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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Reporting Of Patient Consent In Healthcare Cluster Randomised Trials Is Associated With The Type Of Study Interventions And Publication Characteristics, Andrew Mcrae, Monica Taljaard, Charles Weijer, Carol Bennett, Zoe Skea, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Martin Eccles, Jeremy Grimshaw, Allan Donner Jan 2013

Reporting Of Patient Consent In Healthcare Cluster Randomised Trials Is Associated With The Type Of Study Interventions And Publication Characteristics, Andrew Mcrae, Monica Taljaard, Charles Weijer, Carol Bennett, Zoe Skea, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Martin Eccles, Jeremy Grimshaw, Allan Donner

Charles Weijer

Objective Cluster randomised trial (CRT) investigators face challenges in seeking informed consent from individual patients (cluster members). This study examined associations between reporting of patient consent in healthcare CRTs and characteristics of these trials.

Study design Consent practices and study characteristics were abstracted from a random sample of 160 CRTs performed in primary or hospital care settings that were published from 2000 to 2008. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between reporting of patient consent and methodological characteristics, as well as publication features such as date and journal of publication.

Results 82 (53.8%) of 160 studies reported ...


Researchers’ Perceptions Of Ethical Challenges In Cluster Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Analysis, Andrew Mcrae, Carol Bennett, Judith Belle Brown, Charles Weijer, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Shazia Chaudhry, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Jeremy Grimshaw, Merrick Zwarenstein, Monica Taljaard Jan 2013

Researchers’ Perceptions Of Ethical Challenges In Cluster Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Analysis, Andrew Mcrae, Carol Bennett, Judith Belle Brown, Charles Weijer, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Shazia Chaudhry, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Jeremy Grimshaw, Merrick Zwarenstein, Monica Taljaard

Charles Weijer

Background

Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) pose ethical challenges for investigators and ethics committees. This study describes the views and experiences of CRT researchers with respect to: (1) ethical challenges in CRTs; (2) the ethics review process for CRTs; and (3) the need for comprehensive ethics guidelines for CRTs.

Methods

Descriptive qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with a purposive sample of 20 experienced CRT researchers.

Results

Informants expressed concern over the potential for bias that may result from requirements to obtain informed consent from research participants in CRTs. Informants suggested that the need for informed consent ought to be related to ...


The Ottawa Statement On The Ethical Design And Conduct Of Cluster Randomized Trials, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Martin Eccles, Andrew Mcrae, Angela White, Jamie Brehaut, Monica Taljaard Nov 2012

The Ottawa Statement On The Ethical Design And Conduct Of Cluster Randomized Trials, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Martin Eccles, Andrew Mcrae, Angela White, Jamie Brehaut, Monica Taljaard

Charles Weijer

In cluster randomized trials (CRTs), the units of allocation, intervention, and outcome measurement may differ within a single trial. As a result of the unique design of CRTs, the interpretation of existing research ethics guidelines is complicated.

The Ottawa Statement on the Ethical Design and Conduct of Cluster Randomized Trials aims to provide researchers and research ethics committees (RECs) with detailed guidance on the ethical design, conduct, and review of CRTs.

A five-year mixed methods research project explored the ethical challenges of CRTs. Empirical studies documented the reporting of ethical issues in published CRTs, interviewed experienced trialists, and surveyed trialists ...


What Is The Role And Authority Of Gatekeepers In Cluster Randomized Trials In Health Research?, Antonio Gallo, Charles Weijer, Angela White, Jeremy Grimshaw, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Andrew Mcrae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein, Monica Taljaard Jul 2012

What Is The Role And Authority Of Gatekeepers In Cluster Randomized Trials In Health Research?, Antonio Gallo, Charles Weijer, Angela White, Jeremy Grimshaw, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Andrew Mcrae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein, Monica Taljaard

Charles Weijer

This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs) in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, we set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the CRT is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the sixth of the questions posed, namely, what is the role and authority of gatekeepers in CRTs in health research? ‘Gatekeepers’ are individuals or bodies that represent the interests of cluster members, clusters, or organizations. The need for gatekeepers arose in response to the difficulties in obtaining ...


