Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Philosophy Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Pennsylvania

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 147

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Lessons To Be Learned: The Abuse Of Eminent Domain Power For Economic Development In Comparative Perspective, Xinxou Zhou May 2020

Lessons To Be Learned: The Abuse Of Eminent Domain Power For Economic Development In Comparative Perspective, Xinxou Zhou

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


The History And Reality Of The Market Failures Approach To Business Ethics, Kara Zhang May 2020

The History And Reality Of The Market Failures Approach To Business Ethics, Kara Zhang

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


San Antonio Independent School District V. Rodriguez: Equal Protection Doctrinal Evolution And Implications On School Segregation Today, Anthony Chen May 2020

San Antonio Independent School District V. Rodriguez: Equal Protection Doctrinal Evolution And Implications On School Segregation Today, Anthony Chen

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


An Ethical Equation Of Corporate And Environmental Personhood: The Salmon River Commands Rights, Katherine Poole May 2020

An Ethical Equation Of Corporate And Environmental Personhood: The Salmon River Commands Rights, Katherine Poole

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


A Flawed Case For Inequity Aversion: Revisiting The Criticisms Of Binmore And Shaked (2010), Ammar Plumber May 2020

A Flawed Case For Inequity Aversion: Revisiting The Criticisms Of Binmore And Shaked (2010), Ammar Plumber

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


A Letter From The Editor, Jenna Liu May 2020

A Letter From The Editor, Jenna Liu

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


From Poe To Cortázar: Spheres Of Influence And Circles, Luis F. Garcia Jan 2020

From Poe To Cortázar: Spheres Of Influence And Circles, Luis F. Garcia

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

A close examination as well as an exploration of the influence Edgar Allan Poe’s Eureka and Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Circles provided to Argentinean writer Julio Cortázar in his short story Axolotl, From Poe to Cortázar: Spheres of Influence and Circles provides a comparison and contrast of the overall thematic elements and literary resources of these texts and authors.


A Feminism For Everyone? How The Developed Should Help The Developing, Allen Zhu Feb 2019

A Feminism For Everyone? How The Developed Should Help The Developing, Allen Zhu

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This paper addresses both liberal and multicultural feminist concerns for the Western feminist's duty to help women around the world. Liberals accuse multiculturalists of falling into the trap of cultural essentialism, wherein they fail to hold cultures accountable for blatant human rights violations. However, liberal feminist theory both perpetuates and assumes what Alison Jagger dubs the "West is best" thesis - that the West is morally and culturally superior to non-Western cultures. I propose an agenda that accommodates concerns at both ends of the feminist spectrum. In my "multidimensional sequence for women's liberation," Western feminists must first de-Westernize the ...


Gendering Of Home And Homelessness In Latinx Literature, Maria P. Ahumada Feb 2019

Gendering Of Home And Homelessness In Latinx Literature, Maria P. Ahumada

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

This research interrogates the gendering of notions of home and homelessness using the theoretical framing of Anzaldúa in a critical analysis of the works of Sandra Cisneros in The House on Mango Street, and Helena Maria Viramontes' The Moths and Other Stories. The women in these narrative struggle with the societal expectations that are imposed on them through patriarchal ideals, which invade the spaces of their home. This framework can lead to a sense of outsiderness and feelings of homelessness within the home for women when they realize that they are being oppressed by a dominant culture.


On Being As Passage And Plurality Of Self: Postcolonial Caribbean Identity In Merle Hodge's Crick Crack, Monkey, Amanda González Izquierdo Feb 2019

On Being As Passage And Plurality Of Self: Postcolonial Caribbean Identity In Merle Hodge's Crick Crack, Monkey, Amanda González Izquierdo

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

This essay examines questions of home and identity in a postcolonial Caribbean context. Situating itself in the dialogue between continental philosophy and postcolonial theory, this research explores how identity formations are processes which negotiate fragmentary demands of being as well as the various ruptures and dislocations that are resultants of colonization. This paper proposes that in thinking of postcolonial identities, we must explicitly and necessarily consider multiplicity, alterity, diaspora, and interstitial spaces. Focusing on Merle Hodge's novel Crick Crack, Monkey, this essay thinks through protagonist Tee's process of becoming, a process which is fluid, dynamic, and never complete ...


