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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

導言:換頭術、嗎啡治療、病人自主權
Introduction: Head Transplant, Morphine Treatment And Patient Autonomy
, Ellen Y. Zhang
Jan 2018

導言:換頭術、嗎啡治療、病人自主權Introduction: Head Transplant, Morphine Treatment And Patient Autonomy, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

作為治療方式,器官移植術(organ transplantation)現在已經相當普遍,儘管有此所帶出的一系列有關醫學/生命倫理學的議題還在繼續。然而,作為器官一種的人的大腦,是否可以移植使得器官移植的問題尤為棘手。大腦移植(brain transplant),亦為“全身移植”(whole-body transplant),指將有機物的大腦(或部分大腦)移植到機物的身體。那麼,與大腦移植相關的是“換頭術”(head-transplant)呢?和大腦移植不同的是,換頭或換顱是指整個頭顱的置換手術。


大腦移植對於道德責任歸屬的挑戰:人格同一性判準的反思
Challenges By Brain Transplantation: Criteria For Personal Identity
, Wanling Chou
Jan 2018

大腦移植對於道德責任歸屬的挑戰:人格同一性判準的反思Challenges By Brain Transplantation: Criteria For Personal Identity, Wanling Chou

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Organ transplantation is now accepted as a common medical treatment. However, the potential for the transplantation of the brain, like any other organ, to become technically feasible gives rise to a series of ethical issues. This essay focuses on the challenges to the criteria for personal identity created by medical technology. Does transplantation preserve the integrity of personal identity? If not, how can we define moral accountability? The essay attempts to show that the traditional definition of personal identity in the West is both biologically and psychologically reductive, as it fails to deal with the issue of the preservation of ...


“頭”與“身”:可易乎?——中國古代故事中的頭身關係探討
Head-To-Body Transplant? Stories From Ancient China
, Yan Li, Weidong Xie
Jan 2018

“頭”與“身”:可易乎?——中國古代故事中的頭身關係探討Head-To-Body Transplant? Stories From Ancient China, Yan Li, Weidong Xie

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

A head transplant is an experimental surgical operation involving the grafting of one organism’s head onto the body of another. Since 2017, with the announcement of the Heaven project, the possibility of head transplantation has raised public concern and caused heated ethical debate in China. This essay approaches the discussion from the perspective of the relationship between the head and the body in ancient Chinese literature. The study highlights the traditional Chinese belief in the unity of corporeality and spirituality, with the human mind viewed as the foundational element of personal identity. The essay also interprets stories involving head ...


受苦的心識——從大乘佛教觀點看頭顱移植
The Suffering Consciousness: Head Transplantation From The Perspective Of Mahayana Buddhism
, Chen Liang, Rui Deng
Jan 2018

受苦的心識——從大乘佛教觀點看頭顱移植The Suffering Consciousness: Head Transplantation From The Perspective Of Mahayana Buddhism, Chen Liang, Rui Deng

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In recent years, “head replacement” or head transplantation has become a controversial issue in medical ethics. The Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero announced that a head transplantation would be carried out in 2018, intensifying debate on medico-technological methods. This essay addresses the issue from the perspective of Mahayana Buddhism, using Buddhist ideas such as consciousness, brain death, karma, and compassion to discuss the incompatibility of modern technology with Buddhist ethics and beliefs. For instance, many Buddhists, Pure Land believers in particular, hold the view that the consciousness does not immediately leave a body pronounced dead. The removal of the head or ...


儒家信仰與同性婚姻:二者能否兼得?
Is Same-Sex Marriage Compatible With Confucianism?
, Guangkuan Xie
Jan 2018

儒家信仰與同性婚姻:二者能否兼得?Is Same-Sex Marriage Compatible With Confucianism?, Guangkuan Xie

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This commentary discusses the problem of the ethical integrity of same-sex marriage raised by Fang. It argues that same-sex marriage does not necessarily have an ethical integrity problem: same-sex couples can be modern Confucians with no conflict with the fundamental doctrines of Confucianism.


