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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Varieties Of Statecraft And Warfare Ethics In Early China: An Overview, Ping Cheung Lo May 2015

Varieties Of Statecraft And Warfare Ethics In Early China: An Overview, Ping Cheung Lo

Department of Religion and Philosophy Book Chapters

No abstract provided.


Zheng (征) As Zheng (正)? A Daoist Challenge To Punitive Expeditions, Ellen Ying Zhang May 2015

Zheng (征) As Zheng (正)? A Daoist Challenge To Punitive Expeditions, Ellen Ying Zhang

HKBU Staff Publication

In ancient China, war was a major concern of all politico-philosophical schools, particularly during the Warring States Period (475-221 BCE). In pre-Qin (pre-221 BCE) philosophical writings of different schools traditionally known as “Masters literature,” we find numerous discussions related to warfare and its ethico-political implications, ranging from Laozi (or Lao Tzu, c. sixth century BCE) of the Daoist School (Daojia), Mozi (c. 468-376 BCE) of the Mohist School (Mojia), Confucius (or Kongzi, 551-479 BCE), Mencius (or Mengzi, c. 372-289 BCE), and Xunzi (or Hsün-tzu, c. 325-238 BCE) of the Confucian School (Rujia), to Hanfeizi (c. 280-233 BCE) of the Legalist ...


Paul Tillich’S Understanding Of Theology: A Pneumatological Christological Perspective, Keith Ka-Fu Chan Jan 2015

Paul Tillich’S Understanding Of Theology: A Pneumatological Christological Perspective, Keith Ka-Fu Chan

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

This paper, firstly, demonstrates the internal problem of Tillich’s theology in general and theological method in particular in Tillich shifting his logos Christology to Spirit-Christology. The motif “particularity-universality” as a key notion is not well-balanced throughout its theological development. Secondly, this paper proposes that the doctrine of Trinity, well-articulated in Tillich’s 1913 work but finds little attention in his mature work, may provide a more fruitful and embracing symbol to release the tension within the notion of particularity-universality and keep its balance in a dialectical way.


What Is Kantian Gesinnung? On The Priority Of Volition Over Metaphysics And Psychology In Religion Within The Bounds Of Bare Reason, Stephen R. Palmquist Jan 2015

What Is Kantian Gesinnung? On The Priority Of Volition Over Metaphysics And Psychology In Religion Within The Bounds Of Bare Reason, Stephen R. Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

Kant’s enigmatic term Gesinnung baffles many readers of Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. This study clarifies the notion in Kant’s theories of both general moral decision-making and specifically religious conversion. It is argued that Kantian Gesinnung is volitional, referring to a person’s principle-based choice to live a certain way. More specifically, interpreted as principled ‘conviction’, Kantian Gesinnung is a religiously manifested, moral form of Überzeugung (‘convincing’). This is confirmed by a detailed analysis of the 169 occurrences of Gesinnung and cognate words in Religion. It contrasts with what is suggested by translating Gesinnung as ‘disposition ...


Twelve Basic Philosophical Concepts In Kant And The Compound Yijing, Stephen Richard Palmquist Jan 2015

Twelve Basic Philosophical Concepts In Kant And The Compound Yijing, Stephen Richard Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

This is the third in a series of articles that correlates Kant's architectonic with the Yijing's sixty-four hexagrams (gua 卦). Previous articles explained “architectonic” reasoning, introduced four levels of the “Compound Yijing,” consisting of 0 + 4 + 12 + (4 × 12 = 48) gua, and suggested correlating the fourth level's four sets of twelve to the four “faculties” in Kant's model of the university. This third paper examines the philosophy faculty, assessing whether the twelve proposed gua meaningfully correlate with twelve basic philosophical concepts that Kant introduces in his three Critiques. A key differenceemerges: Kant's architectonic method ...


Is It Really Better To Give Than To Receive? (Not If Your Friends Know Where To Shop!) = آیا واقعاً بخشش(دادن) بهتر از گرفتن است؟, Stephen Richard Palmquist Jan 2015

Is It Really Better To Give Than To Receive? (Not If Your Friends Know Where To Shop!) = آیا واقعاً بخشش(دادن) بهتر از گرفتن است؟, Stephen Richard Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

The common saying, “it is better to give than to receive”, is so widespread that its truth is often merely assumed. But can this maxim withstand a careful analysis? The relevant concepts (“giving”, “receiving”, and “better”) can be interpreted in too many ways to discuss thoroughly in a single essay. Instead, this essay classifies the various ways of interpreting the distinction between giving and receiving, then explores in depth one of the options, based on a pivotal distinction between active and passive types of both giving and receiving. I defend the controversial claim that there is at least one important ...