Freedom, Society, And The Individual In Early Modern Women's Thought, Patrick Leon Ward Ball Jan 2019

Freedom, Society, And The Individual In Early Modern Women's Thought, Patrick Leon Ward Ball

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation describes and analyses several different approaches to the relation between individuals and wider social groupings in the work of Margaret Cavendish, Sophie de Grouchy, Gabrielle Suchon, Mary Wollstonecraft, and other women of the early modern period in Europe. From these disparate sources—Cavendish’s vitalist metaphysics, Suchon’s practical ethics, Wollstonecraft’s polemical aesthetics—a unifying political concern can be drawn: one of how individuals relate to their societies, and how this relation can be distorted or outright controlled by existing power relations.

Each chapter approaches this subject from a different side: the tension of individual freedom and ...


Three Essays On Strategy And Social Responsibility, Carson Everhart Young Jan 2019

Three Essays On Strategy And Social Responsibility, Carson Everhart Young

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The phenomenon of greenwashing receives significant public and academic attention. So do the related practices of bluewashing (regarding involvement with the United Nations Global Compact) and the use of corporate social responsibility (CSR) as mere window dressing. The first essay in this dissertation provides a conceptual and ethical analysis of these practices. It also criticizes some frameworks for using CSR as a tool for increasing a firm’s economic performance. If CSR is to be taken seriously, rather than dismissed as a marketing gimmick at best or a veil for corporate malfeasance at worst, then we cannot endorse CSR decisions ...


How To Live A Good Life And Afterlife: Conceptions Of Post-Mortem Existence And Practices Of Self-Cultivation In Early China, Ying Zhou Jan 2019

How To Live A Good Life And Afterlife: Conceptions Of Post-Mortem Existence And Practices Of Self-Cultivation In Early China, Ying Zhou

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In the field of sinology, a widespread truism is that mind-body holism is a defining characteristic of early Chinese conception of human life. In this dissertation, we wish to demonstrate that contesting notions of life and death co-exist in early China, against the presumption that mind-body dualism never arises in early China. First, through examining elite burials from Western Zhou through the Han, we demonstrate how the diametrically opposed visions of the dead (that of an ancestral spirit who lacks eternal existence and that of an immortal with a transcended physical form) were seamlessly combined in the burial practices from ...


Self-Mastery In Plato, Brian Reese Jan 2019

Self-Mastery In Plato, Brian Reese

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation addresses an interpretive puzzle involving Plato’s apparently incompatible accounts of psychic conflict. I argue that a better understanding of the soul helps to resolve this puzzle, and that we can properly understand Plato’s conception of the soul by focusing on his account of self-mastery (τὸ κρείττω ἑαυτοῦ). Self-mastery is a concept well-suited to this project because it is treated consistently across Plato’s dialogues and features centrally in discussions of psychic conflict.


Egalitarian Liberalism And Economic Freedom, Pierce Randall Jan 2019

Egalitarian Liberalism And Economic Freedom, Pierce Randall

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation considers three major challenges to egalitarian liberal institutions made by classical liber-

als: that egalitarian liberal institutions involve too much coercive interference with individual economic

decisions, that free markets tend to do better at rewarding people on the basis of their economic choices,

and that only by recognizing full liberal rights of ownership can a society best promote a stable property

regime consistent with our pre-political conventions of ownership. Each of these objections fails, but they

point to an underlying concern that egalitarian liberal institutions fail to adequately protect economic

freedom.

The dissertation then develops and defends a ...


The Problems Of Moral Psychology, Thomas Noah Jan 2019

The Problems Of Moral Psychology, Thomas Noah

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation is a collection of three essays centered around outstanding fundamental problems in the field of moral psychology. These fundamental problems concern both metaphysical and methodological disagreements – namely, what is the subject-matter of moral psychology? And what are the methods for the investigation of that subject-matter? The first chapter examines the problem of marking the domain of moral psychology by isolating its subject-matter and the various methodologies for investigating it. By building from a minimal core of shared agreement, researchers should be able to classify different branches of moral psychology by both subject-matter and method of investigation while being ...


Associations Among End-Of-Life Discussions, Healthcare Utilization And Costs, And Race/Ethnicity In Persons With Serious Illness, Lauren T. Starr Jan 2019

Associations Among End-Of-Life Discussions, Healthcare Utilization And Costs, And Race/Ethnicity In Persons With Serious Illness, Lauren T. Starr

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Acute care near end-of-life (EOL) is associated with lower quality of life and higher EOL costs, which are associated with worse quality death. Goals-of-care (GOC) discussions are associated with lower costs. Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to have these discussions. It is unknown how costs and healthcare utilization differ by race/ethnicity following inpatient GOC discussion or how risk factor profiles are associated with discussion timing. Primary aims included: (1) Exploring associations among EOL discussions, costs, and proxies for costs (healthcare utilization, place of death) in persons with advanced cancer near EOL (Chapter 2); (2) Assessing future acute care ...


