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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

以儒家中庸思想探討生命倫理學基本理論和原則, Hongxia Wang Jan 2012

以儒家中庸思想探討生命倫理學基本理論和原則, Hongxia Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay explores the doctrine of the mean as the key concept in Confucian thought and practice, contending that it has both general and specific dimensions as it recognizes the absoluteness of moral and ethical principles while acknowledging the importance of relativity in concrete situations when those principles are used. The notion of the “mean” is thus not merely a moral virtue that enables the avoidance of extremes; rather, it is utilitarian because it looks for goodness and effectiveness.

This essay points out that the Confucian notion of the mean can be applied to a wide range of bioethical issues ...


墮胎——道家和道教的觀點, Linchun Quan Jan 2012

墮胎——道家和道教的觀點, Linchun Quan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Daoism, one of China’s major philosophical and religious traditions, emphasizes such notions as holism, organicism, and naturalness, promoting the idea of living in line with the rules and patterns of nature. This essay examines the Daoist ethics of living naturally with special attention given to abortion. It points out that for philosophical Daoism, abortion is not acceptable because it is considered an “artificial” action for a self-serving purpose, such as aborting an unwanted baby girl after a sex test on a fetus. For religious Daoism, abortion is not acceptable because the fetus has a spirit and a soul. Both ...


人性、人格與幹細胞研究, Yuanyuan Liang Jan 2012

人性、人格與幹細胞研究, Yuanyuan Liang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Despite stem cell researchers receiving the 2012 Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent, stem cell research is still controversial in bio-medical debates. Stem cells have undoubted medical potential in areas such as repairing aging and injured tissues and organs, but stem-cell research involves the creation, use, and destruction of human embryos. That leads to the question of whether embryonic stem cells have moral status and what it means to be human.

This essay explores how new stem cell technology will drastically change the way we define humans and human relationships. We ...


導言:中國生命倫理學——在西方發生文化危機之際, Ruiping Fan Jan 2012

導言:中國生命倫理學——在西方發生文化危機之際, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本期主題之所以定為“生命倫理學──重新探索”,乃是因為我們認識到,我們不僅需要繼續學習和借鑒西方生命倫理學已經取得的研究成果,而且還要看清和反思現代西方社會正在經歷的文化危機。為了開創和發展適當的中國生命倫理學,我們不能心安理得地繼續照抄照搬西方的東西,而是要在借鑒西方經驗的基礎上,重新探索一條連接中國文化的生命倫理學之路。


走向中國生命倫理學——重審後基礎之醫學道德, H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr. Jan 2012

走向中國生命倫理學——重審後基礎之醫學道德, H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr.

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Unnoticed by many bioethicists, the very foundations of the dominant Western secular morality, and by extension the foundations of the dominant secular bioethics of the West, have been brought into question. After Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and in the light of arguments by philosophers from G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) to Richard Rorty (1931-2007) and Gianni Vattimo (1936-), it has become ever clearer that neither the content of the dominant Western secular morality nor the content of the dominant Western bioethics can be secured as canonical through sound rational argument. Western secular morality and Western secular bioethics have become foundationless. They ...


儒家倫理如何為“生命”的道德辯護——以“人類輔助生殖技術”為例進行的考察, Weihua Guo Jan 2012

儒家倫理如何為“生命”的道德辯護——以“人類輔助生殖技術”為例進行的考察, Weihua Guo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

By profoundly intervening in human life, human assisted reproductive technology is challenging the convictions of all well-established ethics, Confucian ethics included. Through such technology, human life is thrown from the divine, transcendent metaphysical situation it has traditionally held into this-worldly circumstances. In particular, human assisted reproductive technology brings with it a series of ethical problems. First, the sanctity of life is put in jeopardy. From this perspective, every human life is unique and independent. However, human assisted reproductive technology has the potential to destroy such uniqueness and independence. Second, human subjectivity is lost. An essential attribute of human life is ...