The Publication Of Ethically Uncertain Research: Attitudes And Practices Of Journal Editors, Carla Angelski, Conrad Fernandez, Charles Weijer, Jun Gao Dec 2011

The Publication Of Ethically Uncertain Research: Attitudes And Practices Of Journal Editors, Carla Angelski, Conrad Fernandez, Charles Weijer, Jun Gao

Charles Weijer

Background

Publication of ethically uncertain research occurs despite well-published guidelines set forth in documents such as the Declaration of Helsinki. Such guidelines exist to aide editorial staff in making decisions regarding ethical acceptability of manuscripts submitted for publication, yet examples of ethically suspect and uncertain publication exist. Our objective was to survey journal editors regarding practices and attitudes surrounding such dilemmas.

Methods

The Editor-in-chief of each of the 103 English-language journals from the 2005 Abridged Index Medicus list publishing original research were asked to complete a survey sent to them by email between September-December 2007.

Results

A response rate of ...


Impact Of Consort Extension For Cluster Randomised Trials On Quality Of Reporting And Study Methodology: Review Of Random Sample Of 300 Trials, 2000-8, N. Ivers, M. Taljaard, Stephanie Dixon, C. Bennett, A. Mcrae, J. Taleban, Z. Skea, J. Brehaut, R. Boruch, M. Eccles, J. Grimshaw, Charles Weijer, M. Zwarenstein, A. Donner Sep 2011

Impact Of Consort Extension For Cluster Randomised Trials On Quality Of Reporting And Study Methodology: Review Of Random Sample Of 300 Trials, 2000-8, N. Ivers, M. Taljaard, Stephanie Dixon, C. Bennett, A. Mcrae, J. Taleban, Z. Skea, J. Brehaut, R. Boruch, M. Eccles, J. Grimshaw, Charles Weijer, M. Zwarenstein, A. Donner

Charles Weijer

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the 2004 extension of the CONSORT guidelines on the reporting and methodological quality of cluster randomised trials.

DESIGN: Methodological review of 300 randomly sampled cluster randomised trials. Two reviewers independently abstracted 14 criteria related to quality of reporting and four methodological criteria specific to cluster randomised trials. We compared manuscripts published before CONSORT (2000-4) with those published after CONSORT (2005-8). We also investigated differences by journal impact factor, type of journal, and trial setting.

DATA SOURCES: A validated Medline search strategy. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Cluster randomised trials published in English language journals ...


Minimal Risk Remains An Open Question, Ariella Binik, Charles Weijer, Mark Sheehan May 2011

Minimal Risk Remains An Open Question, Ariella Binik, Charles Weijer, Mark Sheehan

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Inadequate Reporting Of Research Ethics Review And Informed Consent In Cluster Randomised Trials: Review Of Random Sample Of Published Trials, Monica Taljaard, Andrew Mcrae, Charles Weijer, Carol Bennett, Stephanie Dixon, Julia Taleban, Zoe Skea, Martin P Eccles, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Raphael Saginur, Robert Boruch, Jeremy Grimshaw May 2011

Inadequate Reporting Of Research Ethics Review And Informed Consent In Cluster Randomised Trials: Review Of Random Sample Of Published Trials, Monica Taljaard, Andrew Mcrae, Charles Weijer, Carol Bennett, Stephanie Dixon, Julia Taleban, Zoe Skea, Martin P Eccles, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Raphael Saginur, Robert Boruch, Jeremy Grimshaw

Charles Weijer

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the extent to which authors of cluster randomised trials adhered to two basic requirements of the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' uniform requirements for manuscripts (namely, reporting of research ethics review and informed consent), to determine whether the adequacy of reporting has improved over time, and to identify characteristics of cluster randomised trials associated with reporting of ethics practices.

DESIGN: Review of a random sample of published cluster randomised trials from an electronic search in Medline.