儒家和同性婚姻
Confucianism And Same-Sex Marriage
, Yong Li
Jan 2018

儒家和同性婚姻Confucianism And Same-Sex Marriage, Yong Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Fang Xudong argues that there are no successful arguments against same-sex marriage but that Confucianism does not prefer same-sex marriage. In particular, Fang objects to the slippery-slope argument against same-sex marriage, arguing that it is not successful. This commentary contends that the slippery-slope argument cannot be defeated based on the idea of equal marriage rights. I argue that Fang’s reasoning for the Confucian preference to avoid same-sex marriage, based on the importance of natural conception and natural birth, is not valid. Furthermore, I argue that the idea of heterosexual union might not be essential for Confucian key doctrines.


同性婚姻合法化的社會影響
The Social Impacts Of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage
, Xiangyuan Cai
Jan 2018

同性婚姻合法化的社會影響The Social Impacts Of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage, Xiangyuan Cai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

From the perspective of the difference between Chinese and Western philosophy, Professor Zhang Xianglong demonstrates that Confucianism’s attitude towards same-sex marriage is different from that of liberalism and the Christian tradition. The analysis in this article is deep and inspiring. However, in terms of the social problems that may be caused by the legalization of same-sex marriage, I think the author’s arguments need to be further discussed. In fact, the legalization of same-sex marriage would not have as serious an effect on the marriage system, familial feelings and social ethos as he has supposed.


儒家“誠”基礎上的器官家庭捐獻
Family Priority And Consent In Organ Donation: An Argument Based On The Confucian Idea Of Sincerity
, Yu Cai
Jan 2018

儒家“誠”基礎上的器官家庭捐獻Family Priority And Consent In Organ Donation: An Argument Based On The Confucian Idea Of Sincerity, Yu Cai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Organ donation is the gift of an organ to help someone who needs a transplant to survive. Yet with limited organs available, the following question arises. Who should be given priority in terms of donation procedures—the individual who has personally committed to offer his/her organs to anyone in need, or the legal next of kin, i.e., family members? This essay approaches this question with reference to the Confucian ethics of sincerity (cheng), which is viewed as a precondition for the ethics of humanness (ren), arguing that family members should be given priority in decisions on organ donation ...


中國第一起嗎啡勝訴案的背後——臨終關懷病人使用嗎啡的儒家倫理問題
Behind The First Legal Case Of Morphine In China—A Confucian Ethic: Reflections On The Use Of Morphine To Treat Terminal Patients
, Sihan Sun
Jan 2018

中國第一起嗎啡勝訴案的背後——臨終關懷病人使用嗎啡的儒家倫理問題Behind The First Legal Case Of Morphine In China—A Confucian Ethic: Reflections On The Use Of Morphine To Treat Terminal Patients, Sihan Sun

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Pain control is one of the most important goals of end-of-life care for cancer patients in the terminal phase. The World Health Organization recommends that morphine be considered optimal and even indispensable as a means of relieving pain and providing palliative care. However, people often associate this opioid with illicit drugs, particularly in the context of Chinese culture, due to its close association with the two Anglo–Chinese Opium Wars of the mid-19th century. In clinical settings, morphine is usually the preferred treatment for moderate or severe cancer-related pain. However, excessive morphine use may result in respiratory depression and death ...


中國“病人自主權”的歷史演變——20 世紀80 年代之前
Patient Autonomy In China Before The 1980s: A Historical Perspective
, Guobin Cheng
Jan 2018

中國“病人自主權”的歷史演變——20 世紀80 年代之前Patient Autonomy In China Before The 1980s: A Historical Perspective, Guobin Cheng

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay offers a historical outline of the evolution of patient autonomy and related social and medical concepts in China from the imperial era to the 1980s. The author contends that the idea of patient autonomy was totally absent from traditional Chinese culture, as every area of society, from family to medicine, was structured according to a distinctively paternalistic model and regulated by ritual guidelines (lifa). Although the Western medical practices that arrived in China in the 1840s somewhat altered the Chinese approach to medicine, and the physician-patient relationship was viewed in a more egalitarian manner after the establishment of ...


