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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Philosophers' Views On The Use Of Non-Essay Assessment Methods: Discussion Of An E-Mail Survey, Stephen R. Palmquist Jan 1998

Philosophers' Views On The Use Of Non-Essay Assessment Methods: Discussion Of An E-Mail Survey, Stephen R. Palmquist

Department of Religion and Philosophy Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


導言:“痛苦的”安樂死, Ruiping Fan Jan 1998

導言:“痛苦的”安樂死, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

一個沒有認真思考過死亡的人,很難對生命形成成熟的見解。安樂死問題為我們提供了一個機會,本刊從這一主題出發,將和廣大讀者一道,在它引起的心理震攝面前,切實體會生命倫理學問題的重大性。經過痛苦的思索和艱難的抉擇,我們將有希望讓死亡不僅作為生命的必然歸宿,而且成為生活的必要準備。


安樂死的定義, Tom L. Beauchamp, Amold I. Davidson Jan 1998

安樂死的定義, Tom L. Beauchamp, Amold I. Davidson

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

儘管這些年來關於安樂死在道德上可辯護性的討論在增多,但對一個恰當的安樂死的定義沒有給予持續的注意。根據諸如安樂死、人工流產、自殺或謀殺等行動的分類不同,道德認可與法律認可的重大區別將是不言而喻的,因此,發展出一個令人滿意的安樂死定義,將有重要的實際結果。我們對這些行動的分類方式表示了我們對它們思考的方式,在目前情祝下,這樣的分類與醫學,倫理學和法律有直接的關係。

在本文中,我們試圖既提供一個非規範性的安樂死定義(不作出道德結論的定義),也試圖提供一個不受反例駁斥的定義。我們將要論證,文獻中關於安樂死的所有其他定義都易受致命的反例的批評。我們通過考察其中一個有代表性的定義以及這些定義的難點所在開始我們的論證(第一節)。接下來我們要對一個定義進行論證,其包含邏輯上的必要條件和充分條件(第二節)最後,我們對針對我們這個定義可能提出的反對意見和反例進行考慮並作出反駁(第三節)。


儒家的生死價值觀與安樂死, Ping Cheung Lo Jan 1998

儒家的生死價值觀與安樂死, Ping Cheung Lo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper attempts to analyze four major arguments in favor of the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia (including physician-assisted-suicide) as found in the West, and tries to assess these arguments through Chinese Confucian ethics and its perspectives on life and death. Through such a cross-cultural dialogue the author concludes that there is some similarity as well as difference in Chinese and western values. The western moral values appealed to in advocating voluntary euthanasia, to a certain extent, can strike an echoing chord in Confucian ethics. In other words, though the debate on euthanasia is a contemporary phenomenon, the arguments and ...


在醫學情境內殺死和聽任死亡在道德上有所不同嗎?, Paul T. Menzel Jan 1998

在醫學情境內殺死和聽任死亡在道德上有所不同嗎?, Paul T. Menzel

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

在這篇論文中我的目的是(1)重新評估這種區分在醫學情境中的道德相干性,(2)闡明這種相干性的精確性(如,它在每種情況下都是有關的嗎?),以及(3)闡明在特殊情況下決定它大致有多大分量的程序。


道德生死觀下的臨終關懷辨析, Ping Dong, Xiaoyan Wang Jan 1998

道德生死觀下的臨終關懷辨析, Ping Dong, Xiaoyan Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In confronting death there are differences among people regarding their deep concerns. A survey shows that most Chinese Catholics are worried about what will happen to them after death, whereas most other Chinese are concerned about unfinished life plans, unfulfilled familial obligations, and so on. However, most Western and Chinese authors agree that a great number of terminally ill patients suffer from anxiety, sadness, and depression. And no one denies that unease, puzzle, solitude, and even anger are often experienced by many dying patients. Against this background, this essay argues that the mental sufferings of terminally ill patients can appropriately ...


