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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Kant’S Perspectival Solution To The Mind-Body Problem: Or, Why Eliminative Materialists Must Be Kantians, Stephen Richard Palmquist Jul 2016

Kant’S Perspectival Solution To The Mind-Body Problem: Or, Why Eliminative Materialists Must Be Kantians, Stephen Richard Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

Kant’s Critical philosophy solves Descartes’ mind-body problem, replacing the dualism of the “physical influx” theory he defended in his early career. Kant’s solution, like all Critical theories, is “perspectival,” acknowledging deep truth in both opposing extremes. Minds are not separate from bodies, but a manifestation of them, each viewed from a different perspective. Kant’s transcendental conditions of knowledge portray the mind not as creating the physical world, but as necessarily structuring our knowledge of objects with a set of unconscious assumptions; yet our pre-conscious (pre-mental) encounter with an assumed spatio-temporal, causal nexus is entirely physical. Hence, today ...


The Paradox Of Inwardness In Kant And Kierkegaard: Ronald Green's Legacy In The Philosophy Of Religion, Stephen R. Palmquist Jan 2016

The Paradox Of Inwardness In Kant And Kierkegaard: Ronald Green's Legacy In The Philosophy Of Religion, Stephen R. Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

Aside from bioethics, the main theme of Ronald Green's lifework has been an exploration of the relation between religion and morality, with special emphasis on the philosophies of Immanuel Kant and Søren Kierkegaard. This essay summarizes and assesses his work on this theme by examining, in turn, four of his relevant books. Religious Reason (1978) introduced a new method of comparative religion based on Kant's model of a rational religion. Religion and Moral Reason (1988) expanded on this project, clarifying that religious traditions cannot be reduced to their moral grounding. Kierkegaard and Kant: The Hidden Debt (1992) offered ...


The Transcendental Priority Of Touch: Friendship As A Foundation For A Philosophy Of Touch, Stephen Richard Palmquist Jan 2016

The Transcendental Priority Of Touch: Friendship As A Foundation For A Philosophy Of Touch, Stephen Richard Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

As the boundary between the body and the external world, skin has a transcendental status not possessed by other organs. Considered in this way, touch is the most fundamental sense: sight, hearing, smell, and taste can all be regarded as forms of touch. Increasing sensitivity to touching leads modern societies to intensify sexual harassment laws. Anti-touch legislation is nothing new, as a review of relevant biblical texts demonstrates. Surprisingly, the Gospels’ portrayal of Jesus can serve as a model for modifying touching taboos: when employed responsibly, touch promotes moral/spiritual renewal. Correlating the five senses with five types of love ...


Kantian Theocracy As A Non-Political Path To The Politics Of Peace = 引向和平政治的非政治路徑的康德神治觀, Stephen Palmquist Jan 2016

Kantian Theocracy As A Non-Political Path To The Politics Of Peace = 引向和平政治的非政治路徑的康德神治觀, Stephen Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

Kant is well known as one of the founding fathers of modern liberal democracy: his political theory reaches its climax in the ground-breaking work, Perpetual Peace (1795), which sets out the basic framework for a world federation of states united by a system of international law. What is less well known is that two years earlier, in his Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason (1793/1794), Kant had postulated a very different, explicitly religious path to the politics of peace: he presents the idea of an "ethical community" as a necessary requirement for humanity to become "satisfactory to God ...


導言:歷史敘事、傳統理論以及社會現狀對我們的啟示, Ellen Y. Zhang Jan 2016

導言:歷史敘事、傳統理論以及社會現狀對我們的啟示, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

今年暑期,香港浸會大學應用倫理學研究中心舉辦了中國生命倫理學研討會十週年的紀念活動,來自內地、香港、台灣的倫理學、醫學、法學學者近四十人,發表論文二十餘篇。涉及的主題除了生命倫理學理論問題之外,很多議題是在當今中國社會生命倫理學和醫學倫理學所面臨的具體的現實問題和挑戰。

就當代中國生命/醫學倫理學的構建來講,除了理論上的考量和概念上的釐清,我們的思想資源很大程度上取決於具體的醫學傳統和醫療實踐。我們所做的事情,既不是單單用西方的理論套用中國的現實狀況,也不是在傳統文化中尋求解決現實問題的現成答案,而是一種開放式的、理性的、全方位的整合。本刊論文包括歷史敘事的倫理思考、傳統理論的分析、以及有關當代現狀的社會考察。無論採取什麼樣的研究路徑,其目的都是尋求解決當下中國生命/醫學倫理學所面臨的種種挑戰,而對具體的倫理實踐的理論反思又會引發我們對傳統的倫理模式的思考和審視。