前言:同性婚姻問題:支持倫理討論
Introduction: The Issue Of Same-Sex Marriage: Supporting Ethical Discussion
, Ruiping Fan
Jan 2018

前言:同性婚姻問題:支持倫理討論Introduction: The Issue Of Same-Sex Marriage: Supporting Ethical Discussion, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

同性婚姻是否應當合法化?這不僅是一個法律問題,也是一個倫理問題。不幸的是,倫理討論似乎不受待見,持有不同觀點的學者們樂得三緘其口。本刊本期所登載的三篇主題論文及十五篇回應論文生動顯示,倫理討論富有學術成效,其實大有可為。本刊能夠成功組織這一專題專期,首先需要向積極參與的三位元主題論文作者及十五位評論作者,表示衷心感謝!


婚姻與家庭生活僅僅是相互同意的個人之間的契約嗎?不同的道德基礎及社會轉化
Are Marriage And Family Life Merely Contractual Agreements Among Consenting Parties? Shifting Moral Foundations And Social Transformations
, Mark J. Cherry
Jan 2018

婚姻與家庭生活僅僅是相互同意的個人之間的契約嗎?不同的道德基礎及社會轉化Are Marriage And Family Life Merely Contractual Agreements Among Consenting Parties? Shifting Moral Foundations And Social Transformations, Mark J. Cherry

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper explores the social and cultural implications of different conceptions of marriage and family life. It compares traditional understandings of marriage and family, set within particular religions and cultures, to a Western secular liberal understanding, which seeks to recast marriage as a sort of egalitarian social contract between autonomous individuals. Rather than appreciating the family as a normative form of social being constituted around the monogamous marriage of husband and wife and their own biological (and perhaps adopted) children, here the family is to be appreciated as an institution legally to be molded more closely in line with currently ...


轉變與堅持:回應婚姻與家庭觀念的改變
Transformation And Persistence: Responses To Shifting Perspectives On Marriage And Family
, Chih Wei Hsieh
Jan 2018

轉變與堅持:回應婚姻與家庭觀念的改變Transformation And Persistence: Responses To Shifting Perspectives On Marriage And Family, Chih Wei Hsieh

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

As the cornerstone of today’s pro-same-sex-marriage rhetoric, Western Liberalism is often placed in opposition to Christianity and Confucianism. Under a fashionable preference for liberal values, Christianity and Confucianism’s adaptation to the modern value of gender equality has been under-valued. Gender neutrality remains controversial in Christianity and Confucianism because distinct gender roles serve to maintain morality. Further, the shortcomings of liberally oriented family values and the danger of favoring individuality over social norms are often undiscussed. This article aims to remind readers that rights ought to be balanced with morality, and that traditional values can still serve our present ...


關係契約視野下的婚姻家庭
Marriage And Family From The Perspective Of A Relational Contract
, Dan Han
Jan 2018

關係契約視野下的婚姻家庭Marriage And Family From The Perspective Of A Relational Contract, Dan Han

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

According to relational contract theory, the parties in a marriage and family should not only respect the independence and autonomy of the parties, but also shape the unity of the parties. This constitutes a paradox of modern marriage and family. Contractual intimacy can be expressed in many forms, and can even be expressed freely without form. However, the phenomena of marriage and family life are by no means merely contracts of relations; they are just as much about ideas as about facts.


文化戰爭中的家庭觀與同性婚姻
The Family In The Cultural War And Same-Sex Marriage
, Jue Wang
Jan 2018

文化戰爭中的家庭觀與同性婚姻The Family In The Cultural War And Same-Sex Marriage, Jue Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Mark Cherry’s critical reflection on same-sex marriage is based on a general discussion of the culture war between the traditional view of the family and the liberal view. He discloses three kinds of social and moral risks in the cultural transformation from the traditional family to the post-modern family, and casts doubt on the goal of the legalization of same-sex marriage in contemporary society.