“孝治天下”與“法治天下”——新時代的“孝文化”建設初探, Lian Yu Jan 2015

“孝治天下”與“法治天下”——新時代的“孝文化”建設初探, Lian Yu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

“Ruling the world with filial piety” was an effective management model in traditional Chinese society, particularly during the Confucian era. However, this commitment to filial piety was powerfully challenged by China’s New Culture Movement at the beginning of the twentieth century, and disintegrated almost entirely during the Cultural Revolution approximately 50 years later. However, filial piety has recently re-emerged as a topic of debate due to the problems created by China’s aging society. In this paper, the possibility of reconstructing a culture of filial piety is investigated in relation to the rule of law, as discussed by public-policy ...


張仲景醫學倫理學思想述評, Jinhai Yan, Yanjie Peng, Yue Yang Jan 2015

張仲景醫學倫理學思想述評, Jinhai Yan, Yanjie Peng, Yue Yang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Zhang Zongjing (150-219), known as the Chinese Hippocrates, was one of the most eminent physicians in China during the Han Dynasty. In the Shanghailun, a famous treatise on cold pathogenic diseases, Zhang not only described past medicinal discoveries but provided regulations for contemporary medical practice. The Shanghailun is thus an important text for scholars of the history of traditional Chinese medicine. The treatise was privately transmitted with no public acknowledgment until the Jin Dynasty (265-420), when it was re-edited and rearranged. The treatise received more attention and became increasingly popular during the Song Dynasty, when a Confucian basis for medical ...


飄泊的身體與正義的僭越——讀〈身體倫理醫學模式對生物-心理-社會醫學模式的“僭越”〉, Yifang Wang Jan 2015

飄泊的身體與正義的僭越——讀〈身體倫理醫學模式對生物-心理-社會醫學模式的“僭越”〉, Yifang Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Dr. Sun’s paper discusses the multiple meanings of the human body. It provides useful philosophical reflections on medical objectivism and reductionism. This commentary echoes and expands the rich connotations of the human body laid out in Sun’s paper. It also reveals and explores the transcendent dimension of the human body, contending that the unsacred materialization of the body is the crucial point of reductionism. In classical Chinese doctrines, the “body” has a unique social and spiritual existence, and the cultivation of the body is the fulfillment or perfection of a whole person that by no means can be ...


中國文化中的人論與醫學:儒家之醫學模式, Shui Chuen Lee Jan 2015

中國文化中的人論與醫學:儒家之醫學模式, Shui Chuen Lee

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

A new conception of medicine has been proposed in response to some of the problems of the modern Western model of medicine. In this paper, I posit the view that modern Western medicine takes disease to be a bodily deviation from normal species functioning. Such malfunctioning is regarded as of the physical and physiological kind. Other types of deviations such as psychological or spiritual deviations must be reducible to symptoms before they are regarded as a disease in medical terms. Hence, psychological or mental disorders resulting from social or religious values are not catalogued as diseases, and are thus left ...


“仁者壽”:儒家的德性健康之醫學模式, Yongfu Cao Jan 2015

“仁者壽”:儒家的德性健康之醫學模式, Yongfu Cao

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Lee Shui Chuen’s article addresses a very interesting Confucian medical model. He puts forth the Confucian concepts of soul disease and soul health, which are worthy of broader attention. In this response, I discuss the related issues of how an individual can suffer disease from a lack of virtue or lack health owing to a failure to cultivate virtue. I hold that such Confucian ideas—disease and health in relation to virtue—should be important parts of soul disease and soul health in the Confucian medical model that Lee lays out. Indeed, as Lee points out, behavior that ...


