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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Are Illegal Direct Actions By Animal Rights Activists Ethically Vigilante?, Michael P. Allen, Erica Von Essen May 2018

Are Illegal Direct Actions By Animal Rights Activists Ethically Vigilante?, Michael P. Allen, Erica Von Essen

Between the Species

Constructed as terrorist, illegal direct actions by animal rights activists have become the subject of draconian law enforcement measures in the US and UK. Some scholars respond to this phenomenon by interpreting such actions to protect vulnerable animals not as terrorist but civilly disobedient. This approach highlights their ethical character, as a normatively relevant consideration in the state’s law enforcement response. Consistent with this approach, we argue that illegal direct actions by animal rights activists are not terrorist, although their motivations are sometimes anti-statist and anarchist. However, we also argue that civil disobedience is an awkward fit for many ...


Autonomy, Slavery, And Companion Animals, Heather M. N. Kendrick May 2018

Autonomy, Slavery, And Companion Animals, Heather M. N. Kendrick

Between the Species

I attempt to resolve the question of whether keeping animals as pets is akin to slavery by considering the significance of liberty to human beings and to nonhuman animals. I distinguish between two senses of liberty: preference liberty and autonomous liberty. Preference liberty is the freedom to satisfy the preferences that one in fact has. Autonomous liberty is the ability to satisfy the preferences that one might have regardless of whether one actually has those preferences. Preference liberty has a value for animals, but autonomous liberty is meaningless for them. As the core wrong of slavery is the restriction of ...


Review Of Engel's And Comstocks The Moral Rights Of Animals, Mark Bernstein Apr 2018

Review Of Engel's And Comstocks The Moral Rights Of Animals, Mark Bernstein

Between the Species

A brief review of Engel's and Comstock's The Moral Rights of Animals


Tom Regan: A Visionary Changing The World, Carolyn Bailey Apr 2018

Tom Regan: A Visionary Changing The World, Carolyn Bailey

Between the Species

No abstract provided.


Biophilia: Alienation And Solidarity, Ralph Acampora Mar 2018

Biophilia: Alienation And Solidarity, Ralph Acampora

Between the Species

Biophilia, theorized by Fromm, Wilson, and Kellert, is examined as a potential support for a pro-animal ethos. First, I look at the idea and its definitions at the hands of its chief theorizers. Then I investigate how different stages of human cultural development (foraging, pastoralism, industrial agriculture) have influenced different aspects of biophilia—especially as this bears on animal alienation. Finally, I consider possible remedies in the form of renewed patterns of solidarity with other species, one of which transforms Marx’ concept of species-being. The article has ethical implications, but it is essentially a work in philosophical anthropology.


Heganism, Thomas E. Randall Feb 2018

Heganism, Thomas E. Randall

Between the Species

An emblematic association exists between meat consumption and the gender identity hegemonic masculinity. This association is so strong that men who pursue meatless diets (especially vegans) are likely to be socially ostracized. Heganism is a diet/gender identity that aims to reconstruct hegemonic masculinity with the goal of removing these stigmas attached to male veganism. Yet heganism fails to do this, and, in fact, worsens the marginalization of male vegans. Therefore, heganism ought to be rejected. Instead, an alternative option for reducing the marginalization of male vegans could be found in the emergent literature on non-hegemonic masculinities. By rejecting hegemonic ...


Francis Wolff’S Flawed Philosophical Defense Of Bullfighting, Gabriel Andrade Jan 2018

Francis Wolff’S Flawed Philosophical Defense Of Bullfighting, Gabriel Andrade

Between the Species

As a result of Catalonia’s ban of bullfighting in 2011, in Spain there has been a renowned interest in the ethical debate about bullfighting. Most defenders of bullfighting are Spaniards, but the most systematic is French philosopher Francis Wolff. In this article, I review Wolff’s most persistent arguments in favor of bullfighting, and I offer my own refutations. Wolff argues bullfighting is not torture, bulls do not suffer, bulls must die, and bullfighting tradition must be preserved. All of these claims are dubious, as they are based on shaky assumptions and fallacious reasoning.


