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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Sublating Reverence To Parents: A Kierkegaardian Interpretation Of The Sage-King Shun's Piety, Lauren Frederick Pfister Jan 2013

Sublating Reverence To Parents: A Kierkegaardian Interpretation Of The Sage-King Shun's Piety, Lauren Frederick Pfister

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

In the Mengzi there is a hypothetical situation relating how the ancient sage king Shun 舜 would respond if his father had committed murder. This has recently become a source of debate among Chinese philosophers. Here we will apply arguments made by Johannes de silentio (Kierkegaard’s pseudonym) about the “teleological suspension of the ethical” related to the action of the biblical Abraham, and link them up to alternative interpretations the actions of Shun. This challenges the current and traditional interpretations of his actions, suggesting how this new approach can overcome ethical quandaries related to the Mengzian account of Shun ...


Introduction: Søren Kierkegaard And Chinese Philosophy, Lauren Frederick Pfister Jan 2013

Introduction: Søren Kierkegaard And Chinese Philosophy, Lauren Frederick Pfister

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Mao Qiling's Critical Reflections On The Four Books, Lauren Frederick Pfister Jan 2013

Mao Qiling's Critical Reflections On The Four Books, Lauren Frederick Pfister

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

After introducing some scholarship on the value of Mao Qiling’s (1623-1713) works, we present an account of canonization processes in order to understand the hermeneutic context of Mao’s battle with the Cheng-Zhu orthodoxy. His work is an attempt to decanonizing Zhu Xi’s Four Books, preferring instead an alternative relying on the Old Texts of the Taixue 《太學》/ Daxue 《大學》and Zhongyong 《中庸》. Mao argues against Zhu Xi’s textual changes and interpretations on a number of bases, producing a hermeneutics of suspicion against the Cheng-Zhu orthodoxy. Instead, Mao offers an alternative account of the sagely way, following ...


導言:儒家傳統、知情同意與公正原則, Ellen Y. Zhang Jan 2013

導言:儒家傳統、知情同意與公正原則, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本期論文選自今年暑期由中國內地《醫學與哲學》雜誌社和香港浸會大學應用倫理學研究中心聯合主辦的第七屆“建構中國生命倫理學研討會”的部分演講報告。大多數論文圍繞當今中國醫學倫理學出現的具體問題與實踐,從儒家生命倫理學與西方生命倫理學的雙重面向探討有關知情同意、醫療公正、家庭醫療儲蓄和中國傳統醫學知識論等諸方面的問題。本期每一篇論文都是在面對人們早已熟知的普世價值觀及倫理原則的同時如是發問:什麼是中國生命倫理學所應有的“中國特色”?


家庭成員共同決定——儒家家庭本位思想在臨床決定中的體現, Hanhui Xu Jan 2013

家庭成員共同決定——儒家家庭本位思想在臨床決定中的體現, Hanhui Xu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Family involvement in medical decision making is a common practice in China due to the influence of Confucianism, which emphasizes the family as an organic unit. Instead of speaking of the individual’s right to choose and make a decision, the Confucian model for “informed consent” calls for “family co-decision making” or “co-determination.” The essay argues that China has long-standing moral traditions such as Confucianism, with its inherent ethical views toward family values that are still pertinent to a person’s daily life in general and bio-medical issues in particular.

The author points out that those who acknowledge the role ...


儒家正義論及其對醫療公正問題的啟示, Shunqing Zhang Jan 2013

儒家正義論及其對醫療公正問題的啟示, Shunqing Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In the West, “justice” is a complex ethical principle, with meanings that range from the fair treatment of individuals to the equitable allocation of healthcare resources. Justice in bioethics is perhaps the most contested and controversial principle. This paper argues that the Confucian notion of justice is neither rights-based nor distributive; rather, it is based on the virtues of humanness and benevolence (ren), correct behavior and propriety (li), and uprightness and appropriateness (yi). Those virtues cherished in the Confucian tradition constitute what can be called a Confucian concept of justice, the primary principle of which is to respect human life ...