中國傳統醫學模式對西方醫學的重要補足——讀李瑞全教授〈中國文化中的人論與醫學:儒家之醫學模式〉有感, Xiang Wan Jan 2015

中國傳統醫學模式對西方醫學的重要補足——讀李瑞全教授〈中國文化中的人論與醫學:儒家之醫學模式〉有感, Xiang Wan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This short review summarizes the major opinions of Professor Lee Shui Chuen’s recent article. First, pre-Song Dynasty traditional Chinese medicine, which was championed by Sun Simiao, is an amalgam of Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian ways of thinking, in addition to traditional materia medica. Further research is required to determine how Buddhist and Taoist thought influenced the development of Chinese medicine. Second, Sun Simiao was considered a sage physician because his practices were in accord with both contemporary and later criteria for a Confucian sage, although his doctrines were not typically Confucian. Third, Professor Lee’s argument that Confucian views ...


從“生物醫學模式”到“生物社會心理精神醫學模式”——西方醫學史的教訓, Jeffrey P. Bishop Jan 2015

從“生物醫學模式”到“生物社會心理精神醫學模式”——西方醫學史的教訓, Jeffrey P. Bishop

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Biopsychosociospiritual medicine is a product of the long history of medicine in the Western world. Biomedicine began in the latter part of the 19th century, and, by the early 20th century, major medical education reforms had mandated a revised scientific curriculum for all U.S. medical schools. These reforms resulted in reductive scientific materialism. By the mid-20th century, however, scientific biomedicine was felt to be cold and impersonal, and was often deployed against the patient’s moral and spiritual desires. From the mid-20th century onward, several reforms were attempted that fall under the rubrics of bioethics, biopsychosocial medicine, and biopsychosociospiritual ...


生物醫學與生命倫理學:科學主義的問題, Lawrence Yung Jan 2015

生物醫學與生命倫理學:科學主義的問題, Lawrence Yung

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This commentary offers a review of Jeffrey Bishop’s reflections on the history of medicine in the West. It agrees with Bishop’s criticisms of scientism in biomedicine and with how the problems of scientism persist despite various attempts at reform. However, it also points out that Bishop’s discussion of the influence of philosophical dualism on Christianity and scientism is inadequate. Dualism is in fact deeply rooted in the West (such as in Plato’s philosophy and some early interpretations of Christianity). This commentary concludes that Chinese biomedicine, much like Western biomedicine, needs to forge its own path, as ...


中國傳統的整體觀的思維模式對意義與神聖價值的拯救, Yu Cai Jan 2015

中國傳統的整體觀的思維模式對意義與神聖價值的拯救, Yu Cai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The failure to reform the modern Western model of medicine stems from the reductionist mode of thinking, as demonstrated by Prof. Jeffrey Bishop. Since the Enlightenment, the popular mode of thinking in Western medicine has been a kind of mechanical materialist reductionism, which is characteristic of instrumental rationality. It is also a spatial pattern of thinking—the body becomes separable from the mind. The thinking underlying Chinese medicine and Confucian bioethics based on Chinese philosophy, in contrast, is holistic in nature. Meaning and sacred values appears only in the mindset of the whole. From the Confucian bioethical perspective, a reasonable ...


略論儒家養老觀及其當代價值, Shunqing Zhang Jan 2015

略論儒家養老觀及其當代價值, Shunqing Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

China’s citizens are growing old at an alarming rate. The increase in the country’s elderly population has created profound social and economic complications that can be solved only by appropriate policies and moral decisions on caring for aging people. Who will take care of the elderly? Should elderly people depend on their families or on the government? The author of this paper shows that filial or familial piety—the Confucian ideal of moral responsibility for one’s elderly relations—is intrinsic to the traditional Chinese value system, and should continue to shape Chinese society today. The author contends ...


對李瑞全教授〈中國文化中的人論與醫學:儒家之醫學模式〉一文的回應, Xudong Fang Jan 2015

對李瑞全教授〈中國文化中的人論與醫學:儒家之醫學模式〉一文的回應, Xudong Fang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Lee Shui Chuen’s paper puts forth a grand plan to construct a Confucian model of medicine that differs from the Western model. However, it is a pity that Lee fails to offer sufficient Confucian resources to pursue that goal. It seems that Lee’s attention is focused largely on traditional Chinese medical theories whose origins do not lie in Confucianism alone. Lee also discusses the Confucian doctrine of humanity (ren), which essentially belongs to the realm of medical ethics. His emphasis on synesthesia (gantong) is instructive. In fact, a characteristic of any genuine Confucian model of medicine, neo-Confucian ...