利他主義和醫生協助死亡, Martin Gunderson, David J. Mayo Jan 1998

利他主義和醫生協助死亡, Martin Gunderson, David J. Mayo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

我們假定一項允許醫生協助死亡的法律獲得通過。我們指出,使這項法律獲得通過的基本理由在於對個人自主性的尊重、避免遭受痛苦以及尊嚴地死去的可能性。我們還將探討一旦法律通過將引發的兩個道德問題。首先,我們論證通過協助死亡法律的基本理由可以為協助出於利他主義理由動機和出於自我利益理由動機的病人死去辯護;其次,我們論證通過醫生協助死亡法律的理由可以為將該法律擴展到既包括臨終病人又包括非臨終病人辯護。


中國人有關安樂死的價值選擇, Qingxiu Guo, Fengling Jing, Honggang Gen Jan 1998

中國人有關安樂死的價值選擇, Qingxiu Guo, Fengling Jing, Honggang Gen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay analyzes the major outcomes of a survey that we conducted on 400 Chinese individuals of different ages, occupations and levels of education. Our method was to send to every subject a specifically designed form in which the subject faces three types of cases: the terminally ill cancer patient, the persistent-vegetative-state patient, and the severely defected newborn. The subject was required to make a choice among (1) offering treatment at any cost, (2) giving comfort treatment only, and (3) performing euthanasia. Although the survey was made in 1987, new evidence shows that its outcomes remain an accurate index of ...


良心、轉診和醫生協助自殺, Kevin Wm. Wildes S.J. Jan 1998

良心、轉診和醫生協助自殺, Kevin Wm. Wildes S.J.

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

諸如醫生協助自殺這樣的實踐,即使合法,也會引起一系列經常為人們所忽視的道德衡突。最近一項關於醫生協助死亡的建議就是這方面的一個例子,該建議呼籲那些反對自殺的醫生將病人轉移給另外更富有同情的醫生。然而這項建議沒有考慮那些在道義上反對這麼做的醫生們的道德憂慮。


從典型案例及民意調查看安樂死在中國立法之必要性, Lin Yu, Dapu Shi Jan 1998

從典型案例及民意調查看安樂死在中國立法之必要性, Lin Yu, Dapu Shi

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay briefly illustrates the first Chinese legal case of active euthanasia in 1986 and a hotly debated lawsuit in 1994. It also offers other euthanasia cases that occurred between 1989 and 1995. It further provides the outcomes of a series of surveys made by a variety of Chinese institutions and individuals concerning the issue of euthanasia. Based on the analysis of these lawsuits, particular cases, and survey results, the essay argues that euthanasia should be legalized in China. In particular, the essay argues for the following points.

First, it is misleading to place euthanasia cases under the category of ...


前言, Zhizheng Du Jan 1998

前言, Zhizheng Du

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本期呈現在讀者面前的,是一組關於現代西方醫學與傳統中國醫學的整體分析與未來發展的文章,其目的在於為讀者思考當代醫學的整體形象提供一些思路。

毫無疑義,淵源於古代希臘醫學的現代西方醫學,在幾經變革與創新之後,目前正在以分子生物學為基本陣地,為戰勝威脅人類健康的各種疾病而施展其潛能。但是,現代西方醫學是完美無缺的嗎?它的現今發展及走向是完全符合人類健康的需要嗎?本期發表的《意識形態與疾病學說》,《在技術烏托邦的彼岸:中西醫學再評價》,《溝通臨床距離:已有知識的再發現》,《為甚麼醫學不可能是一門科學》等文,對現代醫學的價值承諾,技術崇尚,實證追求以及內在目的做了獨到的分析,為讀者提供了一些值得深思的見解。


為什麼醫學不可能是一門科學?, Ronald Munson Jan 1998

為什麼醫學不可能是一門科學?, Ronald Munson

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

我的論點是,儘管醫學是科學的,但它並不是也不可能成為一門科學。試圖說明醫學已經是一門科學的論證是有缺陷的,我將拒絕這種論證。我將證明,比較一下一些基本的明確特點如內在的目的、成功的標準以及調節事業的原則等,就會顯示出醫學與科學是根本不同的。然後我將論證,雖然醫學的認知內容也許有可能還原為生物學,但醫學本身是不可還原的,因為作為一項事業它具有一些特點,這些特點使它成了一種不適於還原的學科。在認識到醫學與科學本質上是不同的之後,我將用從這一認識中得出的四種結果來結束本文。


中西醫結合述評, Weibo Lu Jan 1998

中西醫結合述評, Weibo Lu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

What attitude should we take toward traditional medicine? There have been three types of policies in this regard all over the world. First, the excluding policy prohibits practicing any traditional medicine. Traditional physicians are not qualified to possess the title of physician, and their practice is illegal. Second, the tolerating policy does not make illegal traditional medical practice, but it does not formally affirm the practice. Third, the paralleling policy allows both traditional and modem medical practices, but their use may not overlap. For example, traditional physicians may not use modem medical facilities.