儒家“個人”的道德身份與道德責任, Yu Cai Jan 2013

儒家“個人”的道德身份與道德責任, Yu Cai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This article reviews Professor Lo Ping Cheung’s paper, “The Family as the Primary Protector of the Vulnerable: Confucian versus Medical Ethics.” The paper describes human behavior by way of historical narrative, thus offering a historical perspective on philosophical research. His notion of “family co-determination” instead of “parent-determination” also brings a developmental attitude to philosophical research. At the same time, we discuss the moral identity and moral responsibility of the Confucian “individual.” The moral identity of the Confucian “individual” includes both specific cultural identities and a specific social identity. Confucian individuals are the successors, developers and creators of Confucian culture ...


《家道與齊家工夫》書後, Wenming Tang Jan 2013

《家道與齊家工夫》書後, Wenming Tang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Ni’s essay on the role of the family provides insights into Confucian ethics. Here I indicate four points. First, the proper approach to understanding Confucian ethics is through virtue theory, not deontology. Second, filial piety can be used as the pretext for grabbing egoism. Third, filial piety entails an equilibrium between private and public interests. Fourth, the reconstruction of the three cardinal guides is necessary in modern society. I also point out two problems with the essay. First, the Confucian idea of marriage is based on the intergenerational relationship between parents and children, not romantic love between a ...


修身、齊家與倫理, Kam Por Yu Jan 2013

修身、齊家與倫理, Kam Por Yu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This review essay is confined to two issues in Professor Ni Peimin’s paper: (1) the relationship between self-cultivation and family-regulation; and (2) the difference between family-based ethics and lunli. First, it is argued that self-cultivation is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for family regulation. Neither is family regulation a necessary condition for self-cultivation. Even with the emphasis on the role and importance of gongfu, self-cultivation is still not sufficient for family regulation. Second, it is argued that there is a big difference between family-based ethics and the Chinese concept of lunli, which is individual-centered and relation-based. The ...


齊家之道,要在功夫, Hongwen Li, Yali Cong Jan 2013

齊家之道,要在功夫, Hongwen Li, Yali Cong

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Ni’s paper, “The Way of the Family and the Gongfu of Regulating the Family,” tells us that the right way to regulate the family, the country, and the world relies on self-cultivation. Prof. Ni’s insightful description indicates that there is a misunderstanding of “authority” and absolute obedience, and proposes a healthy way of understanding respect for authority as “helping those to grow well”. Prof. Ni is confident of the advantages of the traditional family-centered life. In response to the example regarding informed consent and family decision making, the authors comment that Professor Ni ultimately depends on the ...


家庭與生命倫理學中的文化危機, Jue Wang Jan 2013

家庭與生命倫理學中的文化危機, Jue Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The issue of the family has long been repressed and de-emphasized on the agenda of contemporary bioethics. In stark contrast, in his latest essay Engelhardt gives the family a central place in accounting for some profound social-political controversies in recent bioethical debates. The question therefore arises: what difference would it make to bioethics if we were to treat the family as a central and divisive issue in bioethics? This question helps us to assess the significance of Engelhardt’s essay. In this paper, I try to answer this question and also consider Engelhardt’s essay from the perspective of cultural ...


家庭的健康理想與家的生命正義, Muyi Sun Jan 2013

家庭的健康理想與家的生命正義, Muyi Sun

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The family financial account provides a type of supplement to economic checks in developing societies, which further facilitates the reform of healthcare. The ontological/ metaphysical family mode faces a challenge as the basis of the family financial account. The author focuses on the cooperation between humanitarian dedication and responsibilities, which are the solution to the family bioethics issue.

In contrast to this new form of family mode, the libertarian/ liberal account fits the postmodern culture better, with more emphasis on individual freedom, feminism, and equality of medical rights. At the same time, however, it lacks an understanding of the solidarity ...


