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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

The Role Of Power As Argued By Thomas Hobbes And Primo Levi, Clare Fogarty Apr 2019

The Role Of Power As Argued By Thomas Hobbes And Primo Levi, Clare Fogarty

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

What is most necessary to improve the human condition? Throughout The Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes presents his ideas regarding the essence of humanity and the inclination and desire for power. In parallel to Hobbes’ thinking, Primo Levi explores the nature of human beings during wartime through the actions of characters within his work, Survival in Auschwitz. Through careful examination of the relationships between the individual and society throughout the works of both Hobbes and Levi, I seek to understand the role and limitations of power, within society and as a tool for survival.


Towards A Renewed Mysticism: Epistemic Standards In Theory And Practice, John Cooney Apr 2019

Towards A Renewed Mysticism: Epistemic Standards In Theory And Practice, John Cooney

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This paper seeks to contribute to an important debate in philosophy of religion that asks whether a subject is epistemically justified in forming beliefs about God based on a mystical experience. In this paper, I survey the most prominent standards used to secure epistemic justification and consider their respective strengths and shortcomings. I then compose my own set of criteria to use in evaluating the veridicality of putative mystical experiences which draws upon the subject’s religious tradition, rationality, and affectivity. I defend the utility and efficacy of my criteria by showing how they better capture the well-known and contextually-distinct ...


Polytropic Socrates’ Implicit Defense Of Philosophy: Lying, Justice, And Sophistry In Plato’S Lesser Hippias, Samantha M. Trudeau Apr 2019

Polytropic Socrates’ Implicit Defense Of Philosophy: Lying, Justice, And Sophistry In Plato’S Lesser Hippias, Samantha M. Trudeau

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This paper offers an interpretation of Plato’s Lesser Hippias, about which I make several original claims. First, I contend that the dialogue takes place in front of an unnamed audience composed of Socrates’ students and the dialogue is therefore for their benefit, not that of Hippias or Eudicus. I then argue that Socrates juxtaposes himself to Hippias to show the superiority of philosophy to sophistry; I accomplish this through an examination of the cultural significance of Socrates’ physical description of Hippias at 368 and following. I also claim that the central argument of the dialogue is used to demonstrate ...


For Or Against The People? Republican Violence In Arendt And Machiavelli, Samantha Trudeau Apr 2019

For Or Against The People? Republican Violence In Arendt And Machiavelli, Samantha Trudeau

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This paper explores and analyzes Hannah Arendt's and Niccolò Machiavelli's treatment of violence in republics. It seeks to answer the question: what is the proper role of violence in republican governments? After an examination of the author's arguments, it concludes that violence should be avoided whenever possible and extremely limited in scope when it must be used. Given historical developments, Arendt's solution is judged superior to Machiavelli's.


Exploring The Development Of Moral Value Using Sigmund Freud And Shakespeare's King Lear, Lily Willig Apr 2019

Exploring The Development Of Moral Value Using Sigmund Freud And Shakespeare's King Lear, Lily Willig

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Sigmund Freud concludes in the fourth lecture of his "Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis" that children develop psychosocially in a pattern, learning standards of morality from their parents. "King Lear" is a Shakespearian tragedy that illustrates the role of parents in their children’s lives through the depiction elderly King Lear and his relationship with his favorite daughter Cordelia. Using Freud to consider Lear and Cordelia's relationship I would like to explore what responsibility parents should have in shaping their children’s moral values.


Being And Action: A Metaphysical-Ethical Analysis Of St. Thomas And Friedrich Nietzsche, John Cooney Apr 2019

Being And Action: A Metaphysical-Ethical Analysis Of St. Thomas And Friedrich Nietzsche, John Cooney

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

In this paper, I seek to identify the applicability of the theorem that we only ever act in accord with how we perceive things to be—generally viewed as self-evident until the advent of modernity—to Saint Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica and to Friedrich Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Morals. More specifically, I seek to determine the relationship between these author’s metaphysical presuppositions (or lack thereof) and their respective ethical theories which differ in both content and aim. More generally, I ask: what can the differences in these authors’ metaphysical and ethical beliefs teach us about what we ...


Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers Apr 2019

Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers

Philosophy Undergraduate Theses

This paper addresses the issue of applying moral guidelines to modern scientific research and who or what should have the authority to do so. It examines the role of morality in scientific research, and makes the argument that moral authority over scientific research should come from the scientific community. This argument is based on two premises: (1) that the scientific community is of sufficient moral character to guide the direction of scientific research and (2) that the scientific community has sufficient expertise to make informed moral decisions about scientific research.


A Healthy Discourse, Logan Taylor Apr 2019

A Healthy Discourse, Logan Taylor

Political Science and International Relations Undergraduate Theses

The United States Healthcare System effects every individual in the United States. It is one of the most powerful and lucrative industries in the world today, and it is broken. The ‘system’ started out with good intentions, however, over time it has become distorted by greed. The legislature around the United States Healthcare System has been developed to support this. It fails to regulate costs and charges issued to patients. It fails to regulate big business, allowing pharmaceutical companies to charge what they wish for unique lifesaving drugs, a practice that would be quickly stopped in any other industry. These ...