從身心整合觀點看儒家之醫學哲學:對李瑞全教授一文之回應, Wai Ying Wong Jan 2015

從身心整合觀點看儒家之醫學哲學:對李瑞全教授一文之回應, Wai Ying Wong

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Prof. S.C. Lee’s essay discusses in detail the characteristics of traditional Western and Chinese medicine. As a response to his essay, I introduce an integrated view of body and spirit that inspires an innovative understanding of illness and healing. I also compare this integrated view with the philosophy of medicine generated from Confucianism, which Lee addresses. The basic idea of the integrated view is that the human body must be taken as a whole-physical body, spirit, and the interplay between them in various dimensions. Healing is not the simple removal of illness or symptoms, but moving into a ...


美國醫學模式轉變的跨文化審視——兼評Jeffrey P. Bishop 西方醫學模式轉變觀念, Hongqi Wang Jan 2015

美國醫學模式轉變的跨文化審視——兼評Jeffrey P. Bishop 西方醫學模式轉變觀念, Hongqi Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Bishop’s paper shows that the dominant model of medicine has changed in line the prevailing medical worldview since the late 19th century, when biomedicine become the established model. With the growth of scientism in medicine, biomedicine has suffered a quality-of-care crisis in recent years. Patients have become more like machines to be managed and manipulated than human beings to be cared for. The crisis involves controversies over whether the patient is a body or a person, about the doctor-patient relationship, and about the nature of disease and health. The biomedical model envisions the patient as a mechanical body that ...


醫學模式中的精神性:一個多餘的維度?, Jian Tang Jan 2015

醫學模式中的精神性:一個多餘的維度?, Jian Tang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Bishop’s illuminating essay should be commented upon by attending to the three following questions. First, what is the theoretical advantage of the spirituality proposed by Bishop compared with the biopsychosocial model? Second, what is the content of his proposed medical spirituality? Finally, what is its significance to contemporary medical practice? Biopsychosocial medicine is still a form of modernism and reductionism. Neither biomedicine nor biopsychosocial medicine really treats patients as persons. In modern secular society, spirituality can be explained as the individual’s basic understanding of what constitutes a good life and personal integrity without reference to religion. A ...


如何看待“靈性”在世俗醫學-生命倫理學中的位置?, Ellen Y. Zhang Jan 2015

如何看待“靈性”在世俗醫學-生命倫理學中的位置?, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In a recent article, Jeffrey P. Bishop addresses the biopsychosociospiritual approach to medicine that has gained popularity in the past few decades as a way to correct the reductionism and scientism of biomedical ethics and “personalize” the colder aspects of scientifically and technologically advanced biomedicine. Although he welcomes the attempt to bring religion and spirituality back to contemporary medical discourse and practice, Bishop is quite critical of the “the total care approach” entailed in bio-psycho-socio-spirituality. For him, what is labeled “religious” or “spiritual” is nothing more than a kind of liberal or humanist discourse operating within the framework of secularized ...


導言:從生命倫理學的視域看生老病死, Ellen Y. Zhang Jan 2015

導言:從生命倫理學的視域看生老病死, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

生命倫理學的許多話題都與人的生老病死有關。譬如,我們如何面對與詮釋生死?何謂人在生死中的尊嚴和權利?現代科技是否改變我們對生命的認知?誰應該擔負老有所養、老有所依的義務?醫師應該如何對待生命的脆弱?患者如何面對即將來臨的死亡?親人的遺體是否可以捐贈?本刊登出的論文儘管涉及不同的生命-醫學倫理學議題,但都離不開一個根本的問題,即人的生老病死。


重審生命倫理學視域下身體話語的地位——以臨終決策為線索, Jue Wang Jan 2015

重審生命倫理學視域下身體話語的地位——以臨終決策為線索, Jue Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

How is the body articulated in language and discourse during end-of-life decision making? How do individuals and their family members represent and define the relationships between person, body, and self? Recently, studies have been conducted on the decision-making process in the field of end-of-life care. Most researchers focus on patients’ determination (vis-à-vis physicians’ beneficence), which gives rise to a plethora of issues, such as patients’ self-identity, self-continuity, relationships, freedom of choice, and rights.

In this paper, end-of-life decision making is considered from the perspective of the relationship between the body and one’s personal identity. It is argued that the ...


