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Episteme

Articles 31 - 60 of 144

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Cognition And Sensation: A Reconstruction Of Herder’S Quasi-Empiricism, Philip Yaure Aug 2017

Cognition And Sensation: A Reconstruction Of Herder’S Quasi-Empiricism, Philip Yaure

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Losing And Regaining The Self Through Language: Individuation In Nietzsche’S Creative Use Of Metaphor, Maximilian Chaoulideer Aug 2017

Losing And Regaining The Self Through Language: Individuation In Nietzsche’S Creative Use Of Metaphor, Maximilian Chaoulideer

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Kantian Realism, Jake Quilty-Dunn Aug 2017

Kantian Realism, Jake Quilty-Dunn

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Against Fodor, Rafael Ventura Aug 2017

Against Fodor, Rafael Ventura

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Problems Of Kierkegaard’S Poetics, Thomas Gilbert Aug 2017

Problems Of Kierkegaard’S Poetics, Thomas Gilbert

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Three Criticisms Of Schopenhauer And A Response From The Advaita Vedantins, Brian York Aug 2017

Three Criticisms Of Schopenhauer And A Response From The Advaita Vedantins, Brian York

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Spurious Soul: A Modern Critique Of The Thomistic Soul, Eric Chase Aug 2017

Spurious Soul: A Modern Critique Of The Thomistic Soul, Eric Chase

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Editor's Note, Sean Walt Aug 2017

Editor's Note, Sean Walt

Episteme

No abstract provided.


The Kantian And Hegelian Sublime, Yena Lee Aug 2017

The Kantian And Hegelian Sublime, Yena Lee

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Choice And Practical Identity In Korsgaard’S Ethics, Joseph Carlsmith Aug 2017

Choice And Practical Identity In Korsgaard’S Ethics, Joseph Carlsmith

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Belief, Statements And Testimony, Richard Garzon Aug 2017

Belief, Statements And Testimony, Richard Garzon

Episteme

No abstract provided.


Time And Consciousness: A Phenomenological View, Robert Osborne Aug 2017

Time And Consciousness: A Phenomenological View, Robert Osborne

Episteme

Apart from our uses of time, in what way does time really exist? Given two possible assumptions—time is objective and time is subjective—the author argues that time is not objective and empirical but rather phenomenologically ideal. The negative argument critiques Sydney Shoemaker’s thought-experiment about changeless time intervals, finding it too radically imagined and containing conceptual conflation. The positive argument invokes Kant’s thoughts on the Transcendental Illusion and Robert K. C. Forman’s knowledge-by-identity theory. Furthermore, the author describes a thought experiment meant to counter Shoemaker’s. In conclusion, Occam’s razor and the author’s logic ...


Surpassing Estrangement: The Reconciliation Between Species Being And Subjective Architectonics In Benjamin, Michael Nail Aug 2017

Surpassing Estrangement: The Reconciliation Between Species Being And Subjective Architectonics In Benjamin, Michael Nail

Episteme

The author shows how Walter Benjamin modified Marx’s core concepts of a capitalist political economy given the 20th century reality of double estrangement. Benjamin takes Marx’s dehumanized being as also the creation of opportunities for the laborer’s capital to work for (not just against) him—they create the architechtonics of his life. Benjamin adjusts the notion of species being by introducing the distinction between individual and mass consciousness, and he argues that the commodity mediates between the two realms, of which the subject is the object of the world of commodities directly determined by a subconscious collective ...


Telesemantics And The Believer, Taylor Hamrick Aug 2017

Telesemantics And The Believer, Taylor Hamrick

Episteme

The paper concerns itself with Low-Level teleosemantics, a naturalized theory of intentionality designed to indicate which biological devices and which description are most immediate (and least sophisticated) to how an organism’s (such as a frog) representational system properly functions. The author argues for how Karen Neander’s approach solves Fodor’s indeterminacy problem. The author thoroughly responds to the objection that the Low-Level theory cannot generalize up to more sophisticated mental contents, such as belief-desire human psychology. He introduces a few tools, strategies, and considerations that extend the Low-Level theory, making it possible to increase mental state complexity by ...


Prostitution And Casual Sex: An Examination Of Kantian Ethics And The Moral Acceptability Of Prostitution, John Mcdaniel Aug 2017

Prostitution And Casual Sex: An Examination Of Kantian Ethics And The Moral Acceptability Of Prostitution, John Mcdaniel

Episteme

This paper concerns the ethics of prostitution. It begins with David Benatar’s distinction between “significant” and “casual” sex. Kant’s understanding of sex—fraught with worries about ends, autonomy, and objectification—falls under the significance view of sex, even more “special” because it seems to hold that sex is only morally acceptable within marriage. But this untenable position exposes an inconsistency in Kant’s thoughts on personhood and possession. Singer offers a preferable view of sex as sustenance. The author next argues that the service of prostitution is ethical so long as the prostitute’s job and her or ...