Since the establishment of the People’s ...


中醫現代化研究:證實與證偽, Hongzhong Qiu Jan 1998

中醫現代化研究:證實與證偽, Hongzhong Qiu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Most contemporary research concerning modernizing traditional Chinese medicine is aimed at confirming the effectiveness of certain traditional doctrines, methods, and treatments through scientific experiments designed in terms of modern scientific theories and approaches. This paper argues that such research should also consider the issue of falsification. Not everything in traditional Chinese medicine can be confirmed. We need a complete mechanism through which to reject the false and maintain the true.

By investigating several major academic journals in the field published in mainland China, we find that there have been several different types of research concerning modernizing traditional Chinese medicine. First ...


試論針灸學現代化研究的成就, Shaozong Chen Jan 1998

試論針灸學現代化研究的成就, Shaozong Chen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This essay introduces and assesses some major achievements that have been made in scientific research concerning modernizing acupuncture, a main discipline of traditional Chinese medicine. These achievements include the development of interdisciplinary subjects such as holographic bio-medicine, modern tempera-acupuncture, and modern acupuncture; the account of the propagating route of the signs caused by acupunctural stimulates and the physiological basis for acupunctural analgesia; and the new thought on the essence of jingluo (channel).

There are some special acupunctural points in the body, such as the points in the ear, hand, and foot, which cannot be accounted for through the traditional Chinese ...


溝通臨床距離:已有知識的再發現, Richard J. Baron Jan 1998

溝通臨床距離:已有知識的再發現, Richard J. Baron

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

我在本文中提出,現代醫學的疾病觀在描述疾病時通常排斥直觀知識,由此而造成一種從機能上說給人印象深刻的然而從人的角度說沒有什麼根據的醫學。受過技街化了的解剖病理學疾病觀訓練的醫生們,脫離了過去已知的大部分有關疾病的知識。他們不僅缺少一種嚴密的或規範的方法去面對醫學實踐中的那些非技術的方面,而且,許多人甚至看不見醫學的動機和目的。在此,我力主一種以直觀為基礎的、以人自身為根據的疾病本體論。這樣一種本體論以理解和把握病人的經驗而不是對病狀的所謂“客觀的”,描述作為自己的出發點。只有通過一門活生生的病症科學,人們才有可能達致一種真正的人本主義醫學。


經絡現象研究的沉寂與出新, Chengzhong Liu Jan 1998

經絡現象研究的沉寂與出新, Chengzhong Liu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Channel-phenomenon (or jingluo phenomenon, in Chinese) is a special sensational phenomenon discovered by traditional Chinese medicine over two thousand years ago. When stimulating certain points on a patient's skin, the patient will have a sensation moving along specifiable routes, terminating at the location of disease or the top of the head. With a definite distribution pattern on the human body, such specifiable routes are named jingluo by traditional Chinese medicine and constitute the theoretical and practical basis for the treatment of acupuncture. In modern medicine, this propagated sensation along channels can be called "moving topesthesia", or "perceptual extension."

For ...


意識形態與疾病學說, H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr. Jan 1998

意識形態與疾病學說, H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr.

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

臨床工作者在閱讀Margolis 教授的文章(1976, pp. 238-55)時,有可能會對“醫學是意識形態”(p. 253)的說法感到吃驚。即使把同性戀愛或多指畸形判斷為疾病是由於文化方面的偏見;但原發支氣管癌和傷寒仍確定無疑是疾病,與任何具體的文化或意識形態都無關。疾病狀態似乎有一個硬核,承認這種狀態並不是文化習慣的作用,更不是意識形態的作用。而且,這個硬核似乎相當大,包括大量的傳染病和代謝病一事實上包括所有危害人體基本功能、具有明顯軀體基礎的那些疾病。不只是臨床工作者,還有一些醫學哲學家們也會把Margolis的論點看作是關於疾病本性的一種危險的曲解,是根據文化方面的幻想,按照一時興致所在,對健康和疾病的概念重新下了定義。