Review Of Taming The Wild Horse: An Annotated Translation And Study Of The Daoist Horse Taming Pictures, Regina Swanson Jan 2018

Review Of Taming The Wild Horse: An Annotated Translation And Study Of The Daoist Horse Taming Pictures, Regina Swanson

Between the Species

Abstract: This review of Louis Komjathy’s translation and interpretation of a 13th century set of illustrated poems places the work squarely within the emerging field of animal studies. Though essentially a map for Daoist monastic training, Komjathy notes that the Horse Taming Pictures, as he names them, are also about horses at some level. He therefore engages these pictures not as relics of a medieval eremitic order, but as works of art and poetry incorporating horses as timeless symbols and living creatures. While not strictly a work of ethics, Taming the Wild Horse takes time to consider human ...


Dialogues On Ethical Vegetarianism, Michael Huemer Dec 2017

Dialogues On Ethical Vegetarianism, Michael Huemer

Between the Species

Two philosophy students, M and V, discuss the ethics of meat consumption. Standard arguments on both sides are reviewed, with emphasis on the argument that meat-consumption is wrong because it supports extreme cruelty. M and V also address such questions as how conflicting intuitions ought to be weighed, whether meat-eating is comparable to participating in a holocaust, why ethical arguments often fail to change our behavior even when they change our beliefs, and how an ethical vegetarian morally ought to interact with non-vegetarians.


Why Do We Care?: A Natural History Of Noddings’ Ethical Theory, Walter Jason Niedermeyer Oct 2017

Why Do We Care?: A Natural History Of Noddings’ Ethical Theory, Walter Jason Niedermeyer

Between the Species

Noddings’ theory of caring, which is nearing its 35th anniversary, has failed to garner the attention of the more classical theories of ethics. This slight may be due to its relative youth, or the historical support for other constructs, but if examined through the lens of evolutionary biology, the validity of Noddings might be tested. Using recent discoveries from the emerging fields of cognitive ethology and neuroscience, I have evaluated whether there exists evolutionary underpinnings for her theory. My analysis makes it apparent that the empathy and altruism required for the practice of caring are as much a product ...


Xenotransplantation, Subsistence Hunting And The Pursuit Of Health: Lessons For Animal Rights-Based Vegan Advocacy, Nathan M. Nobis Oct 2017

Xenotransplantation, Subsistence Hunting And The Pursuit Of Health: Lessons For Animal Rights-Based Vegan Advocacy, Nathan M. Nobis

Between the Species

I argue that, contrary to what Tom Regan suggests, his rights view implies that subsistence hunting is wrong, that is, killing animals for food is wrong even when they are the only available food source, since doing so violates animal rights. We can see that subsistence hunting is wrong on the rights view by seeing why animal experimentation, specifically xenotransplanation, is wrong on the rights view: if it’s wrong to kill an animal to take organs to save a human life, it’s wrong to kill an animal to eat that animal to save a human life or improve ...


Nozick’S Libertarian Critique Of Regan, Josh Milburn Oct 2017

Nozick’S Libertarian Critique Of Regan, Josh Milburn

Between the Species

Robert Nozick’s oft-quoted review of Tom Regan’s The Case for Animal Rights levels a range of challenges to Regan’s philosophy. Many commentators have focussed on Nozick’s putative defence of speciesism, but this has led to them overlooking other aspects of the critique. In this paper, I draw attention to two. First is Nozick’s criticism of Regan’s political theory, which is best understood relative to Nozick’s libertarianism. Nozick’s challenge invites the possibility of a libertarian account of animal rights – which is not as oxymoronic as it may first sound. Second is Nozick’s ...


Harming (Respectfully) Some To Benefit Others: Animal Rights And The Moral Imperative Of Trap-Neuter-Release Programs, Cheryl E. Abbate Sep 2017

Harming (Respectfully) Some To Benefit Others: Animal Rights And The Moral Imperative Of Trap-Neuter-Release Programs, Cheryl E. Abbate

Between the Species

Because spaying/neutering animals involves the harming of some animals in order to prevent harm to others, some ethicists, like David Boonin, argue that the philosophy of animal rights is committed to the view that spaying/neutering animals violates the respect principle and that Trap Neuter Release (TNR) programs are thus impermissible. In response, I demonstrate that the philosophy of animal rights holds that, under certain conditions, it is justified, and sometimes even obligatory, to cause harm to some animals (human or nonhuman) in order to prevent greater harm to others. As I will argue, causing lesser harm to some ...


Review Of Nathan Nobis's Animals & Ethics 101, Bob Fischer Aug 2017

Review Of Nathan Nobis's Animals & Ethics 101, Bob Fischer

Between the Species

No abstract provided.