Norm-Expressivism And The Frege-Geach Problem, Megan Blomfield Jul 2017

Norm-Expressivism And The Frege-Geach Problem, Megan Blomfield

Episteme

How successful is Allan Gibbard’s attempt to solve the Frege-Geach problem for moral non-cognitivism? This author argues that Gibbard is on the right track with his formalism, but is missing an argument about inconsistency that matches the strength of truth-functional logic. The paper includes discussions of non-cognitivism, the Frege-Geach problem, a summary of Gibbard’s argumentation, and summaries of various strong criticisms of Gibbard’s efforts. The author emphasizes the weakness of relying on practical considerations when it comes to consistency between all possible normative moral judgments, yet supports Schroeder’s insight that might help to improve Gibbard’s ...


Rawls On Abortion: Adapting His Theory Of Justice To The Controversy, Douglas Dreier Jul 2017

Rawls On Abortion: Adapting His Theory Of Justice To The Controversy, Douglas Dreier

Episteme

Rawls does not have to be explicit about gender or sex issues to be on the pro-choice side of the abortion debate. If we examine Rawls’ principles of justice and his veil of ignorance, we recognize that his logic rips through much of the usual justification for pro-life legality, even in the famous Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade. Since a person behind the veil might be a pregnant woman, cannot rely on specific moral beliefs, and must be able to have self-respect when the veil is lifted; Rawls is unmistakably pro-choice. Furthermore, in terms of other in vogue political ...


A Gap In Kim's Eliminative Argument For Reductionism, Benjamin D. Mooneyham Jul 2017

A Gap In Kim's Eliminative Argument For Reductionism, Benjamin D. Mooneyham

Episteme

This paper traces the logical movements in Jaegwon Kim’s philosophy of mind addressed to physicalists. To start, a brief background to the contemporary debate between substance dualists, property dualists, and reductionists is provided. The author then argues that Kim uses inconsistent logic in his argument against non-reductive physicalism, compared with his argument against substance dualism: the pairing problem. It turns out that Kim fails to eliminate substance dualism as a possible theory of mind, in particular as an explanation of mental causation. The author offers a separate argument that would improve Kim’s case.


The Place Of Book X In Plato's Republic, Willie Costello Jul 2017

The Place Of Book X In Plato's Republic, Willie Costello

Episteme

Here is a new interpretation of Book X of the Republic, which understands this book in relation to the Republic’s central defense of justice and the virtuous life. A metaphysical argument uses the allegory of the cave to understand the problem of poetry as imitation. Appearances can be deceiving; truth need not look like popular wisdom. An ethical argument explains that poetry encourages us to act on the urging of the non-rational part of our soul, thereby diminishing the rational part. Furthermore, since the way our souls react to poetry is as real and as genuine as actual experience ...


The Natural Philosophies Of Descartes And Newton: A Kuhnian Reflection, Stephen Trochimchuk Jul 2017

The Natural Philosophies Of Descartes And Newton: A Kuhnian Reflection, Stephen Trochimchuk

Episteme

Kuhn can be used to describe shifts in science other than just the Copernican Revolution. This paper argues that Newton’s theory of mechanics, especially the notion of gravitational force, only appears to be responding to “deficiencies” in Descartes’ corpuscularism. In reality, Newton’s theory represents a paradigm shift. To make his case, the author first supplies useful summaries of Descartes’ and Newton’s sciences, as well as Kuhn’s meta-scientific project. The author then emphasizes that on issues like gravity and mass, the Cartesian and Newtonian systems of science hold each other’s theoretical concepts to be senseless when ...


Possible Worlds And Counterfactuals: Critique And Commentary On Complicating Causation, Roman Feiman Jul 2017

Possible Worlds And Counterfactuals: Critique And Commentary On Complicating Causation, Roman Feiman

Episteme

This article focuses on David Lewis’s theory of causation. The author provides helpful clarity regarding the difference between material and counterfactual conditions, the distinction between causal dependence and causation, and the nature of possible world theories in general. Although it is found that Lewis does not fall victim to the problems of metaphysical impossibility or preemption, his theory still relies too much on mere intuition. Lewis’ solution is not very convincing when it comes to the slippery issue of causation.


Forcing Freedom: Applying Mill's Principles Of Liberty In An International Society, Jill Zimmerman Jul 2017

Forcing Freedom: Applying Mill's Principles Of Liberty In An International Society, Jill Zimmerman

Episteme

The author extends Mill’s liberty theory to contemporary international politics, specifically in relation to liberal intervention theory. The author tries to interpret Mill in the spirit of some popular liberal theories, but argues for why such an interpretation, which draws an analogy between the role of an individual and the role of a state’s government, would not be supported by Mill himself. For Mill, the individual is the central moral force, which is not simply in an appeal to prevent against harm toward a particular entity (as with looking-out for one particular nation among many in the international ...


Nietzsche's Eternal Recurrence As A Psychological Test Of Action, Micah Dugas Jul 2017

Nietzsche's Eternal Recurrence As A Psychological Test Of Action, Micah Dugas

Episteme

How ought we to make sense of the doctrine of eternal recurrence? First of all, it follows Nietzsche’s attack on traditional morality, and is an answer to the question: What takes the place of immortality in a world in which God is Dead? But the doctrine is not meant to be a metaphysical hypothesis—such a thing would be at odds with Nietzsche’s thoughts on memory, choice, and the “laws” of nature. Nor is it dogmatic or like Kant’s Categorical Imperative. Rather, “eternal recurrence” is meant to help serve the powerful human who is not like the ...


