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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

導言, Ping-Cheung Lo Jan 2001

導言, Ping-Cheung Lo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

醫療的目的是為了挽數人的性命,為人提供健康的生命,自殺與醫療的目的背道而馳,因此無論中西醫學都反對人自殺;然而,在中國哲學佔有主流地位的儒家,卻歌頌那些為了追求至善而自殺的人。


在泰山與鴻毛之間--倫家存生取死的價值觀, Ping-Cheung Lo Jan 2001

在泰山與鴻毛之間--倫家存生取死的價值觀, Ping-Cheung Lo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper is a project in descriptive applied Chinese ethics, in which I attempt to analyze ethically the Confucian moral views on suicide in ancient China. As in Europe, there is a long history of moral debate on the moral status of suicide, and the long debate on the suicide of Qu Yuand and on Guan Zhong's refusal to commit suicide are obvious examples. Three pairs of theses and antitheses are formulated to represent Confucian moral rules and arguments for and against suicide, and they are as follow.

Thesis I: One should give up one's own life, if ...


自殺的道德難題, Zhaoxiong He Jan 2001

自殺的道德難題, Zhaoxiong He

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

People recognized suicide as a mystery. It originates in a certain degree from ethical dilemma which exists in three stages of suicide prevention and controlling: prevention, intervention and postvention. There are so many ethical dilemmas in each stage. It appears as the dilemma between humanism and liberalism in prevention stage. In crisis intervention stage, between life saving and death letting. In postvention stage, between humanism and utilitarianism, motivism and effectism. Differentiate the morality of suicide behavior depends upon manipulating the dilemmas. Since the dilemma is actually a paradox, so that it cannot be solved in logical analysis but value analysis ...


明代婦女自殺--倫理學研究的進路, Wing-Yi Lee Jan 2001

明代婦女自殺--倫理學研究的進路, Wing-Yi Lee

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Modern people usually discuss suicide from scientific views and treat it as a kind of disease. Suicidal behavior occurs under the influence of psychological or physiological illness; it is an involuntary behavior. People who commit suicide are deemed the "victims" of their illnesses. All what we should do is to prevent, to intervene and to postvent their suicidal behavior.

However, some cases of suicide are not due to illness. They are the result of voluntary and deliberate moral choice. The reasons of committing suicide are associated with the ethical values of people in the same period of time and in ...


休謨論自殺, R. G. Frey Jan 2001

休謨論自殺, R. G. Frey

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

直至今天,任何對自殺道德感興趣的人都會讀到大衛.休謨關於此問題的文章。這有多種原因,但其中核心的一個是,他確立了現代關於自殺道德爭論的出發點,也就是說,生命中某種條件是不是可以?人提供一個道德上可接受的理由,來自主決定結束自己的生命。如果我們認為至少有一些自殺行為是道德的,那麼我們就能夠進行這場爭論,如果我們可以拋棄所有那些神學已經規定好的對自殺的一攬子譴責,那麼我們就能夠思考這場爭論。我注意到在遙遠的十八世紀情境中,這種論證戰略試圖發展出一種沒有神學基礎的倫理學。休謨的案例所得到的結果是關於自殺的一篇很現代的短文,突出自願性和自主性,以及對人的生活條件以及在這種條件下人生活下去的願望進行的反思。


蘇菲的抉擇?--分割連體嬰的倫理難題, Hsiao-Chih Sun Jan 2001

蘇菲的抉擇?--分割連體嬰的倫理難題, Hsiao-Chih Sun

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This article deals with the moral dilemma of a sensational case of conjoined (often called Siamese) twins who were born in Manchester, England, on Aug. 8, 2000. The most controversial issue in this case is whether it is morally permissible to separate them surgically foreseeing that one of the twins will die in order to save the other. I argue that the separation surgery is morally justified.

My argument consists of four steps. First of all, I outline the most significant facts without going into irrelevant details; In this case, the medical indication leaves no doubt that both twins will ...


引言:哲學的挑戰, Ruiping Fan Jan 2001

引言:哲學的挑戰, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

氣功涉及許多中國人的生活。千千萬萬的人習練著各種類型的氣功,以求強身健體。氣功還成為一些人的基本生活方式,同他們的道德素質和精神境界結合在了一起。最後,氣功還常常同人體特異功能結下不解之緣,內氣外氣,撲朔迷離,難以分辨。遺憾的是,儘管氣功和人體特異功能可謂當代中國社會的一大熱門,但真正嚴肅、認真和高質量的哲學探討實屬鳳毛麟角,難以看到。


氣功科學如何才是可能的?, Peimin Ni Jan 2001

氣功科學如何才是可能的?, Peimin Ni

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The effectiveness of qigong (cultivation and application of qi-vital energy) is typically divided into two categories, the maintenance and improvement of the practitioner's own health and overall well being ("internal qi"), and the exertion of qi to affect external objects ("external qi"). Internal qi is less controversial partly because its effects are easier to be explained within the parameters of modern science, whereas external qi is much more controversial as its claims defray some deeply cherished common sense beliefs and well-received scientific laws. Skeptics take science as a measure to question qigong claims, accusing qigong, especially external qi, to ...


