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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Kant’S Ethics Of Grace: Perspectival Solutions To The Moral Difficulties With Divine Assistance, Stephen R. Palmquist Jan 2010

Kant’S Ethics Of Grace: Perspectival Solutions To The Moral Difficulties With Divine Assistance, Stephen R. Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Kantian Grounding Of Einstein’S Worldview: (I) The Early Influence Of Kant’S System Of Perspectives, Stephen R. Palmquist Jan 2010

The Kantian Grounding Of Einstein’S Worldview: (I) The Early Influence Of Kant’S System Of Perspectives, Stephen R. Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

Recent perspectival interpretations of Kant suggest a way of relating his epistemology to empirical science that makes it plausible to regard Einstein’s theory of relativity as having a Kantian grounding. This first of two articles exploring this topic focuses on how the foregoing hypothesis accounts for various resonances between Kant’s philosophy and Einstein’s science. The great attention young Einstein paid to Kant in his early intellectual development demonstrates the plausibility of this hypothesis, while certain features of Einstein’s cultural-political context account for his reluctance to acknowledge Kant’s influence, even though contemporary philosophers who regarded themselves ...


導言, Ellen Y. Zhang Jan 2010

導言, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

生命倫理學於20 世紀70 年代在北美出現。生命倫理學(bioethics)一詞本是美國生化學家波德(Van Rensselaer Potter II)所創造的一個新概念,用以指生態學意義下的“生存之科學”(science of survival ),與今日通用的意義有所不同。今天,生命倫理學有時也稱之為醫藥倫理學(medical ethics),而它已經成為一個重要的倫理學科。作為應用倫理學的一個部分,生命倫理學的特質在於不同學科的交叉,其中包括醫學、生物學、哲學、政治學、法學等等。就其思想淵源來講,西方啟蒙理性、個人主義、原則主義又是生命倫理學的核心部分,而原則主義又是以個人的理性主義為其理論基礎。無疑,生命倫理學是一門從裡到外道地的“西學”。因此,當我們談論建構中國生命倫理學這個議題時,有些問題是不能迴避的。譬如,我們是否可以照搬西方思想?如果不能,中國的國學如何與西學接軌?


技術生命的“道”“用”之思, Jianguang Wang Jan 2010

技術生命的“道”“用”之思, Jianguang Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in areas such as engineering, technology, and medicine. This paper discusses the relationship between the Dao (i.e., the essence) of biotechnology and the function of biotechnology. In describing the situation in China today with regard to the exploration and development of biotechnology, this paper explicates the necessity of paying attention to the ethical implications and moral principles of science and technology. It is the author’s contention that we must put “humanity” and “human flourishing” (i.e., the common good of the Dao ...


“仁術”與“方技”:中國傳統醫患關係的倫理現實, Guobin Cheng Jan 2010

“仁術”與“方技”:中國傳統醫患關係的倫理現實, Guobin Cheng

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Using examples from ancient texts, this paper contends that the traditional physician-patient relationship should be understood and interpreted within the matrix of the social and ethical network of a society. As such, the physician-patient relationship is not what we call “a professional relationship,” in that there is no fixed or objective standard to qualify it. In the Confucian tradition, for instance, the physician-patient relationship changes according to the social identity of the patient. The moral responsibility of the physician also becomes ambiguous when he or she is required to treat the patient as a “relative” or “friend.” The patient, in ...


從莊子生命哲學到生命倫理學四原則的互補整合, Yunzhang Liu, Jinping Zhao, Jia Xie Jan 2010

從莊子生命哲學到生命倫理學四原則的互補整合, Yunzhang Liu, Jinping Zhao, Jia Xie

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The four-principles approach to bioethics developed by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics is no doubt the most well known and influential example in the West of principle-based approaches to resolve ethical issues. The four principles are autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. This essay explores whether the four principles can be considered a universal core of morality that can be used in China to deal with current bioethical issues. It argues that although the four principles provide general guidelines, their implementation is much more complex. This essay attempts to show that Daoist thought, particularly Zhuangzi’s philosophy of ...