家庭與社會公義
Family And Social Justice
, Lawrence Yung
Jan 2018

家庭與社會公義Family And Social Justice, Lawrence Yung

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Mark Cherry’s article identifies claims regarding individual autonomy, gender neutrality, and rights to sexual freedom as taking a commanding place within the secular liberal recasting of the family to grant same-sex marriage the same legal status as heterosexual marriage. Cherry refers to Plato’s proposal of abolishing family in Republic (Book V) as a precursor to reforming the family to engineer currently favored versions of social justice. This paper adds to the discussion on family and social justice with an explication of this proposal of abolishing family and a comparison with the Confucian ideal of Great Unity.


自由主義與婚姻和家庭的變遷:對查瑞教授一文的回應
Liberalism And The Transformation Of Marriage And Family: A Response To Professor Cherry
, Yanliang Zhang
Jan 2018

自由主義與婚姻和家庭的變遷:對查瑞教授一文的回應Liberalism And The Transformation Of Marriage And Family: A Response To Professor Cherry, Yanliang Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This article makes a brief comment on Professor Cherry’s essay. After summarizing his main ideas, I put forward four different points of view. In short, I think his argument places too much emphasis on the impacts of liberalism on the transformation of marriage and family life, and overlooks the immense influences of technological developments and other societal changes.


儒家會如何看待同性婚姻的合法化?
How Should Confucianism View The Legalization Of Same-Sex Marriage?
, Xianglong Zhang
Jan 2018

儒家會如何看待同性婚姻的合法化?How Should Confucianism View The Legalization Of Same-Sex Marriage?, Xianglong Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

First, the various attitudes towards homosexuality among Confucianism, Christianity and ancient Greek culture are considered. Distinguished from the Christian harsh repulsion and the Greek slight encouragement, Confucianism has been guardedly tolerant of homosexuality and judged homosexuals according to their personal moral behavior. To reveal the deep reasons for the distinction between Confucianism and Christianity on this issue, the paper examines the differences in thinking between the Western dichotomy and the Confucian genesis by the co-opposites of yin-yang. Confucianism explains homosexuality as one of the possible results of the yin-yang process. It is thereby a natural phenomenon, not an evil thing ...


也談同性戀與婚姻
On Homosexuality And Same-Sex Marriage
, Fei Wu
Jan 2018

也談同性戀與婚姻On Homosexuality And Same-Sex Marriage, Fei Wu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Xianglong Zhang’s position on same-sex marriage is tolerance with reservations. He contends that Confucianism does not affirm or deny homosexuality as ancient Greek culture or Christianity did, because it regards homosexuality and same-sex marriage as two completely separate issues. By distinguishing marriage from homosexuality, the Confucian view proposed by Zhang neither violates the freedom of homosexuals nor affects the order of marriage and family. It can provide a more sensible perspective for people to understand the relationship between homosexuality and marriage in today’s world.


拒絕同性婚姻的制度化--回應張祥龍教授
Rejecting The Institutionalization Of Same-Sex Marriage: A Response To Professor Zhang Xianglong
, Kai Man Kwan
Jan 2018

拒絕同性婚姻的制度化--回應張祥龍教授Rejecting The Institutionalization Of Same-Sex Marriage: A Response To Professor Zhang Xianglong, Kai Man Kwan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Zhang evaluates the institutionalization of same-sex marriage from the Confucian perspective, and he does not support it. I agree with him, and this commentary provides more evidence to support his arguments. Finally, I raise two minor questions for him.


一陰一陽之謂道--評“儒家會如何看待同性婚姻的合法化?”
The Interaction Of Yin And Yang Is Called Dao: On Zhang Xianglong's "How Should Confucianism View The Legalization Of Same-Sex Marriage?"
, Qixiang Huang
Jan 2018

一陰一陽之謂道--評“儒家會如何看待同性婚姻的合法化?”The Interaction Of Yin And Yang Is Called Dao: On Zhang Xianglong's "How Should Confucianism View The Legalization Of Same-Sex Marriage?", Qixiang Huang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Attitudes towards homosexuality in Western societies, from eliminating it to the legalization of same-sex marriage, can be described as moving from one extreme to another. In contrast, the Confucian attitude, which tolerates but does not encourage homosexuality, is preferable. The legalization of same-sex marriage belongs to the category of social construction. The different social factors in different countries determine their different attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Heterosexual marriage is the most natural marriage and is in line with human nature.