Metaphors Of Objectivity, Adam Westra Jul 2017

Metaphors Of Objectivity, Adam Westra

Episteme

This paper analyzes how Bacon and Popper both use metaphors in support of their respective theories of the objectivity of progressive science. The author tracks each thinker’s prevalent use and dependence on metaphors; including Bacon’s appeal to religion and the emerging science of optics, and Popper’s biological analogy and dismissal of Kuhn’s relativistic view of science and knowledge. The author argues that the objectivist theorists are plagued by the fact that metaphors are not objective. It seems we must accept only one of the two: their objectivity claims or their methodological approach of using metaphors. The ...


Hume: Causality And Subjectivity, David Mossburger Jul 2017

Hume: Causality And Subjectivity, David Mossburger

Episteme

In the Enquiry, Hume’s discussion of causality figures heavily in his critique of the rationalists. But what exactly do his two “definitions” of causality mean? The author addresses competing questions that arise from Hume’s ambiguity, but one thing is paramount here: both definitions imply a subject’s experience of causality. Following this, the author ponders the uniqueness of cumulative experience and personal belief, later connecting these to Simon Blackburn’s account of the organization of ideas that lead us to think in causal terms. In conclusion, since Hume’s empiricism is metaphysically subjective, Blackburn’s anti-realist interpretation is ...


The Extended Room Or What Otto Didn't Know, Ryan Victor Jul 2017

The Extended Room Or What Otto Didn't Know, Ryan Victor

Episteme

The author provides succinct explications of the relevant literature pertaining to the debate resulting from Turing’s thesis on artificial intelligence. It is argued that Searle’s Chinese room example is refuted by neither the so-called systems reply nor the Extended Mind thesis. Such attempts to defend strong AI err because they rely on altered definitions of concepts that we should not accept. The author, in addition to pointing out the importance of factoring in consciousness, provides several illustrative examples, parallels, and original arguments (including a modified concept of “strong coupling”) in his defense of Searle’s position. The paper ...


On The Validity Of Spinoza's Proof For Monism: A Question Of Equivocation, Jennifer Lynn Daigle Jul 2017

On The Validity Of Spinoza's Proof For Monism: A Question Of Equivocation, Jennifer Lynn Daigle

Episteme

Spinoza’s metaphysics fails to employ a consistent use of terms, such as “finite” and “infinite”. After clarifying Spinoza’s philosophical project and analyzing his proof for ontological monism, the author provides a discussion of Spinoza’s employ of concepts “finite” and “infinite,” given his distinction between attribute and absolute. It is found that Spinoza improperly jumps to the existence of God, but that he might be more successful in proving the existence of absolute Being.


An Analysis Of Freedom And Rational Egoism In Notes From Underground, Michael Hannon Jul 2017

An Analysis Of Freedom And Rational Egoism In Notes From Underground, Michael Hannon

Episteme

In trying to decide between Nikolay Chernyshevsky’s rational egoism and Fyodor Dostoevsky’s expressivism, the author confronts a huge overarching question: What does it mean to be human? The discussion looks at Dostoevsky’s Underground Man, who believes that a rational utopia leaves humans without their most prized advantage: free will. The author determines that Dostoevsky’s notion of freedom is designed to negate Chernyshevsky’s, but to what extent must the Underground Man exist in a society organized so rationally? If the Underground Man need not be a product of society, then what can be the value of ...


A Logical Absurdity: Jeremy Bentham And The Auto-Icon, Anna Brenton Brawley Jul 2017

A Logical Absurdity: Jeremy Bentham And The Auto-Icon, Anna Brenton Brawley

Episteme

Ever wonder what might be the most absurd idea to come out of the Age of Reason? This paper in the history of philosophy supplies one possibility: Jeremy Bentham’s Auto-Icon. This study places Bentham’s decision to preserve his physical body in the context of his full body of philosophical and social work, itself contextualized within the revolutionary ideas and advances of the Enlightenment. The author touches on Bentham’s philosophy, his fondness for invention and science, as well as his vehement religious and political critiques. It is argued that the Auto-Icon embodies Bentham’s desire to promote universal ...


Hilary Putnam's Semantic Scientism: A Critique, Gregory R. Warner Jul 2017

Hilary Putnam's Semantic Scientism: A Critique, Gregory R. Warner

Episteme

This author is puzzled by and disagrees with Putnam’s theory of meaning. In particular, the author argues that there can be a gap between scientific meaning and acceptable normal use, thereby showing the tension between Putnam’s scientism and his attention to linguistic communities. Part of the problem is Putnam’s imprecision, given that he neither argues for why we should privilege scientific classification, nor helps us draw the boundary surrounding our linguistic community. The author cites commentator Gregory McCulloch a great deal to help summarize and grasp Putnam’s project, thereby necessitating a discussion of McCulloch’s own ...