of the world. Yet we rarely provide students with the skills directly to criticize and analyze television's world view. This paper reports on a project designed to teach reasoning through the critical analysis of real television products. News presentation is shown to be influenced by the stereotypes and oversimplification of the genre of soap opera, to the detriment of balance.


Verbal Indicators Of Argumentation And Explanation, A Francisca Snoeck Henkemans May 1997

Verbal Indicators Of Argumentation And Explanation, A Francisca Snoeck Henkemans

OSSA Conference Archive

Linguistic descriptions of (markers of) textual relations are not always immediately relevant for providing guidelines to the analysis of argumentative discourse. This is partly due to the fact that these descriptions usually do not distinguish between argumentative and explanatory relations. The paper argues that the identification of argumentative and explanatory relations can benefit from combining insight into the use of certain specific linguistic expressions with insight into the contextual preconditions for performing the speech acts of arguing and explaining.


Commentary On Snoeck-Henkemans, J Anthony Blair May 1997

Commentary On Snoeck-Henkemans, J Anthony Blair

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


A Way To Describe And Evaluate Thought Experiments, Or Trying To Get A Grip On Virtual Reality, Lawrence G. Souder May 1997

A Way To Describe And Evaluate Thought Experiments, Or Trying To Get A Grip On Virtual Reality, Lawrence G. Souder

OSSA Conference Archive

The use of thought experiments seems to provoke much controversy, often in the form of charges of appeals to intuition. The notion of intuition, however, is vaguely defined in both the context of thought experiments and in philosophy in general. This vagueness suggests that the description of thought experiments is incomplete, and thus the prospect for their evaluation remains unfulfilled. Previous analyses of thought experiments have come largely from philosophy where the focus has been on truth value and validity. But these approaches seem to view argument monologically; no accommodation of an audience response like intuition is possible. I try ...


On ‘Burdens’ Of Proof In Ordinary Language Argumentation, Christopher Thomson May 1997

On ‘Burdens’ Of Proof In Ordinary Language Argumentation, Christopher Thomson

OSSA Conference Archive

Various textbooks in logic and rhetoric seem content to treat the notion of the burden of proof as if it were a simple obligation associated with the act of proffering statements for another's consideration. Nevertheless, we can uncover cases in argumentation where both sides champion statements but only one side bears a burden of proof. I believe that an explanation for this difference in emphasis will involve distinguishing between two different (but not unrelated) burdens of proof that can come to bear in the course of an argument.


Commentary On Thomson, Fred Kauffeld May 1997

Commentary On Thomson, Fred Kauffeld

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Vorobej, David Birdsell May 1997

Commentary On Vorobej, David Birdsell

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Matthewson, Jacqueline Macgregor Davies May 1997

Commentary On Matthewson, Jacqueline Macgregor Davies

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Mathie, Philippe Azzie May 1997

Commentary On Mathie, Philippe Azzie

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Commentary On Missimer, Christina Slade May 1997

Commentary On Missimer, Christina Slade

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


The Dictates Of Reason: Bacon, Ramus, And The Naturalization Of Invention, Terri Palmer May 1997

The Dictates Of Reason: Bacon, Ramus, And The Naturalization Of Invention, Terri Palmer

OSSA Conference Archive

This paper will discuss the history of argumentation, specifically the location of the canon of invention in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. At that time, scientists, logicians, and philosophers began to seek new means of constructing and presenting arguments. New logical schemes, such as set forth by Ramus in his Logike or Bacon in the Novum Organon, attempted to place the invention and structure of arguments on a more rational, epistemologically secure basis. This paper will explore the shifts in rhetoric and logic in Bacon's and Ramus's work, with some reference to Wilson's Rule of Reason and ...


Logic, Coherence And Psychology, Robert C. Pinto May 1997

Logic, Coherence And Psychology, Robert C. Pinto

OSSA Conference Archive

This paper will argue that (a) some notion of coherence and/or explanatory coherence is essential to understanding epistemic justification and to clarifying the rational support that our beliefs or commitments lend to each other, and that (b) the requisite notion of coherence cannot be fully explicated on the basis of logic and/or epistemology. Two candidates for explicating coherence will be examined: narrative coherence and the sort of coherence that obtains when gestalt closure is achieved. The paper will attempt to determine under what conditions acceptance that is determined or guided by these sorts of coherence can be construed ...


Ad Hominem Arguments, Lawrence H. Powers May 1997

Ad Hominem Arguments, Lawrence H. Powers

OSSA Conference Archive

Ad hominem arguments (in one sense) argue that some opponent should not be heard and no argument of that opponent should be heard or considered. The opponent has generally pernicious views, false and harmful. Moreover he is diabolically clever at arguing for his views. Thus, the ad hominem argument is essentially a device by which non-intellectuals try to wrest control of a dialectical situation from intellectuals. Stifling intellectuals, disrupting the dialectical situation, is an unpleasant conclusion, but no fallacy has been shown in what leads up to that conclusion.


Commentary On Ruhl, Jean Goodwin May 1997

Commentary On Ruhl, Jean Goodwin

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


Argument And Authority: On The Pragmatic Basis Of Accepting An Appeal To Authority, Marco Ruhl May 1997

Argument And Authority: On The Pragmatic Basis Of Accepting An Appeal To Authority, Marco Ruhl

OSSA Conference Archive

According to an everyday concept of 'argumentation' the presence of authority rules out the possibility for argumentation. However, in the case of appeal to authority, e.g., argumentation and authority coexist. The analysis of (idealized) teacher-and-student interactions shows that a teacher's utterances are critically evaluated by the students, although these may lack relevant knowledge for adequate evaluation. The teacher cannot rely upon his authority alone; if the students accept what she says, the acceptance can be said to be the positive result of a critical evaluation based on the students' knowledge about the subject. Therefore, a dialogical concept of ...


Commentary On Secor, Raymie Mckerrow May 1997

Commentary On Secor, Raymie Mckerrow

OSSA Conference Archive

No abstract provided.


The Normative Impotence Of Ideal Models, John Woods May 1997

The Normative Impotence Of Ideal Models, John Woods

OSSA Conference Archive

In the methodology of theory construction, the concept of "intuitions" is commonly assigned a central role. This is especially true of philosophical and social scientific theories or rational human agency. An equally important trait of such accounts is the theorist's employment of "ideal models" or rational agency. It is frequently supposed that the concept of intuitions and the concept of ideal models link in such a way as to give rise to a coherent and load-bearing notion of "objective normativity." This paper shows, with reference to a wide range of contemporary theories, (a) that the employment of ideal models ...


Do The Fallacies You Favour Retard The Growth Of Knowledge?, Connie Missimer May 1997

Do The Fallacies You Favour Retard The Growth Of Knowledge?, Connie Missimer

OSSA Conference Archive

A simple way to approach fallacies is to ask, "Has reasoning-strategy X retarded or halted the growth of knowledge?" and seek uncontroversial historical events as empirical support for the fallacy moniker. Historical support also offers a means of retiring reasoning strategies heretofore thought fallacious—they are wrongly accused if they helped drive knowledge. Finally, this approach allows us to be more critical of our argumentative practices. Evidence is offered for an Intuitive Fallacy: In its extreme form it rules out the possibility of (contradicting) evidence; in its weaker form, it is a non-response to evidence that appears to be a ...