是情結還是希望?, Xiaolin Wang Jan 2013

是情結還是希望?, Xiaolin Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This article proposes a different view from that offered by Professor Ni in “Regulating the Family and Gongfu.” Professor Ni argues that the family forms the base from which a person’s life can go beyond the individual self, obtain sacredness within the secular, and become immortal, in addition to providing the basis for social harmony. This article agrees that the notion that family serves not only as a refuge in the secular life of Chinese Han people, but also as a sacred place in their soul, is a cultural phenomenon. At the same time, however, this article argues that ...


儒家之家庭倫理與生命倫理爭議:回應恩格爾哈特教授幾點意見, Shui Chuen Lee Jan 2013

儒家之家庭倫理與生命倫理爭議:回應恩格爾哈特教授幾點意見, Shui Chuen Lee

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In response to Engelhardt’s emphasis of the status of family in the bioethics and culture war, I would argue that Confucianism takes the family as the basic social ethical unit, which circumscribes not only the individual’s interpersonal responsibilities within the family, but also everyone’s social and political relations at large. Family is both the starting point and the end point of one’s life, hence we have responsibilities of filial piety to our parents and to nurture our children. Through mutual responsibilities, the family provides shelter, provisions, safety, loyalty, affection, and moral support for its members. Such ...


臨床知情同意在中國的一些實踐及反思, Wenqing Zhao Jan 2013

臨床知情同意在中國的一些實踐及反思, Wenqing Zhao

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Informed consent is considered to be one of the most important conceptual developments in contemporary bioethics, and is strongly implicated in the regulation of clinical practices in the West. Over the past decade, the growing prevalence of both liberal arguments supporting individual autonomy and rights-based debates focusing on equality has brought the concept of informed consent into the purview of Chinese legislation pertaining to healthcare and clinical practice. However, most of the laws and regulations are made by Chinese authorities in ignorance of the concept’s ethical groundings. In addition, lawmakers have not taken into account the empirical reality and ...


中國醫療保障代際公平的實現策略:論基於“愛有差等”的儒家家庭醫療儲蓄帳戶, Yongfu Cao Jan 2013

中國醫療保障代際公平的實現策略:論基於“愛有差等”的儒家家庭醫療儲蓄帳戶, Yongfu Cao

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Healthcare resource allocation, which has medical, ethical, and economic dimensions, has sparked recent controversy China. However, neither the concept of equality nor the concept of rights addresses the real problem of healthcare allocation that China is facing as its aging population increases. Given the real crises of the growing elderly population and the increased demands on the limited resources of the healthcare system, the author contends that a Confucian model that favors family management in the form of family savings accounts is more a feasible method for China than state management. Moreover, the family savings account model represents traditional Confucian ...


前言: 家破——人亡, Ruiping Fan Jan 2013

前言: 家破——人亡, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

儒家文化重視家族、家庭,舉世皆知。近代以來,經歷“幾千年未有之大變局”,西風東漸,社會動盪,家族破碎,人生扶搖。文革時代,人們高唱“天大地大不如黨的恩情大,爹親娘親不如毛主席親”的荒唐歌謠,上演夫妻互相揭發、孩子痛毆父母的慘烈景象。往事不堪回首!好在大災大難之後,中國人的家庭倫理還是大致保留了下來。不管一家還能生幾個孩子,親子關係依舊緊密;經濟上不分彼此,決策上總是為家人著想(用梁漱溟先生的觀點來說,“眼裡只見家人,不見自己”);為了孩子的前途而樂於犧牲自己的享樂,相互忍讓,心繫後代,離婚率較低,單身、單親家庭很少;成年子女總是牽掛著年老父母的孤獨生活,“常回家看看”成為心底的強烈呼喚。凡此種種,千千萬萬的中國人還是一如既往地攜帶著“齊家”的個人身份:家人之間的緊密關係、天倫之樂,依然塑照著個人的生活意義和人生價值。不誇張地說,就我們這個文化的主要徵象(prime symbols)而言,如果大部分人的“家”不存在了,我們這種意義上的人也就不存在了。把一個成語的意思稍微調整一下,那就是:家破——人亡!