氣和超常現象問題, Yasuo Yuasa Jan 2001

氣和超常現象問題, Yasuo Yuasa

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

錢學森教授和陳倍(音譯)教授,都是氣功研究方面令人尊敬的領袖,他們最近發表了一些看法:

國家科學技術委員會認可了1987年5月3日中國人體科學協會的成立。自從1979 年四川省發現一名叫唐雨(音譯)的男孩擁有“用耳朵閱讀”的能力已經有八年之久了。這段時期,充滿了障礙和彎路,對於我們那些參加組建這個專心於人體科學的協會的人來說真的是很困難。

“用耳朵閱讀”的能力在超心理學上指一種psi能力。在中國,它被稱為“特異功能”(非凡的能力)。


當代科學與迷信之哲學反思, Dachun Liu Jan 2001

當代科學與迷信之哲學反思, Dachun Liu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

There is an important way to distinguish science from pseudo-science:empirical testability. It has three basic implications. First, scientific experiments are the fundamental scientific activities, and the method of experiment marks empirical science. Second, empirical testability constitutes the first methodological principle for proposing or affirming a scientific hypothesis. Finally, it is also a basic condition for a scientific discovery to be accepted by society. If a hypothesis cannot be tested even in principle, it cannot be termed as a scientific hypothesis.

In contemporary Chinese society, there are varieties of pseudo-sciences. They use the name of science to identify themselves, but ...


大量的白色烏鴉:超常現象的證據, Daivd Ray Griffin Jan 2001

大量的白色烏鴉:超常現象的證據, Daivd Ray Griffin

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本章的標題包括了對於威廉.詹姆斯(James )著名的論斷的暗示,即要證明所有的烏鴉不都是黑的,只需要一隻白色的烏鴉。這個論斷是針對那個拒斥超常知覺的教條而作出的。這個正統的教條是“任何人的智能中沒有任何內容不是來自於平常感知的經驗的”。詹姆斯論斷的要點在於,要破壞這個信仰,我們只需要一個反例。


一個氣功科學工作者的札記:氣功科學的問題與思考, Peihua Ni Jan 2001

一個氣功科學工作者的札記:氣功科學的問題與思考, Peihua Ni

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Many people have noticed that practicing qigong is beneficial to human health. However, how does it work is not quite clear. Especially, there is no way to use the contemporarily accepted scientific theories to explain some strikingly impressive effects and phenomena that qigong practitioners have brought out. But we should not take all of them as superstitious simply because they cannot be brought to light by currently accepted scientific theories. Instead, we should seriously explore qigong science.

When we speak "qigong science", we do not mean qigong is already a science. Rather, we mean that we ought to study qigong ...


導言:生命倫理學--跨文化研究的進展, Ruiping Fan Jan 2001

導言:生命倫理學--跨文化研究的進展, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

生命倫理學關係重大,因為她探討生死問題。生死問題尤為艱難,更因為人們的觀點分歧。從方法論到具體問題,從人體器官買賣到臨終病人的決策模式,從安樂死到複製人,從關注動物權益到尋求女性主義關懷倫理學,從中國到美國,生死問題的場景中不斷上演着觸目驚心的悲喜劇,題材豐富,劇情複雜。從理論到實踐,生命倫理學的多樣性和多元化乃一不爭的事實。

艱難歸艱難,分歧歸分歧,生命倫理學研究是否具有可觀的進展?依筆者看來, 一個突出的進展在於,越來越多的生命倫理學家認識到, 一個社會中的生死問題無法脫離該社會所實踐的文化,道德和宗教來得到有效的解法。這倒不是說一個社會中的文化,道德和宗教總是統一的,而是說它們相對於另一個社會來看總是個別的、具體的和有特殊性的。離開了這些個別性、具體性和特殊性,圍繞所謂“普遍的”(即universal )倫理原則建立起來的生命倫理學只能是一種沒有針對性的、一般的、無法應用的智力操練。越來越多的人看到,生命倫理學研究必然要和本地文化相結合。


生命倫理之方法論的考察, Wai-Ying Wong Jan 2001

生命倫理之方法論的考察, Wai-Ying Wong

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

There has been controversy between particularism and generalism in metaethics in general and bioethics in particular. Particularists (e.g. contextualists) attempt to solve moral problems by firstly working with particular cases in all of their contextual details and then by applying these results to other similar cases, whereas generalists (principled ethicists) try to apply the general normative principles to particular cases. The former approach can be viewed as a "bottom-up" and the latter "top-down" way. As indicated by many moral philosophers, both of these approaches have shortcomings. Principled ethics have been challenged for their impotence in providing guidance in a ...


