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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Individual Responsibility For Structural Injustice, Taro Shirakawa Apr 2019

Individual Responsibility For Structural Injustice, Taro Shirakawa

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In our globalized world, there are many cases of injustices happening due to the capitalistic economic system and the laws and norms that support it. One of the most common cases of these types of injustices is the harms to factory workers caused by sweatshop labor conditions. Although companies and factory managers must bear some responsibility for improving the labor conditions, the harms to factory workers caused by sweatshops are injustices resulting from the structure of international society where all consumers, a factory manager, its owner, and a CEO of the global apparel firm are interconnected by the international economy ...


On The Divergence Of Schopenhauerian And Schweitzerian Ethics-Of-Will, Bryce Herndon Apr 2019

On The Divergence Of Schopenhauerian And Schweitzerian Ethics-Of-Will, Bryce Herndon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

I attempt to understand the cause of divergence between the ethical philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and Albert Schweitzer, both of whom belong to a meta-ethical school dubbed "ethics-of-will." Ethics-of-will is that subset of moral thought which advocates moral action on the basis of the metaphysical propositions that the world is Will and all that exists to human perception is representation of the Will. Schweitzer and Schopenhauer fall into this school, yet advocate radically different ethics, such that Schweitzer may be considered an optimist advocating ethics which seek life- and world-affirmation and Schopenhauer may be considered a pessimist advocating ethics which ...


Egoism And The Repugnant Conclusion, Nathaniel Anderson Apr 2019

Egoism And The Repugnant Conclusion, Nathaniel Anderson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Repugnant Conclusion is the conclusion that for any world of people living moderately good lives, there exists another, better, world of far more people living far worse lives. This thesis examines a number of proposed solutions to the repugnant conclusion and comes to the conclusion that none of them are satisfactory. Instead, it proposes that the repugnant conclusion may be true in value theoretic terms, but might not be repugnant if it does not underlie any significant ethical implications. Ethical egoism is defended as an ethical system under which the ethical implications of the repugnant conclusion are successfully minimized ...


An Incongruous Present: Identifying The Absurd Aesthetic In William Faulkner’S "Requiem For A Nun" (1951), Blake Hani Apr 2019

An Incongruous Present: Identifying The Absurd Aesthetic In William Faulkner’S "Requiem For A Nun" (1951), Blake Hani

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines the absurd aesthetic present in William Faulkner’s Requiem for a Nun (1951), in order to both re-open an otherwise disregarded text for more fruitful interpretations, as well as consider what constitutes a “successful” or “failed” text. By applying Albert Camus’s theories of the absurd developed in The Myth of Sisyphus (1942) and The Rebel (1951), a sense of logic or intention is revealed in Requiem for a Nun’s abrasive structural disjointedness and narrative incoherence. This absurd logic presents a subversion of the standards of successful narratives, as the text appears to self-reflectively meditate on ...


The Methodological Puzzle Of Phenomenal Consciousness: What It Is, And Why It Is Still Unsolved, Qiuyang Shen Apr 2019

The Methodological Puzzle Of Phenomenal Consciousness: What It Is, And Why It Is Still Unsolved, Qiuyang Shen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The question of whether cognitive access is a constitutively necessary part of phenomenal consciousness has been the center of the debate of consciousness for several decades. It has been recognized that there exists a methodological puzzle in the study of consciousness (Block, 2006; Phillips, 2018). The puzzle can be roughly described as follows: how can we empirically find out whether certain cognitively inaccessible states are phenomenally conscious or not, when the way we identify conscious mental states is always confounded with cognitive access? This thesis reviews two current approaches to solve the methodological puzzle - one approach appeals to the Inference ...


Citizenship And Partiality: Group Membership And The Bounds Of Morality, Hannah Winckler-Olick May 2018

Citizenship And Partiality: Group Membership And The Bounds Of Morality, Hannah Winckler-Olick

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Traditional moral theories share a commitment to basic tenets of impartial equality: each person is equally morally worthy. In practice, however, it is generally considered to be a requirement that moral agents act in certain special ways toward their loved ones. This "permissible partiality" is sometimes extended to groups rather than individuals. In this paper, I discuss various suggestions for how partiality might be justified and how it might be applied to groups of citizens. I argue that partiality can provide some basis for explaining the bonds of shared citizenship, but that these bonds must adhere to the basic tenets ...


