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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

O Modelo Das Interações Entre As Atividades Científicas E Os Valores, Hugh Lacey, P. R. Mariconda Jan 2014

O Modelo Das Interações Entre As Atividades Científicas E Os Valores, Hugh Lacey, P. R. Mariconda

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In this article, we offer standardized versions of the principal ideas of the model of the interactions among scientific activities and values that has been proposed in recent years within Scientiae Studia. The model deals with the various roles played by values—ethical, social, political, cognitive (epistemic), religious, etc—in scientific activities, and with their impact on the viability of the ideals (impartiality, comprehensiveness, neutrality, autonomy) of the tradition of modern science.


How Movies Think: Cavell On Film As A Medium Of Art, Richard Thomas Eldridge Jan 2014

How Movies Think: Cavell On Film As A Medium Of Art, Richard Thomas Eldridge

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Stanley Cavell’s writing about movies, from the more theoretical and general The World Viewed (1971) to the later works on specific genres (Pursuits of Happiness, Contesting Tears), has a unifying theme: some movies as (successful) art investigate conditions of accomplished selfhood and interest in experience in medium-specific ways. This claim is explained and defended by explicating the details of the medium-specificity of the moving photographic image (and its history of uses) and by focusing on Michael Verhoeven’s film The Nasty Girl (1990). Though the very ideas of accomplished selfhood and interest in experience naturally prompt some suspicion in ...


Review Of "Being Numerous: Poetry And The Ground Of Social Life" By O. Izenberg, Richard Thomas Eldridge Jan 2014

Review Of "Being Numerous: Poetry And The Ground Of Social Life" By O. Izenberg, Richard Thomas Eldridge

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No abstract provided.


A Kantian Argument For Sovereignty Rights Of Indigenous Peoples, Krista Karbowski Thomason Jan 2014

A Kantian Argument For Sovereignty Rights Of Indigenous Peoples, Krista Karbowski Thomason

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Kant’s non-voluntarist conception of political obligation has led some philosophers to argue that he would reject self-government rights for indigenous peoples. Some recent scholarship suggests, however, that Kant’s critique of colonialism provides an argument in favor of granting self-government rights. Here I argue for a stronger conclusion: Kantian political theory not only can but must include sovereignty for indigenous peoples. Normally these rights are considered redress for historic injustice. On a Kantian view, however, I argue that they are not remedial. Sovereignty rights are a necessary part of establishing perpetual peace. By failing to acknowledge the sovereignty of ...


Scientific Research, Technological Innovation And The Agenda Of Social Justice, Democratic Participation And Sustainability, Hugh Lacey Jan 2014

Scientific Research, Technological Innovation And The Agenda Of Social Justice, Democratic Participation And Sustainability, Hugh Lacey

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Modern science, whose methodologies give special privilege to using decontextualizing strategies and downplay the role of context-sensitive strategies, have been extraordinarily successful in producing knowledge whose applications have transformed the shape of the lifeworld. Nevertheless, I argue that how the mainstream of the modern scientific tradition interprets the nature and objectives of science is incoherent; and that today there are two competing interpretations of scientific activities that are coherent and that maintain continuity with the success of the tradition: "commercially-oriented technoscience" (CT) and "multi-strategy research" (MS). The greater part of this article is devoted to discussing what is involved in ...


Philosophy Upside Down?, Peter Baumann Oct 2013

Philosophy Upside Down?, Peter Baumann

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Philip Kitcher recently argued for a reconstruction in philosophy. According to him, the contemporary mainstream of philosophy (in the English-speaking world, at least) has deteriorated into something that is of relevance only to a few specialists who communicate with each other in a language nobody else understands. Kitcher proposes to reconstruct philosophy along two axes: a knowledge axis (with a focus on the sciences) and a value axis. The present article discusses Kitcher's diagnosis as well as his proposal of a therapy. It argues that there are problems with both, and it ends with an alternative view of what ...


Idealism In 19th Century British And American Literature, Richard Thomas Eldridge Jan 2013

Idealism In 19th Century British And American Literature, Richard Thomas Eldridge

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No abstract provided.


Technology For Social Inclusion, Hugh Lacey Jan 2013

Technology For Social Inclusion, Hugh Lacey

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No abstract provided.


On The Inflation Of Necessities, Peter Baumann Apr 2012

On The Inflation Of Necessities, Peter Baumann

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This paper argues that Kripke’s thesis of the necessity of origin has some implausible consequences.


Nozick’S Defense Of Closure, Peter Baumann Jan 2012

Nozick’S Defense Of Closure, Peter Baumann

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No abstract provided.


