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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

前言:人工智能與未來醫學:超越技術主義
Introduction: Artificial Intelligence And The Future Of Medicine: Beyond Technologicalism
, Jue Wang, Ruiping Fan
Jan 2019

前言:人工智能與未來醫學:超越技術主義Introduction: Artificial Intelligence And The Future Of Medicine: Beyond Technologicalism, Jue Wang, Ruiping Fan

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The essays in this issue indicate that in reflecting on the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine, society should go beyond the technical level. While it is important to determine both the benefits and the risks of AI systems for health care, it is also necessary to go deeper by exploring how technology frames human lives. Only in this way can we move beyond the trap of technologicalism, which holds not only that science and technology are the main driving forces in our lives, but also that humans should follow these forces and adjust their values and views accordingly ...


在Ai醫生和病人之間--人工智能診斷技術的內在邏輯及其對病人主體性建構的影響
Between Ai Doctor And Patient: The Logic Of Ai Diagnosis And Its Impact On Patient Subjectivity
, Guobin Cheng, Xiaoxi Wu
Jan 2019

在Ai醫生和病人之間--人工智能診斷技術的內在邏輯及其對病人主體性建構的影響Between Ai Doctor And Patient: The Logic Of Ai Diagnosis And Its Impact On Patient Subjectivity, Guobin Cheng, Xiaoxi Wu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Applying AI in medical contexts, especially for diagnosis, has become very popular in recent years. AI has the potential to make diagnosis more efficient and accurate, improving the overall quality of medical diagnosis and making medical provisions fairer and more effective. Combining the logic of AI with that of modern Western medical diagnosis, it is to some extent intuitive to imagine AI physicians. However, even in its ideal form, AI technology has intrinsic limitations that will prevent it from completely replacing physicians. Although AI can help physicians and patients to develop their own agency, it may strike at the core ...


儒家如何看待Ai診斷技術的發展和應用
A Confucian Perspective On The Development Of Ai Diagnostic Technology
, Shunqing Zhang
Jan 2019

儒家如何看待Ai診斷技術的發展和應用A Confucian Perspective On The Development Of Ai Diagnostic Technology, Shunqing Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Cheng’s article argues that AI diagnosis and its logic, which are based on Western medical thought and Western philosophy, obstruct the generation of meaning and construction of personhood for both doctors and patients. The article maintains that we should thus engage in introspection on AI in based on other traditions of thought, such as Confucianism. However the article does not provide a deeper interpretation of why Confucianism is particularly helpful in constructing personhood and realizing value in life in the context of medical practice. This article is a response to Cheng’s argument and suggests directions for refinement.


挑戰與應對--中國傳統哲學視角下Ai時代的醫患關係
Challenges And Responses: The Physician - Patient Relationship In The Ai Era
, Hanhui Xu
Jan 2019

挑戰與應對--中國傳統哲學視角下Ai時代的醫患關係Challenges And Responses: The Physician - Patient Relationship In The Ai Era, Hanhui Xu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

AI physicians may replace human physicians in the foreseeable future. This, according to some philosophers, would maximize patients’ autonomy by helping to eradicate the paternalistic model of the doctor–patient relationship. In my view, however, this trend might pose a new threat to patients’ autonomy: the domination of machines. AI physicians would become dominant, depriving patients of their autonomy. This issue cannot be appropriately addressed until an alternative view of the doctor–patient relationship is available. The Confucian perspective on this relationship may be helpful. In Confucian thought, interaction between the physician and the patient is crucial. Thus, a better ...


對“Ai醫生”的兩點反思
Reflections On Ai Doctors
, Xinqing Zhang
Jan 2019

對“Ai醫生”的兩點反思Reflections On Ai Doctors, Xinqing Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

It is illogical to argue that AI doctors will inevitably replace human doctors in the near future, particularly in the field of clinical diagnosis. Medical AI will never possess the legal and moral agency of human doctors; nor is it capable of providing the psychological counseling and humanistic care offered by human doctors and nurses. However, although AI will not replace caregivers, those who use AI will probably replace those who do not.


