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Pacific University

2004

Articles 1 - 30 of 76

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Beyond Animal Husbandry: The Study Of Farm Animal Cognition And Ensuing Ethical Issues, C. C. Croney, B. Gardner, S. Baggot Jun 2004

Beyond Animal Husbandry: The Study Of Farm Animal Cognition And Ensuing Ethical Issues, C. C. Croney, B. Gardner, S. Baggot

Essays in Philosophy

Concerns about the welfare of agricultural animals in corporate or “factory farming” systems are growing. Increasingly, it is suggested that modern farm animal production practices are morally objectionable, causing physical and mental suffering to animals. Such criticisms are premised on beliefs about the mental capacities of farm animals that are not wholly supported by scientific evidence, for little is known about farm animal cognition. Some animal scientists, realizing that concerns about the treatment of agricultural animals cannot be addressed in absence of knowledge about farm animal mentality, have begun cognitive studies of farm animals. Subsequently, several ethical problems have emerged ...


Review Of “Fearless Speech”, Stefano Franchi Jun 2004

Review Of “Fearless Speech”, Stefano Franchi

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Words Without Meaning”, Anthony Everett Jun 2004

Review Of “Words Without Meaning”, Anthony Everett

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Rationality In Action”, Darren Abramson Jun 2004

Review Of “Rationality In Action”, Darren Abramson

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Silent Parties: A Problem For Liberalism?, Paola Cavalieri Jun 2004

Silent Parties: A Problem For Liberalism?, Paola Cavalieri

Essays in Philosophy

Liberalism is often under attack because of its alleged excessive "formalism". In the words of one of its main contemporary defenders, "the defining feature of liberalism is that it ascribes certain fundamental freedoms to each individual. In particular, it grants people a very wide freedom of choice in terms of how they lead their lives".1 In more continental language, this core idea has been summarized in the statement that what liberalism is all about is "the handling and organization of the conditions in which freedom can be realized".2 For liberals, individuals must be recognized as the ultimate arbiters ...


Doubly Monstrous?: Female And Disabled, Julie Joy Clarke Jun 2004

Doubly Monstrous?: Female And Disabled, Julie Joy Clarke

Essays in Philosophy

In this article I consider instances in visual culture in which artists and filmmakers aestheticize women with damaged, missing or anomalous limbs. I focus upon Joel Peter Witkin’s photomontage Las Meninas (1987), Peter Greenaway’s film “A Zed and Two Noughts” (1985), Alison Lapper Pregnant a statue by Marc Quinn, Mathew Barney’s film “Cremaster” (2002), David Cronenberg’s “Crash” (1996), Luis Buñuel’s “Tristana” (1970) and David Lynch’s short film “The Amputee” (1973). I argue that although the artists and filmmakers reveal, rather than disguise the damaged, anomalous or missing limb(s) of the women, thus valorising ...


Can Animals Attain Membership Within A Human Social/Moral Group?, Eli Kanon Jun 2004

Can Animals Attain Membership Within A Human Social/Moral Group?, Eli Kanon

Essays in Philosophy

Justice is illustrated by how humans treat others. Human society can no longer be considered just if it continues to treat animals instrumentally, disregarding the moral worth of each individual creature. Emile Durkheim's division of labor theory offers a groundwork for providing animals limited rights within a human-dominated society. Solidarity can be fostered between animals and humans by internalizing the principle that all organisms are interdependent. This principle is the foundation for granting animals moral status. By recognizing the role animals play in our society, we can acknowledge our obligations to them. Utilizing a mechaorganic solidarity, humans can establish ...


Animal Ethics And The Scientific Study Of Animals: Bridging The “Is” And The “Ought”, David Fraser, Rod Preece Jun 2004

Animal Ethics And The Scientific Study Of Animals: Bridging The “Is” And The “Ought”, David Fraser, Rod Preece

Essays in Philosophy

From ancient Greece to the present, philosophers have variously emphasized either the similarities or the differences between humans and nonhuman animals as a basis for ethical conclusions. Thus animal ethics has traditionally involved both factual claims, usually about animals’ mental states and capacities, and ethical claims about their moral standing. However, even in modern animal ethics the factual claims are often scientifically uninformed, involve broad generalizations about diverse taxonomic groups, and show little agreement about how to resolve the contradictions. Research in cognitive ethology and animal welfare science provides empirical material and a set of emerging methods for testing the ...