儒道與生命倫理, Sen Pei Jan 2010

儒道與生命倫理, Sen Pei

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In this essay, I begin by addressing H. Tristram Engelhardt’s argument of the breakdown of the traditional consensus on moral and religious good. Engelhardt maintains that in the post-modern age, the possibility of constructing a full account of human good is almost impossible. People from different groups and communities engage with one another as moral strangers who need to negotiate moral arrangements. These negotiations are governed by the principle of autonomy, or the “principle of permission.” I contend that Engelhardt’s argument is also relevant in China, although from a different perspective. The traditional distinctions used to distinguish moral ...


從儒家到生命倫理學四原則, Guoli Yang Jan 2010

從儒家到生命倫理學四原則, Guoli Yang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper discusses the possible application of the four principles of medical ethics advocated by Beauchamp and Childress to the current healthcare reform and transition in China from the perspective of someone who has many years of experience as a physician. It aims to show that many of the medical problems and solutions identified in the West also make sense in the Chinese context, although different moral language may be used. I believe that traditional resources such as the Confucian moral/ritual system can be reconstructed to handle ethical questions both in theory and in practice in China. It is ...


導言, Ruiping Fan Jan 2010

導言, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本期首先推出邊林對中國大陸生命倫理學的形成及三十年來的發展歷程進行總結和反思的論文。本文富有哲學見地,且不作現實粉飾,實話實說,值得關心這一學科的人認真閱讀。在邊林看來,一種學問的本質乃是對一個事物的邏輯構建,而任何事物的合理的邏輯構建都必須與這個事物的實際發展過程以及人們對它的認識過程相統一。生命倫理學當然也不例外,其合理的構建勢必是一種邏輯體系的構建。所以,歷史與邏輯的統一是考察具有哲學特性的生 命倫理學學科的重要認識視角和方法根據。邊林認為生命倫理學在美國的產生與發展在本質上體現了歷史與邏輯的統一。生命倫理學肇始於美國,恰恰是在美國社會特定歷史階段的文化與科學兩大洪流衝擊下的產物:既是具有顯著學理特徵的西方現代、後現代哲學和倫理學向生命道德領域延伸和擴展的結果,也是科學技術特別是生命科學技術開始進入快速發展期帶來的社會觀念、社會心理以及倫理標準調整、醫學和生命倫理難題大量湧現導致強烈現實需求的產物。它是在一定意義上完成了對醫學倫理學的一個超越,用更寬闊的視野和更深入的思考來認識、評價生命的道德問題,並且將這一學科置於西方倫理傳統和現代思想完整而系統的本體論承諾上。無論道德多元化為“道德異鄉人”之間帶來多少道德矛盾和差異,西方生命倫理學大體都是在自由主義的旗幟下尋求行為的道德解釋和道德根據。

相對比,中國大陸生命倫理學的形成過程恰恰缺失了西方生命倫理學所具有的這種統一性。在邊林看來,中國生命倫理學的形成與發展本來也應該是歷史與邏輯的統一,可惜的是,事實並非如此。由於特定歷史階段中國社會現實以及思想和人文環境的原因,中國大陸的生命倫理學在其形成階段就存在先天性的缺陷。而且,在其發展過程中,先天缺陷並沒有得到矯正,邏輯演化過程出現了失常。邊林概述的這種缺陷和失常,在本期其他論文所論述的問題上也得到了印證和例示,諸如蔡昱所討論的臨床醫療決策權之歸屬問題,姜蘭姝等所關注的老人長期照護問題,鄧蕊所探討的倫理審查的制度歷史、運行現狀與困境問題,以及李菊萍所報告的DNA 親子鑒定的倫理與法律問題。最後,邊林深刻地指出,中國現在所具有的生命倫理學並不是、至少從根本意義上說還不是中國自己的生命倫理學,因為它所具有的並不是生長在與它應該相連的根系上,因而不能形成以此為基礎的本體論承諾。從這種意義上我們可以認為中國還沒有生命倫理學,所以中國的生命倫理學就必然產生需要建構的問題。