跨越Ai醫生與病人之間的意義鴻溝--評<在Ai醫生和病人之間--人工智能診斷技術的內在邏輯及其對病人主體性建構的影響>
Bridging The Meaning Gap Between The Ai Doctor And Patient - The Logic Of Ai Diagnosis And Its Impact On Patient Subjectivity
, Chao Li
Jan 2019

跨越Ai醫生與病人之間的意義鴻溝--評<在Ai醫生和病人之間--人工智能診斷技術的內在邏輯及其對病人主體性建構的影響>Bridging The Meaning Gap Between The Ai Doctor And Patient - The Logic Of Ai Diagnosis And Its Impact On Patient Subjectivity, Chao Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

There is a gap in meaning between the AI physician and patient, relating to the generation of meaning and the construction of personality. Bridging this gap in meaning has become an unavoidable problem when rethinking the application of AI technology in the medical field. Only when the construction of patients’ subjectivity turns from practical to ethical thought can we fully demonstrate the core of physician–patient interaction; that is, the generation of meaning and the construction of personality. Only then, facing the life world itself, starting with ethics, relationships, emotions, etc., can we connect the AI physician with the patient ...


也談人工智能診斷技術的倫理問題
On The Ethical Problems Of Ai Diagnostic Technology Protection
, Tao Liu
Jan 2019

也談人工智能診斷技術的倫理問題On The Ethical Problems Of Ai Diagnostic Technology Protection, Tao Liu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

There are two main theoretical frameworks for discussion of the ethical problems of AI diagnostic technology: consequential theory and deontology. From the perspective of consequential theory, it is impossible for AI diagnostic technology to qualitatively surpass a doctor’s diagnosis, due to the former’s inferior intelligence. However, if AI can achieve rapid and efficient diagnoses while ensuring patient subjectivity, there is no reason why it should not replace physician diagnosis. The deontological perspective offers four options in response to strong AI. In any case, our bottom line should be to guard the subjectivity of patients and healthy people. AI ...


人工智能時代的價值轉向及倫理秩序重構--評<在Ai醫生和病人之間--人工智能診斷技術的內在邏輯及其對病人主體性建構的影響>一文
A Value Turn And Ethical Order Reconstruction In The Age Of Artificial Intelligence
, Hui Jiang
Jan 2019

人工智能時代的價值轉向及倫理秩序重構--評<在Ai醫生和病人之間--人工智能診斷技術的內在邏輯及其對病人主體性建構的影響>一文A Value Turn And Ethical Order Reconstruction In The Age Of Artificial Intelligence, Hui Jiang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper comments on the article "Between AI Physician and Patient: The Logic of AI Diagnosis and its Impact on Patient Subjectivity." The article's content is clear and its expression is precise. However, due to the theme and focus of the article and limitations on space, it does not thoroughly analyze the problems with AI and its potential combination with traditional Chinese culture. For example, it does not consider the ethical relationship between AI and human beings; Confucianism, personality and emotion after the formation of AI self-consciousness; the development of the role of AI doctors; temporary disability and patients ...


危言聳聽還是未雨綢繆?--談Ai醫生與患者關係
Looking Ahead: Relationships Between Ai Doctors And Patients
, Yonghui Ma
Jan 2019

危言聳聽還是未雨綢繆?--談Ai醫生與患者關係Looking Ahead: Relationships Between Ai Doctors And Patients, Yonghui Ma

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The last few years have witnessed huge growth in the capabilities and applications of AI. The applications of AI in medical and clinical settings are also expanding at an unprecedented rate. AI is expected to help solve many medical and diagnostic problems and support well-being and health; however, concerns are also growing about the potential for AI doctors to undermine the traditional doctor–patient relationship. The article by Guobin Chen et al. provides a systematic analysis of this issue, to which the current paper is a response. The target article has two main parts. First, it seeks to determine whether ...


人工智能醫學應用的前景與風險
The Promise And Perils Of Ai In Medicine
, Robert Sparrow, Joshua Hatherley
Jan 2019

人工智能醫學應用的前景與風險The Promise And Perils Of Ai In Medicine, Robert Sparrow, Joshua Hatherley

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

What does Artificial Intelligence (AI) have to contribute to health care? And what should we be looking out for if we are worried about its risks? In this paper we offer a survey, and initial evaluation, of hopes and fears about the applications of artificial intelligence in medicine. AI clearly has enormous potential as a research tool, in genomics and public health especially, as well as a diagnostic aid. It’s also highly likely to impact on the organisational and business practices of healthcare systems in ways that are perhaps under-appreciated. Enthusiasts for AI have held out the prospect that ...