“家庭共決模式”:一種明智的臨床選擇, Xinqing Zhang Jan 2013

“家庭共決模式”:一種明智的臨床選擇, Xinqing Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Professor Lo strongly argues that family co-determination, rather than self-determination or family-determination, is one of the best choices for protecting the vulnerable in a healthcare setting. The assumption underlying the family co-determination model is that of an individual as a person-in-the-family rather than as an isolated individual. I provide some proofs to enhance the Confucian bioethical base of family co-determination. Based on a national survey of health professionals and patients, I conclude that family member involvement in clinical decision making contributes to better communication between doctors and patients, which is a key factor in alleviating the degree of tension.


醫生和家庭共決模式與多元主義, Ho Mun Chan Jan 2013

醫生和家庭共決模式與多元主義, Ho Mun Chan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

For historical reasons, medical practice in Hong Kong is regulated by a legal system inherited from the UK. The system is in the liberal tradition. Po alleged that the Health Authority’s “Guidelines on Life-sustaining Treatment in the Terminally Ill” illustrate the practice of the family co-determination model in Hong Kong. This paper argues that on the contrary, due to the legal constraints with which the guidelines must comply, they carry a very strong liberal flavor. There are limitations to documentary research. To understand the practice in Hong Kong, we need to conduct empirical studies on the views of healthcare ...


“家庭共決”保障脆弱人群的倫理限度及困境, Junrong Liu Jan 2013

“家庭共決”保障脆弱人群的倫理限度及困境, Junrong Liu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The role of the family as “the first guarantee” of vulnerable groups is extremely limited and not always effective. When disagreements arise between patients and their family members, family co-determination can do nothing to help. Respecting patients’ autonomy should be taken as the premise of family co-determination; the government and society undertake more important responsibilities in the protection of vulnerable groups.


家道與“齊家”功夫, Peimin Ni Jan 2013

家道與“齊家”功夫, Peimin Ni

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Starting with a brief analysis of the biological, sociological, and axiological senses of the term “family,” this article points out that the purpose of a sociological family is to provide ideal conditions for human survival (which is primarily biological) and flourishing (which is axiological).

Although the sociological family structure significantly affects both the way of life and the quality of life, any sociological family can become a fetter instead of a home if family relations are not properly regulated. Regulating the family is both a basic principle for human survival and a challenging art, which is best understood through gongfu ...


功夫與家庭, Si Xiao Jan 2013

功夫與家庭, Si Xiao

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In this response essay, Xiaosi, the author of [Philosophy of Family], made five points in response to Ni Peimin’s article, “The Way of the Family and the Gongfu of Regulating the Family.”

1. Gongfu is indeed a philosophically significant concept that uniquely reflects the features of the Chinese Philosophical tradition. Ni’s recent works that advocate this concept provide a valuable contribution to philosophy.

2. In his additional notes on Gongfu, Xiaosi points out that a sense of “enduring” or “lasting” and a sense of spending time in an accumulative fashion are two indispensible elements for an appropriate understanding ...


基於儒家家庭本位思想的知情同意原則的思考, Xiangjin Kong, Mingjie Zhao Jan 2013

基於儒家家庭本位思想的知情同意原則的思考, Xiangjin Kong, Mingjie Zhao

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Opinion polls released recently show that the majority of people in China today think that informed consent in medical practice is necessary, with more than half favoring family decision making over individual, autonomous patient decision making. Based on these opinion polls, this essay argues that the liberalism and liberal individualism that emphasize individual autonomy do not square with the Confucian tradition.

The essay submits that the “family decision” model is designed to embody Confucian family ethics and maximize the benefit of family involvement in medical decision making. The family model includes both the patient and his or her close family ...