The Moral Value Of Animals: Three Versions Based On Altruism, Elisa Aaltola Jun 2004

The Moral Value Of Animals: Three Versions Based On Altruism, Elisa Aaltola

Essays in Philosophy

As it comes to animal ethics, broad versions of contractualism are often used as a reason for excluding animals from the category of those with moral value in the individualistic sense. Ideas of “reciprocity” and “moral agency” are invoked to show that only those capable of understanding and respecting the value of others may have value themselves. Because of this, possible duties toward animals are often made dependent upon altruism: to pay regard to animals is to act in an other-regarding manner instead of mutual benefit. There are three main versions of altruism in animal ethics. The first one of ...


Humans And Hybrids: A Critique Of The Western Moral Framework, Angela Ballantyne Jun 2004

Humans And Hybrids: A Critique Of The Western Moral Framework, Angela Ballantyne

Essays in Philosophy

This paper uses the advent of human-animal hybrids, created though somatic cell nuclear transfer experiments in America and Australia, as a tool to deconstruct and challenge the dualistic belief that humans are morally distinct and superior to animals. The view that moral value corresponds to species membership creates a scientific and cultural environment that prohibits or restricts human embryo experimentation whilst permitting the extensive use of animals for research. The dualistic premise therefore motivates the creation of human-animal hybrids for research as a way for scientists to side-step restrictive legislation. Furthermore, ethical frameworks that incorporate the dualistic assumption have been ...


Does Beast Suffering Count For Kant: A Contextual Examination Of §17 In The Doctrine Of Virtue, Heike Baranzke Jun 2004

Does Beast Suffering Count For Kant: A Contextual Examination Of §17 In The Doctrine Of Virtue, Heike Baranzke

Essays in Philosophy

Ever since Schopenhauer ́s accusation, it has been disputed whether Kant ́s few remarks concerning the ethical human-animal-relationship in the Lectures and in the Doctrine of Virtue fail to support ethical arguments on behalf of animals. One critique that plays a central role is whether Kant would have forbidden cruelty to brutes for educational purposes. In addition to these old objections, Kant ́s ethics is charged to be speciesistic by animal ethicists and animal rights philosophers at present.

The following article examines especially §17 of the Doctrine of Virtue, which is the only animal ethical text authorized by Kant himself ...


Review Of “The Road Since Structure”, David Boersema Jun 2004

Review Of “The Road Since Structure”, David Boersema

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Historical Ontology”, Karim Dharamsi Jun 2004

Review Of “Historical Ontology”, Karim Dharamsi

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Mind, Value, And Reality”, Richard D. Kortum Jun 2004

Review Of “Mind, Value, And Reality”, Richard D. Kortum

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Peter Carruthers And Brute Experience; Descartes Revisited, Lisa Kretz Jun 2004

Peter Carruthers And Brute Experience; Descartes Revisited, Lisa Kretz

Essays in Philosophy

Peter Carruthers argues in favour of the position that the pains of non-human animals are nonconscious ones, and from this that non-human animals are due no moral consideration.1 I outline Carruthers’ argument in Section II, and call attention to significant overlap between Carruthers’ standpoint regarding non-human animals and Rene Descartes’ position. In Section III I specify various ways Carruthers’ premises are undefended. I argue that we are either forced to take seriously an absurd notion of pain experience that fails to be adequately defended, or we are forced to accept an underlying problematic ideology Carruthers shares with Descartes that ...


‘The Powers That Be’: Mechanisms That Prevent Us Recognising Animal Sentience, Andrew Linzey Jun 2004

‘The Powers That Be’: Mechanisms That Prevent Us Recognising Animal Sentience, Andrew Linzey

Essays in Philosophy

I propose to identify and illustrate what might be described as ‘the powers that be’ – four mechanisms that prevent us from recognising sentience in animals, and to indicate the challenges that should follow for future work in this field.