資料理性權力、資料話語權力和資料宰製--Ai醫療的“資料醫療模式”對人的抹殺
Data Rationality, Data Discouse And Data Domination: The Power Of The Data Medical Model To Erase Humans
, Yu Cai
Jan 2019

資料理性權力、資料話語權力和資料宰製--Ai醫療的“資料醫療模式”對人的抹殺Data Rationality, Data Discouse And Data Domination: The Power Of The Data Medical Model To Erase Humans, Yu Cai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This paper proposes that we should be alert to the power of data rationality in AI medical treatment, as data rationality may be disguised as "truth" to exclude other explanations. We should be alert to the discursive power of data knowledge in AI medical treatment, i.e., the potential for AI to replace doctors' knowledge and exclude other traditional knowledge by constructing new knowledge content, objects and rules. We should be aware of the possibility of AI data domination, namely the use of digitalization to monitor, discipline and coerce patients. We should also be alert to the alienating effect of ...


醫療Ai:在資料利用與隱私保護之間起舞
Medical Ai: A Dance Between Data Utilization And Privacy Protection
, Yue Wang
Jan 2019

醫療Ai:在資料利用與隱私保護之間起舞Medical Ai: A Dance Between Data Utilization And Privacy Protection, Yue Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

At present, the development of AI depends on three core elements: high-quality data, accurate algorithms and sufficient computing power. New technologies represented by big data, cloud computing and AI are exerting a significant impact on traditional data protection. Individuals' control over their personal data is weakening, data protection is becoming more difficult, and traditional measures of privacy protection are at risk of failure. These are the most representative problems in the conflict between the development of new technology and privacy protection. A new legal and ethical framework that values humans' physical safety, health and dignity should be established and deeply ...


人工智能熱須降溫
Need For Caution In Promoting Ai
, Jinzhou Ye
Jan 2019

人工智能熱須降溫Need For Caution In Promoting Ai, Jinzhou Ye

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Robert Sparrow's critical reflection on the growing enthusiasm for applying AI to medicine is timely and deeply thought provoking. Despite AI's apparent benefits, its potential to restructure medical practice, the doctor–patient relationship and, more generally, human values in the long term give us every reason to be cautious. Before AI is fully embraced, its potential perils should be carefully considered.


評論<人工智能醫學應用的前景與風險>一文中“責任歸咎”的疑慮與可能的因應
Possible Responses To The Problem Of Responsibility
, Wanling Chou
Jan 2019

評論<人工智能醫學應用的前景與風險>一文中“責任歸咎”的疑慮與可能的因應Possible Responses To The Problem Of Responsibility, Wanling Chou

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The ultimate result of AI medicine may be the birth of "Dr. Super AI." Dr. Super AI would not only supplement medical care, but also acquire a level of autonomy. Its capacity for reason would be much greater than that of most human doctors, but it would not possess certain intrinsic characteristics of human beings, so it would fall somewhere between "machine" and "human." This raises an important question: if such an agent makes mistakes, who or what is responsible? This paper argues that this "responsibility gap" is not insurmountable. If the types of mistakes made by Dr. Super AI ...


人工智能批判的話語悖論
The Discursive Paradox Of Ai Criticism
, Fen Lin
Jan 2019

人工智能批判的話語悖論The Discursive Paradox Of Ai Criticism, Fen Lin

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In the dominant discourse of the "human–machine relationship," people and machines are the subjects, with a mutually shaping influence. However, this framework neglects the crux of the current critical analysis of AI. It reduces the problems with new technology to the relationship between people and machines, ignoring the re-shaping of the relationship between "people and people" in the era of new technology. This simplification may mislead policy and legal regulations for new technologies. Why would a robot killing cause more panic than a murder committed by a human? Why is a robot's misdiagnosis more troubling than a doctor ...


誰來界定人工智能的“倫理邊界”--“人工智能”的道德超載
Ai's Moral Overload: Who Should Define The Ethical Boundaries Of Ai?
, Bojing Lui
Jan 2019

誰來界定人工智能的“倫理邊界”--“人工智能”的道德超載Ai's Moral Overload: Who Should Define The Ethical Boundaries Of Ai?, Bojing Lui

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

An irreconcilable conflict between "humanistic rationality" and "technological rationality" is becoming increasingly evident. AI, as the representative of technological rationality today, is suffering from "moral overload." Therefore, who should define the ethical boundaries of AI and who should solve the problem of moral overload have become the most important questions. This paper analyzes an article entitled "The Promise and Perils of AI in Medicine" by Robert Sparrow and Joshua Hatherley, sharing with you some views on AI in the medical field.