SETTING: Cluster randomised trials in health research published in English language ...


Does Clinical Equipoise Apply To Cluster Randomized Trials In Health Research?, Ariella Binik, Charles Weijer, Andrew Mcrae, Jeremy Grimshaw, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Raphael Saginur, Monica Taljaard, Merrick Zwarenstein May 2011

Does Clinical Equipoise Apply To Cluster Randomized Trials In Health Research?, Ariella Binik, Charles Weijer, Andrew Mcrae, Jeremy Grimshaw, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Raphael Saginur, Monica Taljaard, Merrick Zwarenstein

Charles Weijer

This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs) in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, Weijer and colleagues set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the third of the questions posed, namely, does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs in health research? The ethical principle of beneficence is the moral obligation not to harm needlessly and, when possible, to promote the welfare of research subjects. Two related ethical problems have ...


Ethical Issues Posed By Cluster Randomized Trials In Health Research, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Monica Taljaard, Ariella Binik, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Antonio Gallo, Andrew Mcrae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein Apr 2011

Ethical Issues Posed By Cluster Randomized Trials In Health Research, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Monica Taljaard, Ariella Binik, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Allan Donner, Martin Eccles, Antonio Gallo, Andrew Mcrae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein

Charles Weijer

The cluster randomized trial (CRT) is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2 ...


Is Philosophy Dead? Far From It, Charles Weijer Oct 2010

Is Philosophy Dead? Far From It, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Rotman Institute Opening, Joseph Rotman, Janice Deakin, Jane Maienschein, Charles Weijer, Philip Kitcher Oct 2010

Rotman Institute Opening, Joseph Rotman, Janice Deakin, Jane Maienschein, Charles Weijer, Philip Kitcher

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Ethics, Economics And The Regulation And Adoption Of New Medical Devices: Case Studies In Pelvic Floor Surgery, Sue Ross, Charles Weijer, Amiram Gafni, Ariel Ducey, Carmen Thompson, Rene Lafreniere Aug 2010

Ethics, Economics And The Regulation And Adoption Of New Medical Devices: Case Studies In Pelvic Floor Surgery, Sue Ross, Charles Weijer, Amiram Gafni, Ariel Ducey, Carmen Thompson, Rene Lafreniere

Charles Weijer

BACKGROUND: Concern has been growing in the academic literature and popular media about the licensing, introduction and adoption of surgical devices before full effectiveness and safety evidence is available to inform clinical practice. Our research will seek empirical survey evidence about the roles, responsibilities, and information and policy needs of the key stakeholders in the introduction into clinical practice of new surgical devices for pelvic floor surgery, in terms of the underlying ethical principals involved in the economic decision-making process, using the example of pelvic floor procedures.

METHODS/DESIGN: Our study involves three linked case studies using, as examples, selected ...


Conceptual Problems In Research Ethics, Charles Weijer Mar 2010

Conceptual Problems In Research Ethics, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

This poster addresses these issues:
• What good is medical research?
• What is owed to the study subject?
• When is research risk acceptable?
• How should we conduct research in developing countries?
• How should we conduct research involving communities?


Ethics In Conduct Of Trials In Developing Countries, Charles Weijer Mar 2010

Ethics In Conduct Of Trials In Developing Countries, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Ethical Considerations In The Conduct Of Vaccine Trials In Developing Countries, Charles Weijer, C. Lanata, C. Plowe Nov 2009

Ethical Considerations In The Conduct Of Vaccine Trials In Developing Countries, Charles Weijer, C. Lanata, C. Plowe

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Ethical Challenges In Icu Research, Charles Weijer Sep 2009

Ethical Challenges In Icu Research, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


When Can Physicians Say “No” To Families And Patients?, Charles Weijer Sep 2009

When Can Physicians Say “No” To Families And Patients?, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Decision-Making By Adolescents And Parents Of Children With Cancer Regarding Health Research Participation, Kate Read, Conrad Fernandez, Jun Gao, Caron Strahlendorf, Albert Moghrabi, Rebecca Pentz, Raymond Barfield, Justin Baker, Darcy Santor, Charles Weijer, Eric Kodish Sep 2009