從儒家倫理學看“代孕”的道德性, Hanhui Xu Jan 2012

從儒家倫理學看“代孕”的道德性, Hanhui Xu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Surrogacy, especially complete surrogacy, refers to a surrogate woman who accepts the fertilized egg of an infertile couple into her uterus to achieve pregnancy for that couple. In almost ten months she will give birth to a baby who belongs not to her but to the infertile couple. Such surrogacy, along with relevant assisted reproductive technology, has been highly controversial since its introduction. It is well known that important ethical issues surround such surrogacy, including: should such unnatural surrogacy be resisted or prohibited? Is lending one’s uterus in such surrogacy compatible with a proper notion of human dignity? If ...


以儒家視角探討生命的本質——以人工合成生命為例, Xianfeng Liu Jan 2012

以儒家視角探討生命的本質——以人工合成生命為例, Xianfeng Liu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

On May 20, 2010, the Craig Venter Institute, a U.S. private research institution, announced that they had successfully synthesized bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and implanted it in another bacterium. After several attempts, the implanted artificial DNA regained life and began to reproduce in a lab dish. This “artificial life” was named “Synthia” (meaning “man-made children”). The result of this research has attracted broad attention. Even U.S. President Barack Obama expressed concern, and has asked the White House Council on Bioethics to provide a detailed report on synthetic biology within six months, to determine the appropriate ethical boundaries and ...


儒家倫理視閾下家庭醫療儲蓄帳戶之“家庭”的界定, Lijuan Bu, Xiaoyang Chen Jan 2012

儒家倫理視閾下家庭醫療儲蓄帳戶之“家庭”的界定, Lijuan Bu, Xiaoyang Chen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The notion of family health savings accounts has attracted wide attention from academic circles, both domestic and international. Many Chinese scholars understand the importance of this notion and support the establishment of family health savings accounts in Chinese society, because it fits very well with Confucian family ethics and the family-oriented values that are vibrant in Chinese society. However, to pursue fully the significance and function of the family in operating appropriate health savings accounts, we must explore the question of how the family should be defined.

The problem is not only in offering a theoretical definition, but also related ...


精神病患者的醫療倫理決策——個人與家庭, Zhengrong Guo Jan 2012

精神病患者的醫療倫理決策——個人與家庭, Zhengrong Guo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay provides a Confucian moral response to American bioethicist Arthur Caplan’s comments on an American case. The case involves the issue of abortion and sterilization regarding a 32-year-old pregnant woman from Massachusetts, known as Mary Moe, who suffers from severe schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder. Caplan argues that the appellate court was right to decide that neither sterilization nor abortion should be imposed. However, he thinks the court gave the wrong reason – that if Moe were competent she would not want an abortion. As Caplan sees it, this is a hopeless quest because Moe is too sick to ...


傳統中醫倫理及其對當代醫師職業制度的啟示, Yang Li, Wei Yang Jan 2012

傳統中醫倫理及其對當代醫師職業制度的啟示, Yang Li, Wei Yang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

To establish appropriate medical professionalism in contemporary China, institutional construction, reform and development are certainly necessary. However, they must be conducted by drawing on relevant cultural ideas and values to gain support. In particular, traditional Chinese medical culture and ethics contain a great amount of intellectual and moral resources that are useful for the construction and development of contemporary Chinese medical professionalism. This essay attempts to explore such resources and make relevant recommendations.

Traditional Chinese medical culture is informed by Confucian ethical concerns and commitments. It requires that the physician must have a benevolent heart to treat the patient and ...


導言:中國生命倫理學——詮釋、理解與應用, Ellen Y. Zhang Jan 2012

導言:中國生命倫理學——詮釋、理解與應用, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

以原則主義為基礎的生命倫理學系統一直是生命倫理學討論中的主導話題。而這一產生於上世紀70 年代美國的倫理學思想,如何被詮釋、理解並應用於中國文化之傳統與現實,是一個值得深思的議題。正是基於這個原因,香港浸會大學應用倫理學研究中心在過去6 年的每個暑期都舉辦一場中國生命倫理學的研討會。今年的研討會的關鍵議題包括:(1) 從西方文化與經濟的危機中看生命倫理學原則的一般性與特定性;(2) 生命倫理學的一般原則在當今中國實際應用中的困境;(3) 建構中國生命倫理學的必要性與方法論。本刊物收集了今年暑期研討會的部分論文。