瘟疫中的道德敘事, Guobin Cheng Jan 2016

瘟疫中的道德敘事, Guobin Cheng

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The emergence of deadly infectious diseases usually poses a critical challenge to medicine and medical practice. Many contemporary ethicists maintain that medical ethics today should be supplemented by the language of virtues because what is called “professional ethics” is not sufficient to respond to the challenge of medical crises in a time of epidemic diseases. By examining the moral narrative in the historical context of the deadly plague that occurred during the Qing Dynasty, the author argues that the traditional Chinese virtue ethics played an important role in mobilizing social resources and implementing control strategies to deal with the public ...


儒家視角下的死亡的尊嚴, Jianhui Li, Yaming Li Jan 2016

儒家視角下的死亡的尊嚴, Jianhui Li, Yaming Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

What does a death have dignity? In modern healthcare, the wide use of new technology has generated confusion around how to define and protect human dignity, especially in the case of death and dying. Those who advocate the legalization of assisted suicide often appeal to the right to “die with dignity” and the right to individual autonomy. The problem is that it is very difficult to justify one particular understanding of human dignity in the contemporary pluralistic world through a rational formulation without defining dignity.

In this paper, the authors attempt to respond to the current debate on euthanasia and ...


《莊子》生死觀對臨終者的生命關懷, Cuiting Chen Jan 2016

《莊子》生死觀對臨終者的生命關懷, Cuiting Chen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Two major issues in hospice care are pain and death. For those who are facing death and dying, the issues are intensified. This paper discusses the issues relating to death and hospice care in a framework of the Daoist philosophy on life and death, as outlined in the Zhuangzi. The author attempts to show that the wisdom of Daoism can help us to deal with the finitude and vulnerability of human life when facing death. According to the Zhuangzi, the world of experience is constantly transforming and death is part of that transformation. Therefore, it is possible for the adaptive ...


臨床護士護理倫理認知、踐行現狀調查及對策分析, Xian Ge, Hongyan Lei, Dongmei Liu Jan 2016

臨床護士護理倫理認知、踐行現狀調查及對策分析, Xian Ge, Hongyan Lei, Dongmei Liu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the ethical awareness and practice of clinical nurses in nursing care. By using specially designed questionnaires to interview 500 clinical nurses and 209 patients at three hospitals in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, the authors examine the current relationship in medical practice between medical professionals and patients.

The study shows that the total score for the ethical knowledge of nurses is 16.38±3.91; for ethical practice it is 63.43±15.99; and the average score is 2.49±0.64. The score for patients’ satisfaction is 37.56±7 ...


中國墮胎氾濫問題的成因與對策分析——基於H省D市的調查, Jun Cao, Jinghua Li, Bo Dong Jan 2016

中國墮胎氾濫問題的成因與對策分析——基於H省D市的調查, Jun Cao, Jinghua Li, Bo Dong

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Abortion is legal in China. It is a government service available on request for women, yet it has recently generated ethical concerns. This paper investigates and analyzes the rationales given by women who have gone through induced abortion voluntarily or involuntarily, and reflects on the ethical and legal problems in China today. Although the case study is focused on D City in H province, the conclusion mirrors the general problem (i.e., general permissibility of abortion) in a society where the practice of abortion has been accepted by the public due to a government policy of family planning and population ...


“互聯網+”時代患者隱私保護的倫理思考及對策, Xi Geng, Li Tian, Xin Guan Jan 2016

“互聯網+”時代患者隱私保護的倫理思考及對策, Xi Geng, Li Tian, Xin Guan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

“Information technology” refers to automated systems for storing, processing, and distributing information. In medical practice, this involves the use of computers and communication networks to collect and store medical information and data. Ethical guidelines for data protection and privacy have become critical issues in medical ethics in the age of the Internet and information technology. Both healthcare and IT professionals face questions of responsibility, accountability, and liability in handling private information and data.

This paper discusses the tension between the problems in medical practice that may violate patients’ privacy and the effectiveness of data collection brought about by information systems ...