Evolutionary Competition As Religion: A Religio-Biological Model Of The Maori And Vaisnava Sahajiya Traditions, Benjamin Highland May 2018

Evolutionary Competition As Religion: A Religio-Biological Model Of The Maori And Vaisnava Sahajiya Traditions, Benjamin Highland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the modern field of Religious Studies, there exists an epistemological divide between structuralist and post-structuralist thought. Structuralists seek to find underlying and universally applicable knowledge about religion, while post-structuralists argue that traditions must be studied within their own specific geographic, temporal, and cultural contexts. In an aim to reconcile these two disparate paradigms, I introduce the Religio-Biological Model and apply it to two distinct religious traditions: the Maori and the Vaisnava Sahajiya. Drawing from both religious and biological theory (specifically multilevel selection theory), this thesis seeks to create an interdisciplinary framework for the future study of religion that cohesively ...


J.S. Mill The Democrat: Connecting Mill, Athens, And Election Reform, Devon Wolfe May 2018

J.S. Mill The Democrat: Connecting Mill, Athens, And Election Reform, Devon Wolfe

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this paper, I examine John Stuart Mill's views on representative government in an effort to show his support for democracy. In order to accomplish this, I examine his relationship to the Ancient Athenian direct democracy. I argue that Mill’s appreciation for the guiding principles of the participatory democracy in Athens implies that his own beliefs regarding the principles of democracy are positive and supportive.


Perceptual Experiences Cannot Be An Inference’S Conclusion, Yuanchen Lu Apr 2018

Perceptual Experiences Cannot Be An Inference’S Conclusion, Yuanchen Lu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Susanna Siegel holds a view that experiences can be the conclusion of an inference. In this paper, I shall refute this claim. Siegel has to endorse a specific account of inference that allows her to make this claim. Thus, my line of reasoning is to first provide argument against Siegel’s account of inference; then I propose and defend an account of inference that does not allow experiences to be the conclusion of an inference.


Towards An Interactionist Dualism, Yonghao Wang Apr 2018

Towards An Interactionist Dualism, Yonghao Wang

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis consists of two parts. In Part 1 I explain why we should endorse an interactionist version of dualism instead of other kinds of anti-physicalism. I argue that epiphenomenalism is false, and as versions of anti-physicalism, naturalistic dualism and Russellian panprotopsychism fail to find the middle ground between interactionist dualism and epiphenomenalism. John Perry (2001) and Andrew Bailey (2006) have accused Chalmers of presupposing epiphenomenalism. I develop their attack based on the causal closure problem and reply to Chalmers’ responses. In particular, I evaluate Chalmers’ defense of Russellian panprotopsychism and argue that this theory as well cannot avoid committing ...


Natural Debts, Natural Dangers: An Ideology Of Nation-State And Subject In An Immunology Text, Quinn Monette May 2017

Natural Debts, Natural Dangers: An Ideology Of Nation-State And Subject In An Immunology Text, Quinn Monette

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In an inquiry into the systems of metaphor used in an immunology text, I argue that the conceptualization of science is ideological, non-neutral, and has important consequences in the formation of subjects.


A Cup Of Imperial Taste: The Formation Of Ceramic Aesthetics Under Emperor Huizong (R. 1100-1126), Kexin Ma May 2017

A Cup Of Imperial Taste: The Formation Of Ceramic Aesthetics Under Emperor Huizong (R. 1100-1126), Kexin Ma

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ancient Chinese ceramics are objects of appreciation around the world and have been defined as works of art by the art world. My thesis, however, points out that the taken-for-granted idea that ceramics are born to be works of art in ancient China, is, in fact, a constructed interpretation. In the thesis, I ask the question: when and how were ceramics transformed from functional objects into works of art in ancient China? The thesis investigates the change of roles and imperial tastes of ceramics during the Tang-Song transition, and examines the formation of a new aesthetics of ceramics, combining two ...


A Defense Of Retributivism As A Theory Of Punishment, Samantha Kim May 2017

A Defense Of Retributivism As A Theory Of Punishment, Samantha Kim

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Theories of punishment seek to validate the use of punishments and maintain societal order. These theories can be divided into two general philosophical camps, retributivism and utilitarianism. By pointing to the unacceptable consequences of other moral theories, offering a solution to the most glaring objection to retributive justice, and giving justification for the certain punishments that proportional punishments require, I seek to prove that retributive justice alone remains a functional theory of justice.