在技術烏托邦的彼岸:中西醫學再評價, Ruiping Fan Jan 1998

在技術烏托邦的彼岸:中西醫學再評價, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The contemporary world is characteristic of science-fetishism and technological utopia. Every social issue is explored in the name of science, and all difficult problems are to be resolved by renovated technologies. This is even more so in modern China than in the West. The people attempt to modernize their lives in all respects. For many of them, everything old needs to be weighed on a modern scientific scale and anything unscientific must be rejected. This constitutes the context in which traditional Chinese medicine is generally evaluated. This essay argues that this context is misleading. It intends to reevaluate traditional Chinese ...


導言:如何思考“複製人”?, Ping Cheung Lo Jan 1998

導言:如何思考“複製人”?, Ping Cheung Lo

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

用“複製人”來翻譯英語的"human cloning"是不得已的,是不準確的;有些人因此而聯想到複印機、孫悟空等,也是受誤導的聯想。我們現在辜且用這片語,是遷就香港、台灣、及海外地區的現成用法。至於大陸地區用“克陸人”來作 中譯,對於海內外很多人來說是摸不著頭腦;只譯音,而不譯意,也非良策。

筆者認為,“human cloning”的比較準確中譯,應該是“人的人工無性生殖。”


從中國生命倫理學到複製人類的道德問題--一個方法學上的省思, Jonathan Chan Jan 1998

從中國生命倫理學到複製人類的道德問題--一個方法學上的省思, Jonathan Chan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper aims to tell a story about Chinese bioethics that appears to be attractive. The crux of it is to show how to work out a Chinese bioethics which is able to retain enough essential elements of Chinese philosophy and at the same time to provide guidance and advice rationally acceptable to the citizens of a constitutional democratic society as to bioethical issues. The crucial part of the story is to exhibit a methodological framework for such Chinese bioethics. I shall take up this job in the first part of this paper. In the second part of this paper ...


人的複製與人的尊嚴:多元化的社會與儒家道德共同體, Ruiping Fan Jan 1998

人的複製與人的尊嚴:多元化的社會與儒家道德共同體, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The sheep Doly was successfully cloned in a laboratory by a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer. This success significantly increases the possibility of human cloning. The moral and legal debates around the cloning of humans surfaced again. This essay does not intend to address moral considerations primarily based upon technical concerns. For instance, the US National Bioethics Advisory Commission concludes that at this time it is morally unacceptable to attempt to create a child using somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning because this technique is not safe to use in humans at this time. Instead, this essay wants to explore ...


複製或不複製?--基因複製的倫理震撼, Phee Seng Kang Jan 1998

複製或不複製?--基因複製的倫理震撼, Phee Seng Kang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

To clone or not to clone? Having successfully cloned animals, should we clone human beings or should we ban human cloning? This paper explores some ethical concerns brought on by the possibility of human cloning. The cloning specifically referred to here is the asexual reproduction of a human by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Five concerns are discussed. The first is genetic equivalence and identity. The second is genetic history and individual autonomy. The third is asexual reproduction. The fourth is experimentation risks. The fifth is cloning rights.

Genetic-Cloning not Person-Cloning

One main objection to human cloning arises from equating genetic ...


有何倫理判準支持複製人?, Vincent Shen Jan 1998

有何倫理判準支持複製人?, Vincent Shen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The new ethical situation created by new discoveries in bio-engineering needs the establishment of ethical criteria in order to judge the morality or immorality of a specific act in, for example, human cloning. But, in Chinese ethical tradition, especially in the Confucian one, much attention has been paid to normalize sexual behavior and no ethical consideration was done on reproduction outside human sexuality. Even this is the case, the general ethical principles established by Confucianism and other ethical traditions are still valid when applied to the newly emerging technological ethical issues. Therefore, in this paper, I would first derive from ...