導言, Jonathan Chan Jan 2016

導言, Jonathan Chan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本期《中外醫學哲學》的主題是死亡與優生。死亡是千古以來,宗教家和哲學家一直思考的課題:人死是否如燈滅?人除了身體還有死後仍然能存在的靈魂嗎?我們應怎樣看待死亡?優生則是近世由於科學的興起,才漸漸進入宗教和哲學的視野的課題。所謂「優生」,顧名思義就是優化生命的意思。沒有科學的幫助,人類在優化生命的事情上,能做到的有限。但是,隨著基因科學和技術的發展,人類通過基因改造的技術,大大提高優化生命的能力。但隨之而來的問題是,基因改造會否對人性構成戕害,違反人的尊嚴?使用此一技術會否為社會帶來新的不平等?


靈魂存在嗎?——瀕死經驗的啟示, Kai Man Kwan Jan 2016

靈魂存在嗎?——瀕死經驗的啟示, Kai Man Kwan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Do human beings have a soul? The philosophical debate between materialism and dualism is highly complex, and it is difficult for one side to convince the other. Due to advances in modern medicine, we now have much more research on the phenomena of near-death experiences (NDEs), and these new data provide more information to settle this debate. If some NDEs were shown to be veridical, it would pose a challenge to materialism.

This paper is the first to argue that the understanding of NDEs is in fact very relevant to medical care, especially the care of terminally ill patients. I ...


瀕死經驗與靈魂——回應關啟文, Joe Lau Jan 2016

瀕死經驗與靈魂——回應關啟文, Joe Lau

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Do near-death experiences (NDEs) show that the soul exists? This paper argues that it is premature to draw such a conclusion, even if current science cannot fully explain all features of NDEs. Clear and univocal evidence is needed, but many reports of NDEs are problematic and subject to conflicting interpretations. In addition, many cases of NDEs took place in circumstances where residual neural activities could not be ruled out. Progress can be made with better experimental designs and brain imaging techniques. The paper concludes with a discussion of physicalism and its logical connections to out-of-body experiences.


瀕死經驗的解釋及其在哲學上的限制, William Sin Jan 2016

瀕死經驗的解釋及其在哲學上的限制, William Sin

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The objective of this paper is to reject Kwan’s claim in his paper “Does the Soul Exist? What Near-Death Experiences Reveal.” As Kwan draws heavily on references from Pim van Lommel, I also reject van Lommel’s position. Kwan and van Lommel’s claim is that the phenomenon of NDE supports the view that people’s experiential content and their consciousness exist independently of their physical bodies. I raise three objections to Kwan. First, I argue that there is a fundamental difference between life and death; therefore, the phenomena of NDE may give us little idea of whether some ...


關文讀後——兼談儒家的靈魂與倫理, Ruiping Fan Jan 2016

關文讀後——兼談儒家的靈魂與倫理, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Kwan addresses near death experiences (NDEs) from different perspectives. His attitude is reasonable and humble. Basically, he indicates that scientific studies of NDE can neither prove nor falsify the existence of the soul. Given this circumstance, religious explanations cannot be excluded as unreasonable. He also rightly points out that one may not draw on NDEs to defend only one particular religious view, such as that of Christianity. This commentary essay suggests that it may also be heuristic to study NDE from a Confucian metaphysical perspective. The classical Confucian view considers the basic element of the cosmos to be qi (air ...


關文讀後——兼談哲學問題與哲學思考的本質, Lawrence Yung Jan 2016

關文讀後——兼談哲學問題與哲學思考的本質, Lawrence Yung

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This article reviews Kwan Kai Man’s discussion of whether alleged cases of near death experience can give support to the existence of the soul. Kwan’s discussion strikes a balance between scientific explanations of near death experience and traditional religious views of the soul. The existence of the soul has remained a philosophical problem since ancient Greek philosophy. However, Socrates’s attempt to prove the existence of the soul in the Phaedo clearly shows that a purely philosophical approach is inadequate. The existence of the soul is a cross-disciplinary problem that calls for cross-disciplinary investigation. Kwan’s discussion is ...


大乘中觀哲學的生死觀, Ellen Y. Zhang Jan 2016

大乘中觀哲學的生死觀, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Death is one of the major issues for all religious traditions; it is especially so for Buddhism, as Buddhist teaching is centered upon death and the impermanence of life. This essay discusses death and dying from the framework of the philosophy of life and death, as outlined in the Māhayānic Buddhism of China. The discussion centers on early Madhyāmika Buddhism and its non-dualist approach to samsara and nirvana, this world and the other world, and life and death. The essay shows that the notions of reincarnation and karmic action offer an alternative perspective on the finitude of human existence and ...


