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Hong Kong Baptist University

安樂死

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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

安樂死:一種儒家倫理之考量, Jun Li Jan 2009

安樂死:一種儒家倫理之考量, Jun Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay reexamines the issue of euthanasia from the perspective of Confucian ethics. The author, as a Confucian scholar, responds to and analyzes the ethical challenge posed by euthanasia. In this way, the essay constitutes a preliminary attempt to establish a Confucian understanding of and attitude towards euthanasia.

Confucians generally see death as the end of life in this world, leaving open the question of the immortality of the soul or the resurrection of the body. This view differs little from that generally held in the secularized modern world and seems close to a pro-euthanasia position, making Confucianism different from ...


雷切爾斯論安樂死, Kai-Yee Wong Jan 2001

雷切爾斯論安樂死, Kai-Yee Wong

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Twenty-six years on, the debate generated by James Rachels' 'Active and Passive Euthanasia' (1975), one of the most widely reprinted articles on euthanasia in bioethics, is still very much alive. The following policy statement cited and attacked by Rachels in the article has thus become familiar to many bioethicists: 'The intentional termination of the life of one human being by another - mercy killing - is contrary to that for which the medical profession stands and is contrary to the policy of the American Medical Association. The cessation of the employment of extraordinary means to prolong the life of the body when ...


死亡的標準:自我決定和公共政策, Hans-Martin Sass Jan 1999

死亡的標準:自我決定和公共政策, Hans-Martin Sass

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

“全腦死亡”標準,在死後器官捐獻和對符合這些嚴格標準的病人終止治療方面,得到了西方文化的支持。但是,它們對亞洲文化和照顧持續性植物狀態的倫理學來說,沒有多少價值。本丈把“包括腦幹的整個腦”的標準作為一種默認的觀點,以此為基礎,本文為綜合性的統一確定死亡法規引入一個公式,但允許有行為能力的成年人通過事先指令在死亡過程中選擇其他確定死亡的標準。


對死者和垂死者的尊重, Anthony Preus Jan 1999

對死者和垂死者的尊重, Anthony Preus

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本文反對永久無意識的人不可能受到傷害,因而得不到道德上的敬重這個論題,並論証:即使是死者也能被傷害和得到道德上的尊敬,所以那些有疑問的或者沒有完全死亡的人更應受到某種道德上的敬重。


儒家的生死價值觀與安樂死, Ping Cheung Lo Jan 1998

儒家的生死價值觀與安樂死, Ping Cheung Lo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper attempts to analyze four major arguments in favor of the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia (including physician-assisted-suicide) as found in the West, and tries to assess these arguments through Chinese Confucian ethics and its perspectives on life and death. Through such a cross-cultural dialogue the author concludes that there is some similarity as well as difference in Chinese and western values. The western moral values appealed to in advocating voluntary euthanasia, to a certain extent, can strike an echoing chord in Confucian ethics. In other words, though the debate on euthanasia is a contemporary phenomenon, the arguments and ...


道德生死觀下的臨終關懷辨析, Ping Dong, Xiaoyan Wang Jan 1998

道德生死觀下的臨終關懷辨析, Ping Dong, Xiaoyan Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In confronting death there are differences among people regarding their deep concerns. A survey shows that most Chinese Catholics are worried about what will happen to them after death, whereas most other Chinese are concerned about unfinished life plans, unfulfilled familial obligations, and so on. However, most Western and Chinese authors agree that a great number of terminally ill patients suffer from anxiety, sadness, and depression. And no one denies that unease, puzzle, solitude, and even anger are often experienced by many dying patients. Against this background, this essay argues that the mental sufferings of terminally ill patients can appropriately ...


利他主義和醫生協助死亡, Martin Gunderson, David J. Mayo Jan 1998

利他主義和醫生協助死亡, Martin Gunderson, David J. Mayo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

我們假定一項允許醫生協助死亡的法律獲得通過。我們指出,使這項法律獲得通過的基本理由在於對個人自主性的尊重、避免遭受痛苦以及尊嚴地死去的可能性。我們還將探討一旦法律通過將引發的兩個道德問題。首先,我們論證通過協助死亡法律的基本理由可以為協助出於利他主義理由動機和出於自我利益理由動機的病人死去辯護;其次,我們論證通過醫生協助死亡法律的理由可以為將該法律擴展到既包括臨終病人又包括非臨終病人辯護。


中國人有關安樂死的價值選擇, Qingxiu Guo, Fengling Jing, Honggang Gen Jan 1998

中國人有關安樂死的價值選擇, Qingxiu Guo, Fengling Jing, Honggang Gen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay analyzes the major outcomes of a survey that we conducted on 400 Chinese individuals of different ages, occupations and levels of education. Our method was to send to every subject a specifically designed form in which the subject faces three types of cases: the terminally ill cancer patient, the persistent-vegetative-state patient, and the severely defected newborn. The subject was required to make a choice among (1) offering treatment at any cost, (2) giving comfort treatment only, and (3) performing euthanasia. Although the survey was made in 1987, new evidence shows that its outcomes remain an accurate index of ...


良心、轉診和醫生協助自殺, Kevin Wm. Wildes S.J. Jan 1998

良心、轉診和醫生協助自殺, Kevin Wm. Wildes S.J.

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

諸如醫生協助自殺這樣的實踐,即使合法,也會引起一系列經常為人們所忽視的道德衡突。最近一項關於醫生協助死亡的建議就是這方面的一個例子,該建議呼籲那些反對自殺的醫生將病人轉移給另外更富有同情的醫生。然而這項建議沒有考慮那些在道義上反對這麼做的醫生們的道德憂慮。


早走,晚走:關於艾滋病中自殺決策的合理性, Margaret P. Battin Jan 1998

早走,晚走:關於艾滋病中自殺決策的合理性, Margaret P. Battin

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

對於那些即將死於艾滋病的人來說,在自殺協助可以得到的地方,如美國西海岸的同性戀社區和荷蘭,我們必須考察醫生和朋友(包括情人、配偶、家庭成員、宗教顧問、支持團體的成員,以及其他熟人)在協助一個艾滋病患者決定和行使自殺的過程中所起的不同作用。本文作出一個中心假定:在自殺協助可以獲得的地方,盡可能地保護和加強選擇的合理性是他人的道德義務。在關於艾滋病中自殺的理性選擇中,可以識別出四種成分--不管它是贊成自殺的選擇還是反對自殺的選擇。艾滋病患者可能自問的問題可以表述如下:(1)“自殺是我想考慮的選擇嗎?”(2)“我應當保留治愈的機會嗎?”(3)“我應如何確定自殺的時間?”(4)“我將給他人的幸福和利益以何種份量?”儘管醫生經常作出與(1) 相關的斷言,但他們恰當地涉及的只是(3);儘管朋友和親密的伙伴經常提供給病人與(3) 相關的趣聞軼事,但他們主要涉及的是(1)。簡言之,醫生和病人經常干預艾滋病患者就自殺所作出的選擇的錯誤部分。