正本清源:李瑞全人論與醫學本質思想之回復, Duujian Tsai Jan 2015

正本清源:李瑞全人論與醫學本質思想之回復, Duujian Tsai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Lee Shui Chuen regards medicine as a historical product of human civilization, with medical traditions differing in accordance with the historical and cultural contexts in which they developed. “Medicine as the art of humanness” is a Confucian notion that reflects the value placed on the relations between body and mind, mind and environment, and medicine and the humanities. Although contemporary Western medicine has made significant progress through reductionism, Descartes’ dichotomy between mind and body has led to contemporary calls for spiritual and mental engagement. The efforts of Western medicine to free itself from alienated instrumental rationality through a shift ...


支援父母捐獻遺體不孝麼?, Yao Fang Jan 2015

支援父母捐獻遺體不孝麼?, Yao Fang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

According to recent statistics, the global organ shortage is particularly serious in China. Some scholars argue that filial piety, a key principle of Confucianism, is the main deterrent to organ donation in China. The same is true of whole-body donation for medical research and education. Most hospitals and medical schools in China refuse to accept bodies even when the donors have provided written consent in their wills, due to pressure from the donors’ children.

In this essay, the author uses a recent case in Zhejiang Province to illustrate the difficulties faced by children in carrying out their parents’ planned body ...


儒家生命倫理對基因改造的倫理辯護與批判, Tao Liu Jan 2015

儒家生命倫理對基因改造的倫理辯護與批判, Tao Liu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Many people feel that genetic engineering, particularly genetic enhancement, has disrupted the traditional understanding of the distinction between choice and chance and its ethical implications. Scholars in the West have strongly objected to scientists’ “playing God” on the grounds that genetic engineering devalues human beings and contravenes intrinsic ethical principles. What is the traditional Confucian view of genetic engineering? The author contends that certain aspects of Confucian thought support the idea of genetic engineering. For instance, Confucian scholars do not define human nature (renxing) as fixed, let alone biologically fixed. The Confucian understanding of human nature as processual offers an ...


導言:醫學模式與宗教關懷, Jue Wang, Ruiping Fan Jan 2015

導言:醫學模式與宗教關懷, Jue Wang, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本期《中外醫學哲學》特別推出“醫學模式”專題,聚焦現代生物醫學的深層危機,試圖在醫學與文化、科學與宗教之間為醫學教育與醫學實踐的前途探路。


在後現代語境下我們如何建構醫學模式?——對〈身體倫理醫學模式〉的閱讀, Wei Xiao Jan 2015

在後現代語境下我們如何建構醫學模式?——對〈身體倫理醫學模式〉的閱讀, Wei Xiao

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Medicine is a value construction. As the combination of a variety of values and methodologies, a medical model can be used to observe and handle medical problems in the field of medicine. Indeed, human understandings of medicine have undergone a long process of historical development. Sun’s “body ethics model of medicine” can be taken as a new medical model in the post-modern context. It is achieved through the combination of the Chinese and Western ethical cultures. In my view, this new model is shaped by three key elements: human nature, the body, and ethical relationships. At the same time ...


身體倫理視域下現代醫學模式的哲學反思與重構——對孫慕義先生〈身體〉一文的呼應與商榷, Junrong Liu Jan 2015

身體倫理視域下現代醫學模式的哲學反思與重構——對孫慕義先生〈身體〉一文的呼應與商榷, Junrong Liu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Sun Muyi’s article provides illuminating views and arguments regarding the proper model of medicine. From Sun’s perspective, the bio-psycho-social model of medicine retains traces of body-mind dualism. It differs from Michel Foucault’s view of the body, which is one of phenomenological holism. That view, as Sun sees it, constitutes a comprehensive philosophical reflection on the modern bio-psycho-social medical model, providing an objective understanding of the unity of body and mind. Sun argues that a religious dimension is inevitably embedded in this objective understanding when establishing a body ethics model of contemporary medicine. This commentary agrees that Sun ...


等著被說出的軀體與病患意義, Hongzhong Qiu Jan 2015

等著被說出的軀體與病患意義, Hongzhong Qiu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Sun’s article is a useful exploration of the body ethics model of medicine. However, a body is not the equivalent of a person—the body is waiting to utter its meaning. This commentary, which adopts a phenomenological perspective, discusses different ways of treating the body and of interrogating the senses of the body understood by patients and doctors. Divergent such senses influence the doctor-patient relationship in quite distinct ways. To establish a new clinical model, this commentary holds that we need to pay greater attention to the epistemology and methodology of somatic phenomenology, which can inspire us to understand ...