Decision-Making By Adolescents And Parents Of Children With Cancer Regarding Health Research Participation, Kate Read, Conrad Fernandez, Jun Gao, Caron Strahlendorf, Albert Moghrabi, Rebecca Pentz, Raymond Barfield, Justin Baker, Darcy Santor, Charles Weijer, Eric Kodish

Charles Weijer

Background: Low rates of participation of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in clinical oncology trials may contribute to poorer outcomes. Factors that influence the decision of AYAs to participate in health research and whether these factors are different from those that affect the participation of parents of children with cancer.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from validated questionnaires provided to adolescents (>12 years old) diagnosed with cancer and parents of children with cancer at 3 sites in Canada (Halifax, Vancouver, and Montreal) and 2 in the United States (Atlanta, GA, and Memphis, TN). Respondents reported their own ...


Ethical And Policy Issues In Cluster Randomized Trials: Rationale And Design Of A Mixed Methods Research Study, Monica Taljaard, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Judith Brown, Ariella Binik, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Shazia Chaudhry, Martin Eccles, Andrew Mcrae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein, Allan Donner Jul 2009

Ethical And Policy Issues In Cluster Randomized Trials: Rationale And Design Of A Mixed Methods Research Study, Monica Taljaard, Charles Weijer, Jeremy Grimshaw, Judith Brown, Ariella Binik, Robert Boruch, Jamie Brehaut, Shazia Chaudhry, Martin Eccles, Andrew Mcrae, Raphael Saginur, Merrick Zwarenstein, Allan Donner

Charles Weijer

Background: Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities--rather than individual themselves--are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main ...


Research Governance Lessons From The National Placebo Initiative, Heather Sampson, Charles Weijer, Daryl Pullman Mar 2009

Research Governance Lessons From The National Placebo Initiative, Heather Sampson, Charles Weijer, Daryl Pullman

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Minimal Risk And Large-Scale Biobank And Cohort Research, Timothy Caulfield, Charles Weijer Mar 2009

Minimal Risk And Large-Scale Biobank And Cohort Research, Timothy Caulfield, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Providing Research Results To Participants: Attitudes And Needs Of Adolescents And Parents Of Children With Cancer, Conrad Fernandez, Jun Gao, Caron Strahlendorf, Albert Moghrabi, Rebecca Pentz, Raymond Barfield, Justin Baker, Darcy Santor, Charles Weijer, Eric Kodish Feb 2009

Providing Research Results To Participants: Attitudes And Needs Of Adolescents And Parents Of Children With Cancer, Conrad Fernandez, Jun Gao, Caron Strahlendorf, Albert Moghrabi, Rebecca Pentz, Raymond Barfield, Justin Baker, Darcy Santor, Charles Weijer, Eric Kodish

Charles Weijer

PURPOSE: There is an increasing demand for researchers to provide research results to participants. Our aim was to define an appropriate process for this, based on needs and attitudes of participants.

METHODS: A multicenter survey in five sites in the United States and Canada was offered to parents of children with cancer and adolescents with cancer. Respondents indicated their preferred mode of communication of research results with respect to implications; timing, provider, and content of the results; reasons for and against providing results; and barriers to providing results.

RESULTS: Four hundred nine parents (including 19 of deceased children) and 86 ...