A Threefold Defense Of Perceptual Dogmatism, Hunter R. Gentry Apr 2017

A Threefold Defense Of Perceptual Dogmatism, Hunter R. Gentry

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper attempts to defend perceptual dogmatism (PD), a theory of epistemic justification, from three objections: (1) the subject's perspective objection (SPO), (2) the problem of easy justification, and (3) the objection from cognitive penetration. The SPO charges PD with allowing for a subject to be justified in his belief that P even when P is accidentally true from the subject's perspective. The problem of easy justification claims that intuitively, PD is too permissive in granting justification for beliefs about the external world, such that a subject can come to have justification for the reliability of his/her ...


Neuroscience Changes More Than You Think, Paul Sheldon Davies, Peter Alces Jan 2017

Neuroscience Changes More Than You Think, Paul Sheldon Davies, Peter Alces

Arts & Sciences Articles

In this Essay, we consider the contribution of a startling new book, Law & Neuroscience (L&N), by Owen Jones, Jeffrey Schall, and Francis Shen. It is a law school course book (a genre not often the focus of a scholarly review essay) that supports fundamental inquiry into the relationship between emerging neuroscientific insights and doctrinal conceptions in the law. We believe that the book shifts the paradigm and so may profoundly affect the course of normative evaluation of law. In this Essay, we trace and evaluate the “argument” of the book and suggest ways in which its contribution to the normative analysis of law may impact students and legal scholars for years to come. We believe that L&N is that rare work that will, quite literally, change the way people think. The book’s power rests, securely, on two premises: (1) legal doctrine derives mainly from our folk psychological intuitions (based on our inferences about others’ beliefs, desires, and intentions) concerning human agency and, in particular, our capacities for practical reason; and (2) progress in the sciences of the mind, including neuroscience, casts grave doubts on folk intuitions at the core of our understanding of human agency. It is folk psychology that gives way to an understanding informed by neuroscience, compelling revision of our notions of responsibility embodied in contracts, torts, and criminal law. Part I describes the dynamic balance and pedagogical power that the format of L&N achieves. That dynamic and power is illustrated in the contrast between the neurological reductionism endorsed by Francis Crick and skepticism expressed by Stephen Morse concerning the relevance of neuroscience to legal doctrine. On Crick’s view, if our folk psychological intuitions come into conflict with known neurological facts, it is folk intuitions that must go. On Morse’s view, by contrast, there are, either in principle or merely in fact, no discoveries in neuroscience that threaten our folk view of ourselves. In their judicious selection of theoretical perspectives and case studies, the editors of L&N sustain the Crick-Morse dichotomy across a wide range of substantive legal issues. We complete our analysis in Part II by taking a stand of our own—we show the very real challenges to law presented by the Crick-Morse dichotomy. With Crick and others, we argue that the former authority of our folk intuitions must be ceded to conflicting findings in science. In defense, we show that recent discoveries from cognitive neuroscience integrate with discoveries in affective neuroscience, and, from those premises, we defend two claims: (1) many human actions—those we intuitively judge to be evaluable in moral and legal terms—are, as a matter of fact, causally influenced by affective processes about which we cannot reason, precisely because those processes do not rise to conscious awareness; and (2) some information about our affective processes can rise to conscious awareness, but, even when that occurs, the actual ...


“Insane For The Destination:” Disrupting The Teleological Impulses Of Sylvia Plath’S Ariel And Adrienne Rich’S Diving Into The Wreck, Noah Christopher Brooksher May 2016

“Insane For The Destination:” Disrupting The Teleological Impulses Of Sylvia Plath’S Ariel And Adrienne Rich’S Diving Into The Wreck, Noah Christopher Brooksher

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Despite their complex poetry, the critical scholarship of Sylvia Plath and Adrienne Rich has been dominated by oversimplistic and reductive biographical and feminist readings that fail to engage with the nuanced texts. By contrast, this paper intends to examine these poets through a post-structuralist feminist framework. Not only does such a perspective challenge pre-existing critical assumptions of both poets’ work, but it also draws attention to their key differences: their treatment of selfhood and history. In Ariel, Plath’s rejection of a final, transcendent telos informs a poetics that challenges the romantic humanist view of the uniform subject predicated on ...


Addressing The Problems In American Drug Policy: A Case For The Legalization Of Drugs, Jackson A. Eskay May 2016

Addressing The Problems In American Drug Policy: A Case For The Legalization Of Drugs, Jackson A. Eskay

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Addressing the Problems in American Drug Policy: A Case for the Legalization of Drugs


On Animal Rights, Speciesism, And The Nature Of Social Change, Delaney Berman May 2016

On Animal Rights, Speciesism, And The Nature Of Social Change, Delaney Berman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A philosophy honors thesis on animal rights, speciesism, and the nature of social change.