人體器官買賣有何不可?, Kam Por Yu Jan 2001

人體器官買賣有何不可?, Kam Por Yu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

ln this paper I examine the arguments for and against the buying and selling of human organs . I examine five opposing and two supporting arguments. The five opposing arguments are: (I) exploitation of the poor; (2) fostering crime; (3) creating a conflict between a person and his family; (4) contributing to the prevailing ethos of everything being for sale; (5) degrading human dignity. The two supporting arguments are: (1) self-ownership of human beings; (2) effective use of resources.

I argue that none of the opposing and supporting arguments are convincing. The buying and selling of human organs is not a ...


末期病人的決策倫理:三個模式的比較, Ho-Mun Chan Jan 2001

末期病人的決策倫理:三個模式的比較, Ho-Mun Chan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper critically examines the liberal, the medical paternalist, and the familial models of decision making for the terminally ill. It is argued that the liberal model is excessively patient centered while the medical paternalist model overemphasizes the role of the physician. The paper concludes that since both models marginalize the role of the family in the decision-making process, they are morally inadequate and not suitable for societies with strong family ethics, particularly those in Asia.

The liberal model is predominant in the United States. According to this model, a competent patient can express in an advance directive her prior ...


雷切爾斯論安樂死, Kai-Yee Wong Jan 2001

雷切爾斯論安樂死, Kai-Yee Wong

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Twenty-six years on, the debate generated by James Rachels' 'Active and Passive Euthanasia' (1975), one of the most widely reprinted articles on euthanasia in bioethics, is still very much alive. The following policy statement cited and attacked by Rachels in the article has thus become familiar to many bioethicists: 'The intentional termination of the life of one human being by another - mercy killing - is contrary to that for which the medical profession stands and is contrary to the policy of the American Medical Association. The cessation of the employment of extraordinary means to prolong the life of the body when ...


再論複製人--一個比較倫理的分析, Jonathan Chan Jan 2001

再論複製人--一個比較倫理的分析, Jonathan Chan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

A proper assessment of the moral status of applying the somatic nuclear transfer technique to human involves three important moral questions. The first question is concerned with the safety of using the technique, i.e., whether using the new technology on human in this stage will pose an unacceptable risk to the cloned child. Indeed, one major objection to cloning human beings is that the technique of somatic nuclear transfer may cause harm to the cloned child. For instance, the U.S. National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), among others, argues against human cloning in this vein. It claims that "current ...


動物權益問題, Hon-Lam Li Jan 2001

動物權益問題, Hon-Lam Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Until relatively recently, ethics has been a subject involving only human persons. Whether the issue concerns euthanasia, pornography, capital punishment, or world hunger, only human persons are involved. Since then, moral issues have arisen that involve not only human persons, but also non-human animals. This is a significant change, because the ethics involving only human persons is ill-adapted for problems involving not only them, but also non-human animals. In this paper, I argue that the traditional ethics is inadequate for solving the problem of animal research and non-vegetarianism, and that arguments trying to show that animals can be sacrificed in ...


女性主義關懷倫理學與生命倫理學, Yanguang Wang Jan 2001

女性主義關懷倫理學與生命倫理學, Yanguang Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Feminists find that females tend to focus on details about the relationships among the persons involved and to seek innovative solutions that protect everyone's interest. In contracts, males typically try to identify and apply a relevant principle or rule (which they take to be universal or valid from an impartial perspective), even if doing so means sacrificing someone's interest. Feminists call the former approach an ethics of care (or responsibility) and the latte an ethics of justice.

Feminism thinks ethics of justice includes bioethical theories such as Engelhardt's "Secular Bioethics", Veatch's "Contract Ethics", Deontological Theory, Utilitarianism ...


中、美醫學倫理道德的多元性:導向一種詮釋的跨文化生命倫理學, Jing-Bao Nie Jan 2001

中、美醫學倫理道德的多元性:導向一種詮釋的跨文化生命倫理學, Jing-Bao Nie

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

從20世紀70年代後期以來,美國對中國醫學倫理學的評價及中國對美國生命倫理學的反應,經歷了從坦直的批評到熱情的讚揚,從拒絕到接受的過程。但是無論在美國還是在中國,美國的生命倫理學與中國的醫學倫理學一直被認為分別代表了個性主義和社區主義或集體主義這兩種不同取向。這種一般性的對比被人們廣泛地接受,於是中美醫學倫理道德自身的巨大差異,特別是中國醫德經歷的內在多樣性,即使不說被全部忽略了,至少是不幸地被輕視了。不管是美國的生命倫理學還是中國的醫學倫理學,二者都不只有一種占主導地位的思維方式。在美國和中國--傳統與現代--的醫學倫理都是複雜與多樣的。例如,美國和中國的文化與醫學倫理都顯示出個人主義與社區主義的傳統。無論是一般的生命倫理學還是跨文化生命倫理學從本質上都是詮釋性的。詮釋性的跨文化生命倫理學重視任何文化中醫學倫理道德的多元性。通過詮釋,跨文化生命倫理學可作為一種社會與文化批評的重要手段。