中國生命倫理學建構問題探論:基於歷史與邏輯統一的視角, Lin Bian Jan 2010

中國生命倫理學建構問題探論:基於歷史與邏輯統一的視角, Lin Bian

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The rational logic of a thing is inevitably a reconstruction of its actual developing process in light of human understanding. That is to say, it is reasonable to investigate the circumstances and characteristics of a subject of matter from the perspective of the unity of its history and logic. Bioethics, a popular discipline in contemporary society, is no exception. This essay examines the shaping and development process of Chinese bioethics in the last thirty years.

Western bioethics was launched in the United States in the early 1970s. The development of Western bioethics reflects reasonable Western religious, moral, and social reactions ...


論醫療中的家庭決策, Yu Cai Jan 2010

論醫療中的家庭決策, Yu Cai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper begins with a definition of “family decisions.” I emphasize that family decisions are made jointly by all close family members on a voluntary basis. This decision-making mechanism is designed to embody the spirit of Confucian family ethics and maximize the benefit of family involvement in medical decision making.

Introducing this concept allows us to abandon the outdated concept of “family member decisions” that seems to exclude the patient from the process of decision making. Family decision models should reflect the unity of the family, and should include both the patient and his or her close family members in ...


老齡化背景下長期照護的現實選擇:基於儒家倫理觀的思考, Lanshu Jiang, Ling Zhou, Ran Ren Jan 2010

老齡化背景下長期照護的現實選擇:基於儒家倫理觀的思考, Lanshu Jiang, Ling Zhou, Ran Ren

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

According to the standard set by the United Nations, if more than 10% of the population of a society is over 60 years old, then that society qualifies as an aging society. This means that China has been an aging society since 2000. Currently, China has one hundred and forty-nine million people over 60 years old, of which more than thirty million require long-term care to various degrees. 8% of elderly rural Chinese are unable to afford institutional long-term care, even if such institutional care is available. Obviously, China faces grave challenges in providing long-term care for its ever-increasing elderly ...


倫理審查的制度歷史、運行現狀與困境, Rui Deng Jan 2010

倫理審查的制度歷史、運行現狀與困境, Rui Deng

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Since the 1970s, the ethics review system has become an important measure to protect human life. International organizations have ceaselessly revised and perfected the rules of several international ethics documents, carried out ability training for ethics reviews on a global scale, helped many countries to set up ethics committees, and attempted to promote the Western ethical culture and principle of “universal ethics.” However, if we investigate the history of the changes in the requirements of ethics reviews coded in the relevant international documents and enactments, we find that the requirements of ethics reviews for medical research have become weakened and ...


儒家思想與健康概念, Junxiang Liu, Guanhui Wang Jan 2010

儒家思想與健康概念, Junxiang Liu, Guanhui Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Health is one of the basic concepts in the philosophy of medicine. Some philosophers hold that just as there are different concepts of diseases, there are different concepts of health, because such concepts are deeply influenced by value judgments. This paper shows that health as we often talk about is the health of individual human beings, and that the concept of health should be based on an understanding of the essence of individual human beings. From this viewpoint, there is some common ground among the different concepts of health.

The key issue discussed in this paper is what Confucian philosophy ...


Dna 親子鑒定的倫理與法律思考:以未成年人權益保護為視角, Juping Li Jan 2010

Dna 親子鑒定的倫理與法律思考:以未成年人權益保護為視角, Juping Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Due to the ever increasing number of family disputes over the identification of children in mainland China, more couples are turning to DNA tests to disclose the identification of their children. The number of DNA test agencies has significantly increased in recent years, and it is reported that the number of tests has increased by 20% every year. In some developed areas such as Guangdong province, the annual rate of increase is as high as 40-50%. These DNA test agencies seem to be free of any authoritative supervision or legal regulation, and operate with commercial motives. There is thus a ...