儒家生命倫理之基礎與方向——一個初步的分析, Jue Wang Jan 2012

儒家生命倫理之基礎與方向——一個初步的分析, Jue Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Although increasingly more scholars are realizing the significance of Confucian intellectual and moral resources to bioethics in China, the phrase “Confucian bioethics” remains controversial today. What is Confucian ethics? Is there such a thing? Is it even possible? The debate on bioethics has gone global due to a rapid growth in biotechnology and life sciences that impact people all over the world, and there is heightened demand for understanding the many associated issues from various socio-cultural and philosophic-ethical perspectives. Yet some people argue that current bioethical considerations should be couched in terms of “universal principles” that render a specifically Chinese ...


患者利益至上——傳統情懷與現實挑戰, Li Liang Jan 2012

患者利益至上——傳統情懷與現實挑戰, Li Liang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The doctor-patient relationship in China is currently experiencing a crisis of trust brought on by the absence of traditional morals and values in healthcare. The Confucian doctrine of ren (benevolence) is based on the possibility of moral perfection in humanity, which in turn guides one how to treat others in family and non-family social relationships. Ren as a relational virtue is particularly important for the doctor-patient relationship. That is why the Confucian idea of “treating a patient like a family member” was popular in traditional medical practice. However, current medical practice is designed around the people who deliver the care ...


知情同意 ——不同文化,不同價值, Guoli Yang Jan 2012

知情同意 ——不同文化,不同價值, Guoli Yang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In the West, informed consent is part of the legal conditions under which people are fully informed about or can participate in their own health treatment. It emphasizes the idea that patients are autonomous and have both the legal and moral rights to control their own bodies. However, in China the original intention of this concept has been changed. The idea of protecting the patient has become a means of protecting medical professionals when they fail to fulfill their duties. A moral dilemma occurs when “foreign” ideas and principles are “imported” into China: they lack the cultural and moral foundation ...


“扁鵲見蔡桓公”——對一則古代案例的倫理學回顧, Jianguang Wang Jan 2012

“扁鵲見蔡桓公”——對一則古代案例的倫理學回顧, Jianguang Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Bian Que is the earliest known Chinese physician of the Pre-Qin era (ca. 700 B.C.E), whose name is often associated with physicians of the highest medical caliber. One legend tells of how when Bian Que was in the feudal state of Cai, he visited the Lord Huan and told him that he had a serious disease. The Lord Huan thought Bian Que was trying to profit from the fears of his patients and declined the offer for treatment. Eventually, Lord Huan’s condition got worse. The last time Bian Que went to see Lord Huan, he knew that ...


生命倫理基礎的形成——從中國醫療衛生體制改革的歷史進程看, Lin Bian Jan 2012

生命倫理基礎的形成——從中國醫療衛生體制改革的歷史進程看, Lin Bian

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Medical and healthcare reform in China over the past three decades has faced various challenges, one of which has been the lack of an ethical spirit in public life. The old moral foundation has collapsed and a new ethical system has not been established. It follows that neither the validity of reform nor public policies derived from that reform have a solid moral and ethical foundation. As the government seeks an effective way of reshaping the national healthcare system in terms of quality and accessibility to keep pace with rapid socio-political and economic transformation, it has to deal with various ...


Post-Secularity Within Contemporary Chinese Philosophical Contexts, Lauren Frederick Pfister Jan 2012

Post-Secularity Within Contemporary Chinese Philosophical Contexts, Lauren Frederick Pfister

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

Based on publications addressing post-secularity in international contexts, this article identifies four basic interpretive positions manifest within our post-secular age: resistant post-secular secularists, strategic post-secular secularists, engaged post-secular intellectuals, and engaged post-secular religious intellectuals. Subsequently, an article addressing governance and religious studies in mainland China published by Zhuo Xinping in 2010 is assessed, indicating how Zhuo serves as an engaged post-secular intellectual position, charging Chinese Marxist officials to adopt a strategic post-secular secularist position. Finally, it is shown how in a major volume on philosophical studies in China published in 2008 by Li Jingyuan a strategic post-secularist position is manifest.