Of Bears And Women: The Ethics Of Gender In Barry Lopez's Arctic Dreams, Sarah E. Mcfarland Jun 2004

Of Bears And Women: The Ethics Of Gender In Barry Lopez's Arctic Dreams, Sarah E. Mcfarland

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus ”, Matthew Mckeon Jun 2004

Review Of “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus ”, Matthew Mckeon

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “The Shortest Shadow: Nietzsche’S Philosophy Of The Two”, Steven Michels Jun 2004

Review Of “The Shortest Shadow: Nietzsche’S Philosophy Of The Two”, Steven Michels

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Rationality And Freedom”, James E. Roper, David M. Zin Jun 2004

Review Of “Rationality And Freedom”, James E. Roper, David M. Zin

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


What's More Important?, Steven F. Sapontzis Jun 2004

What's More Important?, Steven F. Sapontzis

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Evolution And The Ethics Of Animal Research, Niall Shanks, Keith Green Jun 2004

Evolution And The Ethics Of Animal Research, Niall Shanks, Keith Green

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Beastly Contractarianism? A Contractarian Analysis Of The Possibility Of Animal Rights, C. Tucker, C. Macdonald Jun 2004

Beastly Contractarianism? A Contractarian Analysis Of The Possibility Of Animal Rights, C. Tucker, C. Macdonald

Essays in Philosophy

Social Contract theorists and animal advocates seem to have agreed to go their separate ways. Contractarians have avoided attempting to address an issue that seems destined to prove embarrassing for the theory given the current political climate. It is largely thought that contractarianism affirms the meager moral standing commonly attributed to most animals. In the face of this consensus, animal advocates who feel the need to philosophically ground the moral status of animals have turned to other potential sources. This is not a hard choice for animal advocates to make: utilitarianism is a respectable moral theory that affords animals moral ...


Introduction, Susan J. Armstrong Jun 2004

Introduction, Susan J. Armstrong

Essays in Philosophy

This issue of Essays in Philosophy provides evidence both of the dynamic nature of animal ethics and of the multidisciplinary character of the subject. Clearly, animal ethics encompasses not only philosophy and the other humanities, but the natural and social sciences as well.

While the essays are arranged alphabetically, the grouping below according to common themes may be of use to some readers.


Comments On “Good Sex On Kantian Grounds, Or A Reply To Alan Soble,” Or A Reply To Joshua Schulz, Alan Soble Jun 2004

Comments On “Good Sex On Kantian Grounds, Or A Reply To Alan Soble,” Or A Reply To Joshua Schulz, Alan Soble

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Michael Dummett”, John Corcoran Jun 2004

Review Of “Michael Dummett”, John Corcoran

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Philosophy & This Actual World: An Introduction To Practical Philosophical Inquiry”, Laura Duhan Kaplan, Ellyn Ritterskamp Jun 2004

Review Of “Philosophy & This Actual World: An Introduction To Practical Philosophical Inquiry”, Laura Duhan Kaplan, Ellyn Ritterskamp

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Review Of “Quintessence: Basic Readings From The Philosopyhy Of W.V. Quine”, Michael Goodman Jun 2004

Review Of “Quintessence: Basic Readings From The Philosopyhy Of W.V. Quine”, Michael Goodman

Essays in Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Hume And Our Treatment Of Animals, Monica L. Gerrek Jun 2004

Hume And Our Treatment Of Animals, Monica L. Gerrek

Essays in Philosophy

This paper is concerned with the bias in favor of the interests of the members of some species of non- human animals and against the interests of the members of other species of non-human animals. This view, which I call modified speciesism, is perhaps related to Singer’s speciesism, but neither entails nor is entailed by it. The argument takes the following form: given that exploited animals are morally equivalent to non-exploited animals and given that non-exploited animals are morally entitled to the way that we treat them, exploited animals are entitled to such treatment as well. I will give ...


The Ability To Be Moral Fails To Show That Humans Are More Valuable Than Nonhuman Animals, Bart Gruzalski Jun 2004

The Ability To Be Moral Fails To Show That Humans Are More Valuable Than Nonhuman Animals, Bart Gruzalski

Essays in Philosophy

Most philosophers believe that humans have far greater moral worth than nonhuman animals. This consensus position invites the following question: What characteristic or group of characteristics of human beings differentiates us from nonhuman animals so that we have greater moral worth than nonhuman animals? Philosophers have offered a number of characteristics that allegedly show human beings to be superior to nonhuman animals. At the top of the list we find thinking and the ability to be rational. Further down the list we find more subtle abilities, for example, such as the ability to be self- conscious. Neither of these nor ...