克隆人:一個無害的例証?, Melinda A. Roberts Jan 1998

克隆人:一個無害的例証?, Melinda A. Roberts

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

有些人反對在實驗室中克隆人類前胚胎,理由是,這一過程有損人類前胚胎的尊嚴,是對人類前胚胎的不尊重。另一些人則論証說,與人類前胚胎不同,個人顯然有權利受到我們的尊重和關心,如果可以預見人體克隆對個人將是有益的,或者至少不會造成麻煩,那就應當允許克隆人。基於後一種觀點,法律理論家John A. Robertson論証說,既然克隆無害於顯然有權受到我們尊重和關心的任何人,那麼,應該允許克隆。他特別論証說,克隆子女不可能真的因克隆而受到傷害,因為他們會把他們的存在歸功於克隆過程。我在本文中將証明,克隆及其相關的過程事實上確實使現實中的人體克隆子女處在受到真正傷害的危險之中。因此,我為探究克隆及其相關技術在道德上的可允許性提供了一個基礎,但我并沒有暗示,人類前胚胎有尊嚴,或者應當受到尊重。


新的生殖技術:侵犯上帝的領地了嗎?, Maura Anne Ryan Jan 1998

新的生殖技術:侵犯上帝的領地了嗎?, Maura Anne Ryan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

認為新生殖技術會誘使人“扮演上帝的角色”這種反對意見是常見的。本文考查三種反對意見:1)這些技術“侵佔了上帝在生涯的領地”﹔2)這些技術使我們能夠“製造”我們的子女;以及3)這些技術使我們否認人類的局限性。這些反對意見都沒有提供決定性的理由來反對新生殖技術;每一種反對意見都要求進一步提供令人信服的論據。然而,已表明不要“扮演上帝的角色”的警告,在關於醫學輔助生殖的爭論中起着重要的規勸作用,需要對在新生殖方式情境中的生物共同性、局限性以及負責的共同創造性的意義進行反思。


導言, Ren-Zong Qiu Jan 1998

導言, Ren-Zong Qiu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本期主題是與艾滋病有關的問題。一個幽靈在地球上游誨。這個幽靈就是艾滋病。艾滋病是跨世紀的全球流行病,人類將在21世紀面臨艾滋病的更嚴重挑戰,在一定意義上,人類的未來將決定於人類對它的挑戰回應如何。艾滋病比任何其他疾病都顯示出它的生物--心理--社會性質,對艾滋病的回應不僅是一個生物醫學問題,而且涉及一系列的概念、觀念、理論、價值、道德、政策和法律問題。然而,無論在中國,還是在全世界,對這些問題的探討很不充分。希望本期的論文和譯文能夠促進華人國家、地區和社區對這些問題的關注,引出對這些問題更有價值的研究成果。


艾滋病防治中的倫理和政策問題, Ren-Zong Qiu Jan 1998

艾滋病防治中的倫理和政策問題, Ren-Zong Qiu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The AIDS/HIV prevention and control in China is at crossroad. At present, there are insufficient grounds for us to say that China will definitely become a country with a high HIV infection rate in the future. However, we have much less sufficient grounds for saying that China will never reach that stage. On the contrary, we have much more reason to say that it is very probable for China to become a country with high HIV infection rate if we leave the current policy unchanged. The reasons are: economic reforms associated with large scale population movements in unprecedented way ...


艾滋病病毒感染、承受風險,以及治療的義務, Doran Smolkin Jan 1998

艾滋病病毒感染、承受風險,以及治療的義務, Doran Smolkin

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

本文提出了一種以後果為根據的論証來支持美國醫學會的政策,即一個醫生在倫理上不可僅僅因為這個病人血清學陽性而拒絕治療一個感染艾滋病病毒的人。對數目有限的論証也加以考慮,它們既有支持這個政策的,也有反對它的。在本文的結論裏討論了感染艾滋病病毒的人必定經常面臨的影響獲得優質醫療的若干障礙。


對當前藥物濫用和艾滋病預防策略的反思, Jian-Hua Li Jan 1998

對當前藥物濫用和艾滋病預防策略的反思, Jian-Hua Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The prospect of drug use and HIV epidemic cannot be optimist in China. More and more people, mainly young men or women use drug and are infected with HIV, while the effective intervention is short. The preventive measures usually are aimed at the target of the general public, but cannot meet the demand of diverse social groups.

Traditional ideology in China is that individual should be subordinated to community, community to the society at large, and marginalized group to mainstream group. It follows from th.is ideology that preventive method is stereotyped with same pattern to everyone and cannot meet ...