前言:當代生命倫理學所面臨的問題:共性與殅性
Introduction: Contemporary Issues In Bioethics: The Universal And The Particular
, Ellen Y. Zhang
Jan 2019

前言:當代生命倫理學所面臨的問題:共性與殅性Introduction: Contemporary Issues In Bioethics: The Universal And The Particular, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

當代生命倫理學有幾個具有時代印記的問題,如老年化社會的危機,醫學生物科技的挑戰,醫患關係的重新定位,從傳統醫學治療(medical treatment)轉向健康護理(healthcare)所引發的醫療費用的增長等等。我們對這些問題的倫理思考,既需要文化普遍性的考量,也需要文化特殊性的斟酌。本期所刊登的文章,部分來自香港浸會大學應用倫理學中心於2019年5月在廣州舉辦的第十三屆「建構中國生命倫理學」研討會。其中不少問題仍然涉及到如何看待西方生命倫理學原則在中國語境下的應用與 踐。


養老領域中的代際衝突與代際公平--基於儒家倫理的視閾
Generational Conflict And Generational Equity In Elderly Care: From The Perspective Of Confucian Ethics
, Jue Wang
Jan 2019

養老領域中的代際衝突與代際公平--基於儒家倫理的視閾Generational Conflict And Generational Equity In Elderly Care: From The Perspective Of Confucian Ethics, Jue Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

From a global perspective, generational equity has long been a core issue in pension reform and medical resource allocation. Indeed, discussion of generational equity involves a financial crisis related to pension deficits and the fairness of the pension system, which is a crisis that threatens the ethical foundation of the social insurance institution, i.e., the intergenerational contract. From an ethical perspective, how to reconstruct the intergenerational contract under the pressure of aging is crucial to the debate on generational equity. This study critically examines the dominant framework of the debate on generational equity and proposes an alternative interpretation framework ...


儒家如何看待脱離婚姻的生育行為--由單身女性「凍卵」問題引發的法律與倫理討論
How Does Confucianism View The Procreative Behavior Of Marriage? A Legal And Ethical Discussion Triggered By The Problem Of Single Women's Frozen Eggs
, Jie Bai
Jan 2019

儒家如何看待脱離婚姻的生育行為--由單身女性「凍卵」問題引發的法律與倫理討論How Does Confucianism View The Procreative Behavior Of Marriage? A Legal And Ethical Discussion Triggered By The Problem Of Single Women's Frozen Eggs, Jie Bai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In recent years, thanks to the promotion of the status of women and the celebrity effect, the issue of the frozen eggs of single women has become a focus of public opinion, leading to discussion of the reproductive rights of single women in the legal arena. However, single women's frozen eggs are also an ethical issue. The laws and regulations not only involve ethics, but also ethical considerations in the clinical practice of frozen eggs. In today's society, in which the marriage rate and fertility rate continue to decline, many single women choose to freeze their eggs to ...


「知情同意」視角下人工智能用於醫療診斷的透明度問題
The Problem Of The Non-Transparency Of Artificial Intelligence Technologies In Medical Diagnosis: A View Based On Informed Consent
, Hanhui Xu
Jan 2019

「知情同意」視角下人工智能用於醫療診斷的透明度問題The Problem Of The Non-Transparency Of Artificial Intelligence Technologies In Medical Diagnosis: A View Based On Informed Consent, Hanhui Xu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Since the introduction of artificial intelligence technologies in medical diagnosis, ethical issues have emerged. One of these concerns is the "black box," which can only be seen in terms of inputs and outputs, with no way to understand the AI algorithm. This is problematic because patients, physicians, and even designers do not understand why or how a treatment recommendation is produced by AI technologies. In this paper, I argue that AI technologies should be explained on the grounds that patients have a right to informed consent.