The Purpose Of America’S Public Lands, Kearstyn Cook Dec 2018

The Purpose Of America’S Public Lands, Kearstyn Cook

Honors Theses (PPE)

What is the purpose of America’s public lands? By first reviewing the rise of different conceptions of public lands over the course of American history, then discussing more modern controversies involving the Bears Ears National Monument and the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, it becomes clear that there are ultimately three possible solutions: commodification, transcendentalism / preservation, or conservationism. Ultimately, taking a philosophical approach by way of Plato’s definition of “the good life,” this thesis concludes that conservationism is the best conception of the purpose of public lands, because it accommodates for both consumptiveand non-consumptive uses. Accordingly, federal land managers ...


Creating Connection Between Individuals And Teams: Understanding Human Biology And Psychology For High Performance, Nicole Kett Dec 2018

Creating Connection Between Individuals And Teams: Understanding Human Biology And Psychology For High Performance, Nicole Kett

Master of Philosophy in Organizational Dynamics Theses

This capstone is a result of four questions formulated around a central theme focused on understanding what it is that makes teams and environments high performing today, and additionally, how leaders connect with others in order to set high performing environments. In the first question (Chapter 2), exploration of our human biology shows our genetics are wired for connection and collaboration although this may be in contradiction with many aspects of American society today. The second question (Chapter 3) explored human motivation. Instead of understanding the individual, we have to look further to understand how the cues from the environment ...


Art, Experience And Learning: Art As Enhancement Of Experiential Learning, Claudia E. Tordini Oct 2018

Art, Experience And Learning: Art As Enhancement Of Experiential Learning, Claudia E. Tordini

Master of Philosophy in Organizational Dynamics Theses

This capstone explores the relationship between art and experiential learning to support the hypothesis that Art enhances experiential learning. In doing so, it combines experiential learning theory from Kolb and other humanistic psychologies and pedagogists such as Carl Rogers with the philosophical approach to art as experience introduced by John Dewey. The study reviews a broad array of approaches to learn the impact of art in building skills for cognitive, emotional, social and even physical development. It also draws from educational philosophers and activists such as Maxine Greene, who have long supported the inclusion of art in education. I propose ...


Critical Theory And Social Media: Alternatives And The New Sensibility, Philippe E. Becker Marcano May 2018

Critical Theory And Social Media: Alternatives And The New Sensibility, Philippe E. Becker Marcano

Honors Theses (PPE)

Social media platforms are technological communication tools that dominate our social relationships. As we increasingly notice how little control we have over these platforms and how much influence they have on our behavior, the search for alternatives becomes even more pressing. Critical theory is a practical and theoretical framework we can use to develop a qualitative critique of social media platforms, in extension to the large body of work that addresses the quantitatively measurable effects of the platforms. The internet was originally conceived as a space that would open a more communitarian future, but now it has been reduced to ...


Discrimination: Does Perception Of Corruption Affect Our Interactions?, Ramón Garcia Gomez Apr 2018

Discrimination: Does Perception Of Corruption Affect Our Interactions?, Ramón Garcia Gomez

Honors Theses (PPE)

Does our perception of corruption affect our interactions? This question was answered through an experimental survey of 90 participants and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) from Transparency International’s 2017 Report. The survey revealed that those who were categorized as low-corrupt with an above average CPI exhibited altruism towards individuals from perceived high-corrupt regions but discriminated negatively against them when restrictions were placed on the interaction. In the experiment, participants were allowed to give any amount between zero and six dollars in both games. Altruism was measured through the dictator game and low-corrupt participants were found to give one dollar ...


In Defense Of Milgram Experiments, Adam Chernew Apr 2018

In Defense Of Milgram Experiments, Adam Chernew

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In the early 1960s, social psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted a series of studies at Yale University in which he measured the willingness of subjects to obey an authority figure (the experimenter) who instructed them to administer electrical shocks to a confederate under the guise that the experiment was testing the effects of punishment on learning. Although the electrical shocks were fake, these famous obedience experiments are, to this day, recognized as some of the most controversial psychology experiments of all time. While Milgram's experiments yielded seemingly profound insight about human obedience to authority, many in his field were quick ...