The Revolutionary New Woman: Renegotiating Her Social Contract Through Sex, Nicole Walsh May 2016

The Revolutionary New Woman: Renegotiating Her Social Contract Through Sex, Nicole Walsh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the Victorian Era drew to a close, the New Woman period emerged in the 1890s. The corresponding literary works, products of the new realism movement and heated debate on female issues like the sexual double standard, critiqued women’s social realities. For example, New Woman heroines violate the Victorian social code in several ways, producing competing factions that reconstruct femininity, sex, and marriage. More traditional New Woman works approach the “woman question” in a conservative Victorian fashion, boasting female protagonists that resist marriage and, consequently, their social duty to reproduce. Conversely, this period also produced over-sexed characters that subvert ...


A Psychological Approach To The Special Composition Question, Connor Drake Dantzler May 2016

A Psychological Approach To The Special Composition Question, Connor Drake Dantzler

Undergraduate Honors Theses

When does composition occur? There are historical accounts that claim there are no composite objects, or that composite objects can consist of any given objects. These views fail to preserve our intuitions and warrant a different understanding of the term “object”. I present a psychological approach wherein observers ascribe objecthood to an arrangement in the form of a secondary quality. This subjective behavior can be traced back to the development of our perceptual capacities in our natural history.


The Ludic Life Of Things: Explorations In The Vitality Of The Ludic Object In Contemporary Narratives, Eamonn Delacy Apr 2016

The Ludic Life Of Things: Explorations In The Vitality Of The Ludic Object In Contemporary Narratives, Eamonn Delacy

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This project makes an object-oriented analysis of the activity and vitality of the material culture present within contemporary American narratives, with a specific focus on the materiality of the ludic. Drawing upon new ideas of Being developed by Object-Oriented philosophers, this work aims to divert literary analysis’s focus from the non-material, Jamesonian mode of the ‘Political Unconscious’ to a re-energized grappling with the ‘Material Unconscious’ that pervades contemporary texts. As part of this grappling, the work looks at both traditional literary texts and video game and television narratives so as to better understand the activity of the narrative medium ...


Political Liberalism And A Theory Of Justice: Recasting Justice As Fairness As A Political Conception Of Liberal Justice, George Eric Rudebusch Apr 2016

Political Liberalism And A Theory Of Justice: Recasting Justice As Fairness As A Political Conception Of Liberal Justice, George Eric Rudebusch

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In Political Liberalism , John Rawls did not try to fix public reason on a single political conception of justice. I disagree. This project shows that adopting a political liberal framework yields a political conception of justice with three principles of justice: equal basic rights and liberties, fair equality of opportunity and the bounded efficiency principle. The resulting theory is largely similar to justice as fairness, yet it differs in four key ways. First, equal basic rights and liberties is expanded to include a more robust set of positive political liberties. Second, fair equality of opportunity is not strictly political; rather ...


Thrown Into America: Existentialism In The New World, William Toler Marsh May 2015

Thrown Into America: Existentialism In The New World, William Toler Marsh

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Thrown Into America examines the social, cultural, philosophical phenomenon known as Existentialism—a product of 19th and early 20th century European intellectualism—and its influence on the literary landscape of the United States. I propose that Ralph Ellison, Jack Kerouac, and Walker Percy, are central figures in American existentialism. While dealing primarily with their work and lives, I understand them as but a vibrant few, among many, representatives of the existential tradition. This is, in part, a genealogical investigation. Rather than studying single texts, isolated from their own place and time, I explore their specific historical conditions. The ...


Deconstructing Terror: The Political Theatre Of Harold Pinter, Caryl Churchill, And Martin Crimp, Beatrice Loayza May 2015

Deconstructing Terror: The Political Theatre Of Harold Pinter, Caryl Churchill, And Martin Crimp, Beatrice Loayza

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Terrorism is a concept that, as its varied rhetorical employments throughout history prove, has long evaded semantic consistency or stable meaning. With special attention to the events leading up to 9/11 and the corresponding public discourse of the "War on Terror," this study will demonstrate how art-- in particular the socially engaged dramatic texts coming from Great Britain-- addresses this conceptual behemoth, ultimately "deconstructing" how it is a Western neoliberal ideology conceives of itself in relation to the Other.