Animal Rights And Incredulous Stares, Bob Fischer Jul 2017

Animal Rights And Incredulous Stares, Bob Fischer

Between the Species

I propose an analogy between the thesis that animals have rights and David Lewis's commitment to modal realism. I argue that just as Lewis received incredulous stares that seem to justify rejecting his metaphysical hypothesis, so the thesis that animals have rights can be reasonably rejected. I consider the prospect challenging the considered beliefs on which that rejection depends, and ultimately offer a pessimistic conclusion.


Reflections On Tom Regan And The Animal Rights Movement That Once Was, Gary L. Francione Jul 2017

Reflections On Tom Regan And The Animal Rights Movement That Once Was, Gary L. Francione

Between the Species

No abstract provided.


Demystifying Animal Rights, Mylan Engel Jr. Jul 2017

Demystifying Animal Rights, Mylan Engel Jr.

Between the Species

According to the mysteriousness objection, moral rights are wholly mysterious, metaphysically suspect entities. Given their unexplained character and dubious metaphysical status, the objection goes, we should be ontologically parsimonious and deny that such entities exist. I defend Tom Regan's rights view from the mysteriousness objection. In particular, I argue that what makes moral rights seem metaphysically mysterious is the mistaken tendency to reify such rights. Once we understand what moral rights are and what they are not, we will see that rights talk is neither mysterious nor nonsensical. I then consider a second aspect of Regan’s rights view ...


Chasing Secretariat's Consent: The Impossibility Of Permissible Animal Sports, James Rocha Jul 2017

Chasing Secretariat's Consent: The Impossibility Of Permissible Animal Sports, James Rocha

Between the Species

Tom Regan argued that animal sports cannot be morally permissible because they are cruel and the animals do not voluntarily participate. While Regan is correct about actual animal sports, we should ask whether substantially revised animal sports could be permissible. We can imagine significant changes to certain animal sports, such as horse racing, that would avoid cruelty and even allow the animals to make their own choices. Where alternative options are freely available, we can consider the horses to have preference autonomy in that they make their own decisions, and we could thereby claim that we have their hypothetical consent ...


"Subjects-Of-A-Life," Entelechy, And Intrinsic Teleology, Josephine Donovan Jun 2017

"Subjects-Of-A-Life," Entelechy, And Intrinsic Teleology, Josephine Donovan

Between the Species

Abstract

This article explores the question of what is a “subject-of-a-life,” Tom Regan’s celebrated term for a living entity to whom, he argued, we humans owe ethical duty. I return to ancient concepts of entelechy and teleological organization, arguing that, stripped of theological implications, they provide a usable basis for modern theorizing about organism and an ethical foundation for condemning such practices as transgenic engineering. Every creature, it is argued, has its own inherited formal identity, which it strives to sustain. This reality is ethically pertinent knowledge which humans are obliged to respect and honor.


Colb And Dorf On Abortion And Animal Rights, Mylan Engel Jr. Mar 2017

Colb And Dorf On Abortion And Animal Rights, Mylan Engel Jr.

Between the Species

In their recent book, Sherry Colb and Michael Dorf defend the following ethical theses: (1) sentience is sufficient for possessing the right not to be harmed and the right not to be killed; (2) killing sentient animals for food is almost always seriously wrong; (3) aborting pre-sentient fetuses raises no moral concerns at all; and (4) aborting sentient fetuses is wrong absent a reason weighty enough to justify killing the fetus. They also discuss strategies and tactics for activists: They oppose the use of graphic images by activists on tactical grounds, and they categorically oppose the use of violence by ...


We Are All Noah: Tom Regan's Olive Branch To Religious Animal Ethics, Matthew C. Halteman Feb 2017

We Are All Noah: Tom Regan's Olive Branch To Religious Animal Ethics, Matthew C. Halteman

Between the Species

For the past thirty years, Tom Regan has bucked the trend among secular animal rights philosophers and spoken patiently and persistently to the best angels of religious ethics in a stream of publications that enjoins religious scholars, clergy, and lay people alike to rediscover the resources within their traditions for articulating and living out an animal ethics that is more consistent with their professed values of love, mercy, and justice. My aim in this article is to showcase some of the wealth of insight offered in this important but under-utilized archive of Regan’s work to those of us, religious ...