Negotiating Moral Luck, Jack Cody Apr 2018

Negotiating Moral Luck, Jack Cody

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

In this essay, I intend to elucidate Thomas Nagel's radical concept of moral luck and the unnerving philosophical paradox that inevitably arises when it is stripped to its essence: in pursuit of a method of fair moral assessment, we approach the possibility that nothing and no one can be aptly judged on moral grounds. I analyze some refutations to this troubling paradox, including Susan Wolf's promising rejection of the subcategory of consequential luck due to the existence of a proposed "nameless virtue." In light of these refutations and Nagel's and Bernard Williams' musings on moral luck, I ...


Bitcoin: Bauble Or Bullion?, Kristjan Tomasson Apr 2018

Bitcoin: Bauble Or Bullion?, Kristjan Tomasson

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

The purpose of this paper is to examine in what ways capital-B Bitcoin, the system, and lower-b bitcoin, the unit of account, are or are not money. Bitcoin is the largest, by market capitalization, financial asset labeled "cryptocurrency" and the first decentralized digital currency. The paper canvasses the academic, business and technical literature to scrutinize the validity of this neologism's implied equivalency to money as a concept, system and artifact from historical, economic, political, teleological, theoretical and functional perspectives. The author(s) of Bitcoin invented blockchain, that is a shared, decentralized, time stamped, public ledger, to solve the problem ...


Subjectivity And Politics In Pasolini's Bourgeois Tragic Theater, Andrew Korn Jan 2018

Subjectivity And Politics In Pasolini's Bourgeois Tragic Theater, Andrew Korn

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Italian author Pier Paolo Pasolini wrote his plays Affabulazione, Orgia and Porcile during his shift to theater in the late 1960s as a critical response to consumer culture in Italy and the West more generally. For him, this expanding mass, petit-bourgeois civilization displaced Italy’s premodern cultures and their sense of the sacred. In his plays, his bourgeois protagonists re-experience the sacred and undergo conversion. The works engender his new “bourgeois tragic” genre, in which the sacred’s return destroys modern subjectivity. They offer a unique examination of this subjectivity, its radicalizing breakdown and the potential radical politics that could ...


Actually Embodied Emotions, Jordan Christopher Victor Taylor Jan 2018

Actually Embodied Emotions, Jordan Christopher Victor Taylor

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation offers a theory of emotion called the primitivist theory. Emotions are defined as bodily caused affective states. It derives key principles from William James’s feeling theory of emotion, which states that emotions are felt experiences of bodily changes triggered by sensory stimuli (James, 1884; James, 1890). However, James’s theory is commonly misinterpreted, leading to its dismissal by contemporary philosophers and psychologists. Chapter 1 therefore analyzes James’s theory and compares it against contemporary treatments. It demonstrates that a rehabilitated Jamesian theory promises to benefit contemporary emotion research. Chapter 2 investigates James’s legacy, as numerous alterations ...


Being And The Good: Natural Teleology In Early Modern German Philosophy, Nabeel Hamid Jan 2018

Being And The Good: Natural Teleology In Early Modern German Philosophy, Nabeel Hamid

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the problem of teleology in early modern German philosophy. The problem, briefly, is to account for the proper sources and conditions of the use of teleological concepts such as design, purpose, function, or end in explaining nature. In its modern guise, the status of these concepts becomes problematic with the rise of modern science in the seventeenth century, which reconceived the physical world as fundamentally inert and purposeless and rejected the medieval view of the world as governed by goal-directed powers. This disssertation argues that the reception of the new science in Germany was deeply conditioned by ...


An Act-Focused Theory Of Political Legitimacy, Justin Bernstein Jan 2018

An Act-Focused Theory Of Political Legitimacy, Justin Bernstein

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

There is a moral presumption against the possession or exercise of coercive power, but political power is coercive. If we think that political power is sometimes morally justified, then given the moral presumption against coercive power, we need a theory as to when political power is morally justified and what justifies it. That is, we need a theory of political legitimacy. This dissertation develops and defends a novel theory of legitimacy, the Act-Focused Consequentialist Theory of Legitimacy.

This theory departs in significant respects from existing theories. In Part One of the dissertation, “Four Theses on Legitimacy,” I argue that these ...


Explaining Stability And Change In Natural Systems, Stephen Esser Jan 2018

Explaining Stability And Change In Natural Systems, Stephen Esser

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

An aim of science is to increase our understanding of the natural world. A primary means for doing so is by providing explanations, which often proceed by tracing the causes of phenomena. How can a causal explanation lead to understanding? While explanations can take many forms, I argue that to succeed they must embody a conception of causation shared with their audience. The challenge then, is to describe this conception and detail its role in explanation. While there is good evidence that scientists employ more than one causal concept, I argue that the concept of productive causation (centered on the ...