評《大乘中觀哲學的生死觀》一文, Kam Ming Yip Jan 2016

評《大乘中觀哲學的生死觀》一文, Kam Ming Yip

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This article comments on Zhang Ying’s essay “Death and Dying in Chinese Madhyāmika Buddhism”. The central thesis of Zhang’s essay is that Madhyāmika’s non-dualist approach to samsara and nirvana, this world and the other world, and life and death helps narrow the gap between life and death and consequently remove our fear of death, which in turn has important implications for hospice care. However, Zhang did not explain how this non-duality can be put into practice, which is a major defect of Zhang’s paper. And if accessibility to non-duality in practice is not fully explained, people ...


中觀哲學與佛教的生死觀, Zhihua Yao Jan 2016

中觀哲學與佛教的生死觀, Zhihua Yao

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay highlights the tension between the Madhyāmika and mainstream Buddhist views on life and death. As an extreme position that aimed to refute the ideas of Abhidharma and Yogācāra, the Madhyāmika view cannot properly reflect the mainstream Buddhist view on the issue. To explain the possibility of reincarnation, Buddhists developed the concept of a mental continuum, which is in contrast to the Hindu idea of a soul (ātman) and the Jaina idea of subtle matter (pudgala). Many Buddhist philosophical schools have expounded various concepts along this line, for instance, the Theravāda concept of a life continuum (bhavāṅga), the Mahāsāṃghika ...


Habermas And Zhuangzi Against Liberal Eugenics, David Chai Jan 2016

Habermas And Zhuangzi Against Liberal Eugenics, David Chai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

What would a Daoist ethics of human enhancement look like? Can Daoism even entertain such a question given the temporal disparity? In light of the ongoing advancement of biotechnology, the ontological threat awaiting us is all too real. Indeed, the debate surrounding natural versus artificial has long been entrenched in the minds of theologians and philosophers alike; in recent years, however, it has been swept up in the commotion over liberal eugenics. This movement has prompted several prominent figures, such as the philosopher Jurgen Habermas, to interject on the grounds that genetic manipulation erases the distinction between the human and ...


哈貝馬斯與莊子的共同陣線?, Qin Wang Jan 2016

哈貝馬斯與莊子的共同陣線?, Qin Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Chai attempts to demonstrate how Zhuangzi can be used to supplement Habermas’s arguments against liberal eugenics. He argues that both Habermas and Zhuangzi would view liberal eugenics as falling on the wrong side of the natural/artificial divide. It is debatable whether his interpretation of Zhuangzi as both fatalist and epistemically modest suits this conclusion. In particular, it is doubtful that someone who is suspicious of whether humans can ever have knowledge of nature would be entitled to assert that liberal eugenics is unnatural. Even if this position is possible, it would be one that equally rejects Habermas. Habermas ...


關於以道家進路反對自由優生學的疑問, Benedict S. B. Chan Jan 2016

關於以道家進路反對自由優生學的疑問, Benedict S. B. Chan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In the debate over liberal eugenics, scholars such as Nicholas Agar argue that liberal eugenics can benefit the world in different ways; it is helpful, for example, in preventing genetic diseases. Nevertheless, scholars such as Jurgen Habermas are against liberal eugenics because they consider liberal eugenics to be too artificial and to erase the distinction between the human and the manufactured. David Chai argues further that Daoism, especially Zhaungzi’s views, can contribute to Habermas’s argument by offering an ontological base. In this paper, I raise the question of whether such a Daoist approach is too strong and may ...


Daoism And Liberal Eugenics: Response To Chai, Michael Campbell Jan 2016

Daoism And Liberal Eugenics: Response To Chai, Michael Campbell

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In this paper, I respond to David Chai’s attempt to buttress Jürgen Habermas’s critique of genetic enhancement with Daoist metaphysics. I argue that this attempt is unsuccessful because Habermas’s position begins with the conviction that ethical prescriptions cannot be derived from metaphysical truths. I then consider whether Daoist metaphysics on its own might provide grounds for rejecting enhancement. I suggest not. To support this, I present a dilemma for Daoist critiques of enhancement: either Daoism rules out both therapy and enhancement, in which case it is too demanding, or it rules out neither therapy nor enhancement, in ...