Care Of An Unresponsive Patient With A Poor Prognosis, Arthur Slutsky, Leonard Hudson, Nancy Dubler, Charles Weijer, Mark Tonelli Jan 2009

Care Of An Unresponsive Patient With A Poor Prognosis, Arthur Slutsky, Leonard Hudson, Nancy Dubler, Charles Weijer, Mark Tonelli

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Helsinki Discords: Fda, Ethics, And International Drug Trials, Jonathan Kimmelman, Charles Weijer, Eric Meslin Jan 2009

Helsinki Discords: Fda, Ethics, And International Drug Trials, Jonathan Kimmelman, Charles Weijer, Eric Meslin

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Journal Instructions Regarding Institutional Review Board Approval And Conflict-Of-Interest Disclosure Between 1995 And 2005, Anne Rowan-Legg, Charles Weijer, J. Gao, C. Fernandez Dec 2008

A Comparison Of Journal Instructions Regarding Institutional Review Board Approval And Conflict-Of-Interest Disclosure Between 1995 And 2005, Anne Rowan-Legg, Charles Weijer, J. Gao, C. Fernandez

Charles Weijer

OBJECTIVES: To compare 2005 and 1995 ethics guidelines from journal editors to authors regarding requirements for institutional review board (IRB) approval and conflict-of-interest (COI) disclosure.

DESIGN: A descriptive study of the ethics guidelines published in 103 English-language biomedical journals listed in the Abridged Index Medicus in 1995 and 2005. Each journal was reviewed by the principal author and one of four independent reviewers.

RESULTS: During the period, the proportion of journals requiring IRB approval increased from 42% (95% CI 32.2% to 51.2%, p<0.001) to 76% (95% CI 66.4% to 83.1%, p<0.001). In 2005, an additional 9% referred to the Declaration of Helsinki or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Uniform requirements for ethical guidelines; 15% (95% CI 8.5% to 22.5%, p<0.01) provided ambiguous or no requirements. The proportion of journals requiring COI disclosure increased from 75% (95% CI 66.6% to 83.3%, p<0.05) to 94% (95% CI 89.4% to 98.6%, p<0.05); 41% had comprehensive requirements, while some addressed only funding source (6%), were vague (10%) or both (14%). Criteria for authorship rose from 40% (95% CI 30.5% to 49.5%, p<0.05) to 72% (95% CI 63.3% to 80.7%, p<0.05). Journals with higher impact factors were more likely to require IRB approval (p<0.01). Journals in anaesthesia and radiology all required IRB approval; requirements in other disciplines varied.

CONCLUSIONS: Instructions to authors regarding ethical standards have improved. Some remain incomplete, especially regarding the ...


Introduction, Oonagh Corrigan, John Mcmillan, Charles Weijer Dec 2008

Introduction, Oonagh Corrigan, John Mcmillan, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

This introductory chapter begins with a brief explanation of the impetus behind the book as well as its objectives. It then discusses the history of consent and the challenges for informed consent. An overview of the subsequent chapters is presented.


The Limits Of Consent: A Socio-Ethical Approach To Human Subject Research In Medicine, Oonagh Corrigan, John Mcmillan, Kathleen Liddell, Martin Richards, Charles Weijer Dec 2008

The Limits Of Consent: A Socio-Ethical Approach To Human Subject Research In Medicine, Oonagh Corrigan, John Mcmillan, Kathleen Liddell, Martin Richards, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

Since its inception as an international requirement to protect patients and healthy volunteers taking part in medical research, informed consent has become the primary consideration in research ethics. Despite the ubiquity of consent, however, scholars have begun to question its adequacy for contemporary biomedical research. This book explores this issue, reviewing the application of consent to genetic research, clinical trials, and research involving vulnerable populations. For example, in genetic research, information obtained from an autonomous research participant may have significant bearing on the interests of family members who have not consented to the study. This casts doubt on the adequacy ...


Trust And Exploitation In Clinical Research, Paul Miller, Charles Weijer Dec 2008

Trust And Exploitation In Clinical Research, Paul Miller, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

This chapter attempts to derive, define, and specify norms governing the relationship between physician-researcher and patient-subject, and to explore their interconnection. It argues that rooting the relationship between physician-researcher and patient-subject in a normative theory of trust is promising. It enables the derivation, definition, and specification of norms governing the relationship and appreciation of their interconnection.


Private Religious Schools And Public Reasons, Charles Weijer Dec 2008

Private Religious Schools And Public Reasons, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.