Pluralismo Metodológico, Incomensurabilidade E O Status Científico Do Conhecimento Tradicional, Hugh Lacey Jan 2012

Pluralismo Metodológico, Incomensurabilidade E O Status Científico Do Conhecimento Tradicional, Hugh Lacey

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Cultural values may constructively have impact on scientific practices, and lead to legitimate culture-based variations in approaches to them. It follows that traditional or indigenous knowledge need not stand opposed to scientific knowledge, and only investigation on a case-by-case basis can establish whether or not the cognitive credentials of particular traditional knowledge claims are adequate or deficient. Building on an analysis of how different methodological strategies may both compete and complement one another, I argue that what is defensible about Thomas Kuhn's notion of incommensurability, and the possibility of the sound scientific status of traditional knowledge, have the same ...


Reflections On Science And Technoscience, Hugh Lacey Jan 2012

Reflections On Science And Technoscience, Hugh Lacey

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Technoscientific research, a kind of scientific research conducted within the decontextualized approach (DA), uses advanced technology to produce instruments, experimental objects, and new objects and structures, that enable us to gain knowledge of states of affairs of novel domains, especially knowledge about new possibilities of what we can do and make, with the horizons of practical, industrial, medical or military innovation, and economic growth and competition, never far removed from view. The legitimacy of technoscientific innovations can be appraised only in the course of considering fully what sorts of objects technoscientific objects are: objects that embody scientific knowledge confirmed within ...


Knowledge, Practical Reasoning And Action, Peter Baumann Jan 2012

Knowledge, Practical Reasoning And Action, Peter Baumann

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Is knowledge necessary or sufficient or both necessary and sufficient for acceptable practical reasoning and rational action? Several authors (e.g., Williamson, Hawthorne, and Stanley) have recently argued that the answer to these questions is positive. In this paper I present several objections against this view (both in its basic form as well in more developed forms). I also offer a sketch of an alternative view: What matters for the acceptability of practical reasoning in at least many cases (and in all the cases discussed by the defenders of a strong link between knowledge and practical reasoning) is not so ...


A Puzzle About Responsibility A Problem And Its Contextualist Solution, Peter Baumann Mar 2011

A Puzzle About Responsibility A Problem And Its Contextualist Solution, Peter Baumann

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This paper presents a puzzle about moral responsibility. The problem is based upon the indeterminacy of relevant reference classes as applied to action. After discussing and rejecting a very tempting response I propose moral contextualism instead, that is, the idea that the truth value of judgments of the form "S is morally responsible for x" depends on and varies with the context of the attributor who makes that judgment. Even if this reply should not do all the expected work it is a first step.


Narrative Rehearsal, Expression, And Goethe's "Wandrers Nachtlied Ii", Richard Thomas Eldridge Jan 2011

Narrative Rehearsal, Expression, And Goethe's "Wandrers Nachtlied Ii", Richard Thomas Eldridge

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No abstract provided.


Empiricism, Stances, And The Problem Of Voluntarism, Peter Baumann Jan 2011

Empiricism, Stances, And The Problem Of Voluntarism, Peter Baumann

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Classical empiricism leads to notorious problems having to do with the (at least prima facie) lack of an acceptable empiricist justification of empiricism itself. Bas van Fraassen claims that his idea of the "empirical stance" can deal with such problems. I argue, however, that this view entails a very problematic form of voluntarism which comes with the threat of latent irrationality and normative inadequacy. However, there is also a certain element of truth in such a voluntarism. The main difficulty consists in finding an acceptable form of voluntarism.


A Imparcialidade Da Ciência E As Responsabilidades Dos Cientistas, Hugh Lacey Jan 2011

A Imparcialidade Da Ciência E As Responsabilidades Dos Cientistas, Hugh Lacey

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This article, making use of a distinction between endorsing and accepting a claim, discusses the responsibilities that scientists incur in the light of the necessity to act, formulate policy, and to design regulations pertinent to technoscientific innovations, when decisions will inevitably be based, in important part, on claims that are only endorsed (and so implicated in compromises with ethical/social values), and not accepted in accordance with impartiality. Then, after introducing the notion of "impartial investigation", I conclude that the central responsibility of scientists is to engage in impartial investigation, and that this requires, not the exclusion of ethical and ...


Begrenzte Erkenntnisse?, Peter Baumann Jul 2010

Begrenzte Erkenntnisse?, Peter Baumann

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No abstract provided.


Wittgenstein On Aspect-Seeing, The Nature Of Discursive Consciousness, And The Experience Of Agency, Richard Thomas Eldridge Jan 2010

Wittgenstein On Aspect-Seeing, The Nature Of Discursive Consciousness, And The Experience Of Agency, Richard Thomas Eldridge

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No abstract provided.


Simulation-Based Definitions Of Emergence, Alan Richard Baker Jan 2010

Simulation-Based Definitions Of Emergence, Alan Richard Baker

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One approach to characterizing the elusive notion of emergence is to define that a property is emergent if and only if its presence can be derived but only by simulation. In this paper I investigate the pros and cons of this approach, focusing in particular on whether an appropriately distinct boundary can be drawn between simulation-based and non-simulation-based methods. I also examine the implications of this definition for the epistemological role of emergent properties in prediction and in explanation.