“A Constant Unfolding Of Far-Resonate Action”: George Eliot’S Middlemarch, Spinoza, And The Ethics Of Power, Zachary J. Hardy May 2015

“A Constant Unfolding Of Far-Resonate Action”: George Eliot’S Middlemarch, Spinoza, And The Ethics Of Power, Zachary J. Hardy

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Before George Eliot, penname of Mary Ann Evans, wrote the novels that brought her an enduring reputation as one of the great English novelists, she translated three influential works of German philosophy into English: David Strauss’s The Life of Jesus Critically Examined, Ludwig Feuerbach’s The Essence of Christianity, and Benedict de Spinoza’s Ethics. In this study I will assess how these three thinkers, with particular emphasis on Spinoza, influenced George Eliot’s life, philosophy, and novels. I argue that Middlemarch’s central protagonist Dorothea Brooke, a woman with a great amount of emotional and intellectual energy, is ...


Taming Of Monsters: The Postdramatic Case For Copenhagen, Shaan Y. Sharma May 2015

Taming Of Monsters: The Postdramatic Case For Copenhagen, Shaan Y. Sharma

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analysis of Michael Frayn's manipulation of perspective in his works, the implications of a postdramatic interpretation of Copenhagen, the production process of the show, and reflections on the performance.


A Battle For Rights Justification: Millian Utilitarianism Vs. Scanlonian Contractualism, Jose A. Lopez Jr. May 2015

A Battle For Rights Justification: Millian Utilitarianism Vs. Scanlonian Contractualism, Jose A. Lopez Jr.

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this paper, I evaluate which of two ethical theories - Mill's utilitarianism or Scanlon's contractualism - can provide a more plausible justification of a plausible account of rights. To arrive upon such an account, I consider two utilitarian accounts of rights and one contractualist account of rights. Thereafter, I establish, through extraction of the most plausible elements of each of the three aforementioned accounts of rights, five necessary conditions which a rights account should meet if it is to be plausible. I conclude that given an understanding of a plausible rights account as one which minimally includes these five ...


A Whole Way Of Life: Online Communities And Console Gaming, Carlton Fleenor Apr 2015

A Whole Way Of Life: Online Communities And Console Gaming, Carlton Fleenor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis is a study of TrueAchievements (TA), an online community and social network for players of the Xbox 360 and Xbox One videogame consoles. It is a response to the emerging canon of book-length game studies ethnographic texts, in particular Boellstorff et al.’s Ethnography and Virtual Worlds: a Handbook of Method. The project is guided by two central threads. The first thread is a critique of danah boyd and Mikael Jakobsson’s uses of the rhetoric of social constructionism in their “socio-technical” theories of the relation of ‘the social’ and ‘the technological.’ Drawing on the work of Daniel ...


Blurred Lines: Exploring Poetic And Musical Subjectivity In Verlaine And Debussy's "Romances Sans Paroles", Emily Eyestone Apr 2014

Blurred Lines: Exploring Poetic And Musical Subjectivity In Verlaine And Debussy's "Romances Sans Paroles", Emily Eyestone

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines the expression of subjectivity in poetry and music, through a comparison of nineteenth century French poet Paul Verlaine's poems in his collection Romances sans paroles with the musical settings of these poems by the composer, Claude Debussy. Using artistic subjectivity as the point of departure, I attempt to account for the ways in which these art forms may approximate or suggest similar ideas, despite their materially-different modes of expression. Each of the four chapters in this analysis focus on a comparison between one of Verlaine's and its accompanying musical transcription by Debussy. I engage in ...


Assessing The Effects Of Workplace Aggression And Normative Unethical Behaviors On Counselors' Perceptions Of Ethicality Using An Integrative Understanding Of Morality, Eleni Maria Honderich Jan 2014

Assessing The Effects Of Workplace Aggression And Normative Unethical Behaviors On Counselors' Perceptions Of Ethicality Using An Integrative Understanding Of Morality, Eleni Maria Honderich

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Acting ethically is a core facet of the counseling profession's identity, safeguarding clients from undue harm (ACA, 2005). Through an increased understanding of both detrimental and positive factors that can influence counselors' perceptions of ethical behaviors, the counseling profession can intervene accordingly; this knowledge may assist in managing the problem related to unethical infractions. However, ethical behavior is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon, leaving many factors to be explored and examined. Workplace aggression, exposure to normative unethical behaviors, and an integrated modal of morality constitute some of these factors that warrant further investigation. A dearth of research currently exists ...