Singer, Wittgenstein, And Morally Motivating Examples, Ramona Ilea Jan 2017

Singer, Wittgenstein, And Morally Motivating Examples, Ramona Ilea

Between the Species

Peter Singer’s Animal Liberation played a pivotal role in the animal rights movement and the foundation of modern animal ethics. Using an analysis inspired by Wittgenstein’s remarks on ethics, I will analyze the way in which Singer’s book is structured in order to understand why it succeeds in providing people with the moral motivation to change the way they live. I will argue that the success of Animal Liberation is in large part due to the detailed, carefully chosen, emotionally rich examples and the unusual way in which these examples are juxtaposed, structured, and presented. Understanding how ...


Book Review: The Question Of The Animal And Religion: Theoretical Stakes, Practical Implications, A. G. Holdier Dec 2016

Book Review: The Question Of The Animal And Religion: Theoretical Stakes, Practical Implications, A. G. Holdier

Between the Species

No abstract provided.


Review Of Steven Mcmullen's Animals And The Economy, Bob Fischer Dec 2016

Review Of Steven Mcmullen's Animals And The Economy, Bob Fischer

Between the Species

N/A


Review: Interspecies Ethics By Cynthia Willett, Thomas E. Randall Oct 2016

Review: Interspecies Ethics By Cynthia Willett, Thomas E. Randall

Between the Species

This paper provides a review of Cynthia Willett's book Interspecies Ethics. Willett aims to outline the beginnings of biosocial eros ethics – an ethical outline that sketches the potentiality of a cross-species cosmopolitan ideal of compassion (agape), derived through acknowledging and emphasizing the existence of spontaneous, playful interaction between social animals. Though this book is recommended for offering an innovative framework from which to explore the possibility of non-anthropocentric cross-species ethic, readers should be wary of expecting to find a fully-fledged moral program detailing how this would work.


Review Of The Moral Complexities Of Eating Meat, Andy Lamey Aug 2016

Review Of The Moral Complexities Of Eating Meat, Andy Lamey

Between the Species

No abstract provided.


How To Become A Post-Dog. Animals In Transhumanism, Michael Hauskeller Aug 2016

How To Become A Post-Dog. Animals In Transhumanism, Michael Hauskeller

Between the Species

This paper analyses and deconstructs the transhumanist commitment to animal rights and the well-being of all sentient beings. Some transhumanists have argued that such a commitment entails a moral imperative to help non-human animals overcome their biological limitations by enhancing their cognitive abilities and generally “uplifting” them to a more human-like existence. I argue that the transhumanist approach to animal welfare ultimately aims at the destruction of the animal as an animal. By seeking to make animals more like us the freedom to live their life as the kind of creature they are is being denied to them. It is ...


Review Of Bug Music: How Insects Gave Us Rhythm And Noise, Jonathan L. Friedmann Jul 2016

Review Of Bug Music: How Insects Gave Us Rhythm And Noise, Jonathan L. Friedmann

Between the Species

Review of Bug Music: How Insects Gave Us Rhythm and Noise, by David Rothenberg. This book proposes that the human sense of rhythm derived in part from insect sounds.


Carnivorous Companions And The Vegetarian’S Dilemma, Patrick J. Clipsham Jul 2016

Carnivorous Companions And The Vegetarian’S Dilemma, Patrick J. Clipsham

Between the Species

This paper is concerned with a problem that arises within ethical frameworks that imply that it is wrong for humans to consume meat or other animal products when vegan alternatives are available. The specific problem relates to the ethical difficulties associated with beginning a relationship with a companion animal that may require at least some animal-based foods in order to survive. I follow some psychologists in referring to the ethical problems associated with such companionship as the Vegetarian’s Dilemma. After approaching this dilemma from the perspective the animal rights approach and welfarist consequentialism, I argue that some important insights ...


The Owl, The Goldfish And The Bull - The Question Of The Animal And Romantic Poetry, Hui Zhang Jun 2016

The Owl, The Goldfish And The Bull - The Question Of The Animal And Romantic Poetry, Hui Zhang

Between the Species

This article argues that the representation of animals in Romantic poetry contributes to the contemporary philosophical and ethical discussion of the question of animals by providing a literary expression of the latter. Conversely, reading depictions of animals in Romantic poetry with their philosophical implications in mind throws light on the oppositions between different human groups, such as between Orientals and Occidentals, or between males and females, in Romantic poetry. These categories connect with each other in different ways in the works of three prominent Romantic poets: William Wordsworth, Lord Byron and Alexander Pushkin. Animals in their poetry reflect their views ...