隨著人工智能技術在醫療診斷中得到了越來越廣泛的應用,對於其“不透明性”的擔心也日益加重。這種擔心來自人們對人工智能系統的工作機制尚不清楚。在我們還無法知道其内部工作原理的情況下,根據它的診斷對患者進行治療是否可行?本文嘗試從患者知情同意權的角度去論證,應用於醫療診斷的人工智能系統應該更加透明,以避免對患者造成可能的傷害。


世界首例基因編輯嬰兒事件的科學與倫理學思考
Scientific And Ethical Thinking About The World's First Gene-Edited Infant Event
, Deming Fu, Hongqi Wang
Jan 2019

世界首例基因編輯嬰兒事件的科學與倫理學思考Scientific And Ethical Thinking About The World's First Gene-Edited Infant Event, Deming Fu, Hongqi Wang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

This study is based on the announcement by Dr. He Jiankui of Southern University of Science and Technology on November 26, 2018 that a pair of gene-edited babies were born in China in November. It discusses the ethical problems posed by Dr. He's research in CRISPR-based gene editing technology for human embryos, analyzes the scientific and ethical problems in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and choosing CCR5 as the target of anti-AIDS infection, and investigates the feasibility of relevant research. The fact that human genetic material can be irreversibly transformed into a human gene pool presents a huge risk and an ...


從屬性論及關係論看胎兒在道教的道德地位
The Moral Status Of A Fetus In Taoism Based On The Theory Of Attributes And The Theory Of Relationships
, Kim Lung Yu
Jan 2019

從屬性論及關係論看胎兒在道教的道德地位The Moral Status Of A Fetus In Taoism Based On The Theory Of Attributes And The Theory Of Relationships, Kim Lung Yu

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

The West generally focuses on whether a fetus is a human being when discussing its moral status. However, a carefully reading of the Taoist scriptures indicates that this question is less important and may not be the best way to consider the status of the fetus in Taoism. Therefore, this study focuses on the Taoist scriptures, using the approaches of the theory of attributes and the theory of relationships, to determine whether a fetus has a moral status and what it is. It is found that it is not necessary for a fetus to be a human being to have ...


人類的尊嚴、人權和自主性
Dignity Of The Human Species, Human Rights, And Autonomy
, Yaming Li
Jan 2019

人類的尊嚴、人權和自主性Dignity Of The Human Species, Human Rights, And Autonomy, Yaming Li

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Human dignity is a concept with multiple dimensions. Its primary dimension should be the dignity of the human species as a whole. The basis of the dignity of the human species rests on certain essential characteristics of the species, and the moral demand of the dignity of the human species is to maintain and promote these characteristics. In bioethical research, human dignity has often been equated with human rights or autonomy. Some people have even suggested that the concept of human dignity can be replaced with the concept of human rights or autonomy. However, the analysis of the dignity of ...


藏傳佛教與古代藏醫學發展
Tibetan Buddhism And The Development Of Ancient Tibetan Medicine
, Xi Chen
Jan 2019

藏傳佛教與古代藏醫學發展Tibetan Buddhism And The Development Of Ancient Tibetan Medicine, Xi Chen

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

As a traditional ethnic medicine with a long history, Tibetan medicine still has great clinical value today. Tibetan Buddhism played an extremely important role during the development of Tibetan medicine. Closely related to the introduction of ancient Indian Ayurvedic medicine to Tibet, Tibetan Buddhism laid the foundation of the basic theory of the balance between the three factors and seven substances of Tibetan medicine. The celestial burial ceremony was convenient for anatomical research, and the emphasis on medical knowledge during the education of monks further promoted the development of Tibetan medical education. However, Tibetan Buddhism also introduced special religious characteristics ...


導言:換頭術、嗎啡治療、病人自主權
Introduction: Head Transplant, Morphine Treatment And Patient Autonomy
, Ellen Y. Zhang
Jan 2018

導言:換頭術、嗎啡治療、病人自主權Introduction: Head Transplant, Morphine Treatment And Patient Autonomy, Ellen Y. Zhang

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

作為治療方式,器官移植術(organ transplantation)現在已經相當普遍,儘管有此所帶出的一系列有關醫學/生命倫理學的議題還在繼續。然而,作為器官一種的人的大腦,是否可以移植使得器官移植的問題尤為棘手。大腦移植(brain transplant),亦為“全身移植”(whole-body transplant),指將有機物的大腦(或部分大腦)移植到機物的身體。那麼,與大腦移植相關的是“換頭術”(head-transplant)呢?和大腦移植不同的是,換頭或換顱是指整個頭顱的置換手術。


大腦移植對於道德責任歸屬的挑戰:人格同一性判準的反思
Challenges By Brain Transplantation: Criteria For Personal Identity
, Wanling Chou
Jan 2018