醫在天官:中國古代醫學的知識論地位及其與道德的關係, Guobin Cheng Jan 2013

醫在天官:中國古代醫學的知識論地位及其與道德的關係, Guobin Cheng

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay offers a genealogy of medical epistemology in ancient China, which, unfortunately, lost its independent status after the Song Dynasty, when Confucian morality became the dominant discourse in all disciplines, including medicine. The author challenges the common view held by Confucian scholars that medicine does not constitute a self-contained domain of activity with its own morality and ethics, because it is seen as a realm of “applied ethics.” This view makes medicine, medical techniques, and medical ethics instruments for the embodiment and actualization of the Confucian virtue of benevolence (ren), but undermines the complexity of medicine and medical practice ...


家庭作為弱勢人群的首重保障:儒家倫理與醫療倫理, Ping Cheung Lo Jan 2013

家庭作為弱勢人群的首重保障:儒家倫理與醫療倫理, Ping Cheung Lo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Individualism is still very much alive in “international” bioethics. Using two documents from the International Bioethics Committee as examples (Proposed Outline for a Report on Respect for Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity, 2009; Report of the IBC on the Principle of Respect for Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity, 2011), and focusing on hospital patients as a vulnerable group, this essay points out the pitfalls of individualistic bioethics. Confucianism advocates family co-determination rather than individual self-determination, and this model of decision making can serve as the first bulwark in protecting vulnerable patients. This model of medical decision making is not unique ...


The Family: Crucial To And Divisive In Bioethics, H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr. Jan 2013

The Family: Crucial To And Divisive In Bioethics, H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr.

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The family is a socio-biological reality. Humans form socio-sexual pairs, which are often also reproductive units. How to characterize these social entities is a matter of considerable dispute, placing the family at the heart of cultural, social, and political disputes regarding the nature of appropriate law and public policy. Competing views of the family have important implications for healthcare policy and bioethics. On the one hand, there is an ontological-metaphysical account of the family, which appreciates the family as a ormative social reality that, as far as possible, should be realized by particular families. This account brings with it pre-existing ...


家庭共同決策模式在手術知情同意中的應用, Mingxu Wang, Le Ma, Hui Yuen Jan 2013

家庭共同決策模式在手術知情同意中的應用, Mingxu Wang, Le Ma, Hui Yuen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

H. Tristram Engelhardt indicates that the ontological or metaphysical account of the family is superior to the libertarian-liberal account of the family with respect to significant issues in bioethics. By appealing to the development of the concept of informed consent and relevant medical laws and institutions, illustrated by examples from China, this essay supports Engelhardt’s view and emphasizes the cultural and ethical importance of the family functioning as a whole in the process of proper medical decision making and the protection of the fundamental interest of the patient.


Engelhardt On The Family, Hon Lam Li Jan 2013

Engelhardt On The Family, Hon Lam Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. offers erudite and compelling arguments for the view that all families should try to realize the traditional family. Although I tend to agree with him from a personal standpoint, I doubt that this view can be justified to those with whom we are in reasonable disagreement about the family. I make three critical points. First, although Engelhardt stops short of saying that the state should encourage people to form traditional families, or discourage those who do not, some state perfectionists might do so. From the perspective of public reason, it is unjust for the state to favor ...


人類脆弱性與醫療倫理, Lawrence Yung Jan 2013

人類脆弱性與醫療倫理, Lawrence Yung

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In his paper, Professor Lo Ping Cheung complains that bioethics is under the undue influence of liberal individualism. He argues that in prioritizing individual autonomy, the United Nations’ “Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights” (2005) and the International Bioethics Committee’s “Proposed Outline for a Report on Respect for Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity” (2009) not only allow but also advocate egoistic behavior. In contrast to Lo’s view, in advocating family co-determinism in healthcare, Confucian bioethics is in a better position to provide primary protection to the vulnerable.

To defend the Declaration (2005) I draw on the IBC ...