儒家觀念與現代同性婚姻的可能性--兼及我們對待傳統的態度
Confucian Ideas And The Possibility Of Same-Sex Marriage: Our Attitude Toward Traditions
, Zhiwei Chen
Jan 2018

儒家觀念與現代同性婚姻的可能性--兼及我們對待傳統的態度Confucian Ideas And The Possibility Of Same-Sex Marriage: Our Attitude Toward Traditions, Zhiwei Chen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Zhang Xianglong responded to the issue of legalization of same-sex marriage from the perspective of Confucianism, and expounded the possible attitude of Confucianism towards this issue. His ideas are new and important, but he may have neglected the applicability of Confucianism in modern society. If Chinese traditional culture, especially some specific Confucian concepts, such as Yin and Yang, male and female, patriarchal law, etc., does not undergo the transformation of modernity and is weighed against Western concepts, its power to explain the problems in the process of modernization will be greatly reduced.


權利與善--論同性婚姻
Rights And Goods: On Same-Sex Marriage
, Xudong Fang
Jan 2018

權利與善--論同性婚姻Rights And Goods: On Same-Sex Marriage, Xudong Fang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, the author refutes, one by one, five objections to the legalization of same-sex marriage, including arguments grounded in naturalness, origin, reductio ad absurdum, compromising traditional marriage, and Jiang Qing’s doctrine of particular human rights. The strongest reason for advocating the legalization of same-sex marriage is the doctrine of equal rights. As contemporary people, we have no reason to deny that all individuals have equal rights. The second part discusses why Confucianism prefers heterosexual marriage. The main consideration is that same-sex marriages cannot provide ethical integrity, as heterosexual marriages do ...


儒學、還是儒學自由主義?
Confucianism Or Confucian Liberalism?
, Ruiping Fan
Jan 2018

儒學、還是儒學自由主義?Confucianism Or Confucian Liberalism?, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In providing his reasons for not objecting to the legalization of same-sex marriage, Professor Fang Xudong fully accepts a robust liberal dichotomy between the right and the good as well as the liberal principle of neutrality. This renders his Confucian reflection essentially liberal rather than authentically Confucian. It is ethically incoherent for him to claim that he does not object to the legalization of same-sex marriage although he believes same-sex couples cannot embody ethical integrity as heterosexual marriages do.


同性婚姻和儒家倫理--回應方旭東教授
Same-Sex Marriage And Confucian Ethics: A Response To Professor Fang Xudong
, Xiaohu Deng
Jan 2018

同性婚姻和儒家倫理--回應方旭東教授Same-Sex Marriage And Confucian Ethics: A Response To Professor Fang Xudong, Xiaohu Deng

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Fang Xudong’s paper is in general well-argued. However, I raise two considerations to facilitate further discussion. First, I suggest that Jiang Qing’s idea of particular rights deserves further examination. In particular, it seems reasonable to claim that there are indeed fundamental differences between same-sex marriage and heterosexual marriage. Second, I suggest that Confucianism need not embrace the idea that heterosexual marriage is the only way to fulfil Confucian values.


中國同性婚姻合法化問題:在名與實之間
The Issue Of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage In China: Between Name And Reality
, Jian Tang
Jan 2018

中國同性婚姻合法化問題:在名與實之間The Issue Of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage In China: Between Name And Reality, Jian Tang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Fang argues that we should clearly distinguish rights and goods to deal with the issue of same-sex marriage. In my opinion, rights are like names, whereas goods are like reality. Fang’s view sounds like a middle-way position. However, a decision on whether Chinese homosexuals should obtain the name of marriage should also consider China’s actual social reality, without simply copying modern Western theories.