大腦移植對於道德責任歸屬的挑戰:人格同一性判準的反思Challenges By Brain Transplantation: Criteria For Personal Identity, Wanling Chou

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Organ transplantation is now accepted as a common medical treatment. However, the potential for the transplantation of the brain, like any other organ, to become technically feasible gives rise to a series of ethical issues. This essay focuses on the challenges to the criteria for personal identity created by medical technology. Does transplantation preserve the integrity of personal identity? If not, how can we define moral accountability? The essay attempts to show that the traditional definition of personal identity in the West is both biologically and psychologically reductive, as it fails to deal with the issue of the preservation of ...


“頭”與“身”:可易乎?——中國古代故事中的頭身關係探討
Head-To-Body Transplant? Stories From Ancient China
, Yan Li, Weidong Xie
Jan 2018

“頭”與“身”:可易乎?——中國古代故事中的頭身關係探討Head-To-Body Transplant? Stories From Ancient China, Yan Li, Weidong Xie

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

A head transplant is an experimental surgical operation involving the grafting of one organism’s head onto the body of another. Since 2017, with the announcement of the Heaven project, the possibility of head transplantation has raised public concern and caused heated ethical debate in China. This essay approaches the discussion from the perspective of the relationship between the head and the body in ancient Chinese literature. The study highlights the traditional Chinese belief in the unity of corporeality and spirituality, with the human mind viewed as the foundational element of personal identity. The essay also interprets stories involving head ...


受苦的心識——從大乘佛教觀點看頭顱移植
The Suffering Consciousness: Head Transplantation From The Perspective Of Mahayana Buddhism
, Chen Liang, Rui Deng
Jan 2018

受苦的心識——從大乘佛教觀點看頭顱移植The Suffering Consciousness: Head Transplantation From The Perspective Of Mahayana Buddhism, Chen Liang, Rui Deng

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

In recent years, “head replacement” or head transplantation has become a controversial issue in medical ethics. The Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero announced that a head transplantation would be carried out in 2018, intensifying debate on medico-technological methods. This essay addresses the issue from the perspective of Mahayana Buddhism, using Buddhist ideas such as consciousness, brain death, karma, and compassion to discuss the incompatibility of modern technology with Buddhist ethics and beliefs. For instance, many Buddhists, Pure Land believers in particular, hold the view that the consciousness does not immediately leave a body pronounced dead. The removal of the head or ...


儒家“誠”基礎上的器官家庭捐獻
Family Priority And Consent In Organ Donation: An Argument Based On The Confucian Idea Of Sincerity
, Yu Cai
Jan 2018

儒家“誠”基礎上的器官家庭捐獻Family Priority And Consent In Organ Donation: An Argument Based On The Confucian Idea Of Sincerity, Yu Cai

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Organ donation is the gift of an organ to help someone who needs a transplant to survive. Yet with limited organs available, the following question arises. Who should be given priority in terms of donation procedures—the individual who has personally committed to offer his/her organs to anyone in need, or the legal next of kin, i.e., family members? This essay approaches this question with reference to the Confucian ethics of sincerity (cheng), which is viewed as a precondition for the ethics of humanness (ren), arguing that family members should be given priority in decisions on organ donation ...


中國第一起嗎啡勝訴案的背後——臨終關懷病人使用嗎啡的儒家倫理問題
Behind The First Legal Case Of Morphine In China—A Confucian Ethic: Reflections On The Use Of Morphine To Treat Terminal Patients
, Sihan Sun
Jan 2018

中國第一起嗎啡勝訴案的背後——臨終關懷病人使用嗎啡的儒家倫理問題Behind The First Legal Case Of Morphine In China—A Confucian Ethic: Reflections On The Use Of Morphine To Treat Terminal Patients, Sihan Sun

International Journal of Chinese & Comparative Philosophy of Medicine

Pain control is one of the most important goals of end-of-life care for cancer patients in the terminal phase. The World Health Organization recommends that morphine be considered optimal and even indispensable as a means of relieving pain and providing palliative care. However, people often associate this opioid with illicit drugs, particularly in the context of Chinese culture, due to its close association with the two Anglo–Chinese Opium Wars of the mid-19th century. In clinical settings, morphine is usually the preferred treatment for moderate or severe cancer-related pain. However, excessive morphine use may result in respiratory depression and death ...