What Writers Do. The Value Of Literary Imagination, Richard Thomas Eldridge Dec 2009

What Writers Do. The Value Of Literary Imagination, Richard Thomas Eldridge

Philosophy Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Entrevista: Hugh Lacey, Revista, Hugh Lacey Nov 2009

Entrevista: Hugh Lacey, Revista, Hugh Lacey

Philosophy Faculty Works

Hugh Lacey is Scheuer Family Professor of Philosophy Emeritus and Senior Research at the Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.), where he taught for thirty years, and researcher collaborator in the thematic project: "Gênese e significado da tecnociência: relações entre ciência, tecnologia e sociedade", USP/FAPESP. Between 1969 and 1971 he was a lecturer at the Department of Philosophy of the University of São Paulo and ever since he has developed an intense interaction with Brazilian Universities and Research Institutes, with many others visits. Some of his main research interests are: the interplay between facts and values, the relevance of ...


O Lugar Da Ciência No Mundo Dos Valores E Da Experiência Humana, Hugh Lacey Oct 2009

O Lugar Da Ciência No Mundo Dos Valores E Da Experiência Humana, Hugh Lacey

Philosophy Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Was Moore A Moorean? On Moore And Scepticism, Peter Baumann Jun 2009

Was Moore A Moorean? On Moore And Scepticism, Peter Baumann

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No abstract provided.


Reliabilism: Modal, Probabilistic Or Contextualist, Peter Baumann Jan 2009

Reliabilism: Modal, Probabilistic Or Contextualist, Peter Baumann

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This paper discusses two versions of reliabilism: modal and probabilistic reliabilism. Modal reliabilism faces the problem of the missing closeness metric for possible worlds while probalistic reliabilism faces the problem of the relevant reference class. Despite the severity of these problems, reliabilism is still very plausible (also for independent reasons). I propose to stick with reliabilism, propose a contextualist (or, alternatively, harmlessly relativist) solution to the above problems and suggest that probabilistic reliabilism has the advantage over modal reliabilism.


To Thine Own Self Be Untrue: A Diagnosis Of The Cable Guy Paradox, D. P. Rowbottom, Peter Baumann Dec 2008

To Thine Own Self Be Untrue: A Diagnosis Of The Cable Guy Paradox, D. P. Rowbottom, Peter Baumann

Philosophy Faculty Works

Hajek has recently presented the following paradox. You are certain that a cable guy will visit you tomorrow between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. but you have no further information about when. And you agree to a bet on whether he will come in the morning interval (8, 12] or in the afternoon interval (12, 4). At first, you have no reason to prefer one possibility rather than the other. But you soon realise that there will definitely be a future time at which you will (rationally) assign higher probability to an afternoon arrival than a morning one ...


Contrastivism Rather Than Something Else? On The Limits Of Epistemic Contrastivism, Peter Baumann Sep 2008

Contrastivism Rather Than Something Else? On The Limits Of Epistemic Contrastivism, Peter Baumann

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One of the most recent trends in epistemology is contrastivism. It can be characterized as the thesis that knowledge is a ternary relation between a subject, a proposition known and a contrast proposition. According to contrastivism, knowledge attributions have the form “S knows that p, rather than q”. In this paper I raise several problems for contrastivism: it lacks plausibility for many cases of knowledge, is too narrow concerning the third relatum, and overlooks a further relativity of the knowledge relation.


Problems For Sinnott-Armstrong's Moral Contrastivism, Peter Baumann Jul 2008

Problems For Sinnott-Armstrong's Moral Contrastivism, Peter Baumann

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In his recent book "Moral Skepticisms" Walter Sinnott-Armstrong argues in great detail for contrastivism with respect to justified moral belief and moral knowledge. I raise three questions concerning this view. First, how would Sinnott-Armstrong account for constraints on admissible contrast classes? Secondly, how would he deal with notorious problems concerning relevant reference classes? Finally, how can he account for basic features of moral agency? It turns out that the last problem is the most serious one for his account.


Review Of "Taking Action, Saving Lives: Our Duties To Protect Environmental And Public Health" By K. Shrader-Frechette, Hugh Lacey Jul 2008

Review Of "Taking Action, Saving Lives: Our Duties To Protect Environmental And Public Health" By K. Shrader-Frechette, Hugh Lacey

Philosophy Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Ciência, Respeito À Natureza E Bem-Estar Humano, Hugh Lacey Jul 2008

Ciência, Respeito À Natureza E Bem-Estar Humano, Hugh Lacey

Philosophy Faculty Works

The central question addressed is: How should scientific research be conducted so as to ensure that nature is respected, its regenerative powers not further undermined and wherever possible restored, and the well being of everyone everywhere enhanced? Then, after pointing to the importance of methodological pluralism for an acceptable answer, and the obstacles posed by identifying science with technoscience that are reinforced by what I call 'the commercial-scientific ethos', two additional questions are considered: How might research, conducted in this way, have impact on - and depend on - strengthening democratic values and practices? And, what is thereby implied for the responsibilities ...