Moral Judgment: Why Should We Judge And Who Has The Right To?, Megan Moulton Apr 2018

Moral Judgment: Why Should We Judge And Who Has The Right To?, Megan Moulton

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

In this presentation, I explore the origin of the moral authority to judge another person’s wrong actions through the relationships to those involved in the situation. I also argue that moral authority has an aspect grounded in past experience with similar situations and the ability to understand what it means to be held and to hold another morally responsible. The purpose of defining moral authority and its application is determined to be for the moral growth of the perpetrator, until further development is denied, in which case the possible occurrence of manipulation to stay in relation with the unchanging ...


Commitment In Unconventional Relationships, Sarah Hayden Apr 2018

Commitment In Unconventional Relationships, Sarah Hayden

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This research is the study and comparison of two philosopher couples: Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, and John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor. Both partnerships exhibit characteristics of an unconventional relationship. Sartre and de Beauvoir had an open relationship, in which both partners were free to commit unlimited adultery. Mill and Taylor were emotionally committed to each other, while Taylor was legally bound to another man. This research examines the individual decisions and consequences of challenging the institution of marriage set by societal norms. With the current growth of unconventional relationships, whether open, homosexual, or interracial, it is especially ...


Science Fiction And Models Of Humanity, Emily Holland Apr 2018

Science Fiction And Models Of Humanity, Emily Holland

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Science Fiction as a literary genre offers a unique platform for social commentary. It presents plausible scientific advancements as a reality, and then uses this possible future to enter the discussion on society’s current model of humanity. One of the first works of Science Fiction, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus, published in 1818, was written in a time overflowing with new scientific theories and advancements. Two such sciences, galvanism and vitalism, aimed to identify the principle of life in the human body. At the same time, pseudo-psychological theories discussed the psychological aspects of what we call ...


"Utopian Bureaucracy: Collective Empowerment Or Tyrannical Control?”, Callie Glenn Apr 2018

"Utopian Bureaucracy: Collective Empowerment Or Tyrannical Control?”, Callie Glenn

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The evolution of social structures has led to the development of many styles of government, one of them being bureaucracy. One might think that assigning a larger number of people to more specific tasks allows for increased involvement with the governance of your own society, and therefore a decreased chance of corruption or tyranny. While this may be true, these potential benefits come with a dark disfiguration of the individuals within this system, altering the development of their own humanity. This danger to humanity has been identified by a number of influential figures, including Thomas More and Hannah Arendt. More ...


Soft Power Of Deference: An Analysis Of A Key Pillar Of Moral Authority, Luke Kendall Jan 2018

Soft Power Of Deference: An Analysis Of A Key Pillar Of Moral Authority, Luke Kendall

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

When faced with the issue of leadership, we are tasked with finding when it is appropriate to follow. In following, we are deferring our own authority in favor of another’s. The sliding scale of authority teeters between complacency and anarchy, providing a challenge as to where we can find the effective middle ground for a functioning society. This paper breaks down the parts of authority and discusses the necessity of community deference, namely with respect to the rise of a counter-cultural moral authority that seeks to better humanity. Moral authorities rely on a loyal following, from Nelson Mandela’s ...


Gadflies Nibbling, Branan Mull Jan 2018

Gadflies Nibbling, Branan Mull

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

In this paper I examine issues related to public and private “moral authority”, and how this public moral authority interferes with the exercise of private moral authority. This paper explores what public authority is, and why that while in other field it can properly exist, in terms of morality it by its very existence is problematic because 1) it interferes with the exercise of reason in determining ethical action and 2) because it treats the public moral authority as something other than a human being. I then look to several ethical dilemmas as presented by several philosophers and show how ...


Moral Judgment: Why Should We Judge And Who Has The Right To?, Megan Moulton Jan 2018

Moral Judgment: Why Should We Judge And Who Has The Right To?, Megan Moulton

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

In this paper, I explore the origin of the moral authority to judge another person’s wrong actions through the relationships to those involved in the situation. I also argue that moral authority has an aspect grounded in past experience with similar situations and the ability to understand what it means to be held and to hold another morally responsible. The purpose of defining moral authority and its application is determined to be for the moral growth of the perpetrator, until further development is denied, in which case the possible occurrence of manipulation to stay in relation with the unchanging ...


Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers Jan 2018

Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

This paper addresses the issue of applying moral limitations to modern scientific research and who or what has the authority to do so. It examines two opposing positions on the issue: (1) that moral authority over scientific research should be held by society and (2) that moral authority over scientific research should be held by the scientific community. This argument centers around the nature of societal and scientific morality, and how allowing either to hold authority would affect the progression of research. Overall, it concludes that moral authority over scientific research must come from within the scientific community.


Go Your Own Way: The Producer As Moral Author In Entertainment, Taryn Stewart Jan 2018

Go Your Own Way: The Producer As Moral Author In Entertainment, Taryn Stewart

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

Moral authority is a moral derivative of authority, which in turn is connected to religion and tradition. In today’s Western society, both religion and tradition are fragmented in our increasingly diverse society. This is nowhere more apparent than it is in entertainment. So where does moral authority lie in entertainment? Producers in entertainment hold moral authority. Authority is the ability to create action, versus power, which is the ability to force action. Because producers create content, which in turn has the potential to enact change, they possess moral authority. Different producers have differing amounts of moral authority. Disney has ...


Correctional Officers, Step Off The Treadmill Of Power: The Lack Of Moral Authority In U.S. Correctional Officers, Kavida Naidu Jan 2018

Correctional Officers, Step Off The Treadmill Of Power: The Lack Of Moral Authority In U.S. Correctional Officers, Kavida Naidu

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

The abuse of authority and power is commonly encountered in different institutions. Similarly, prisons are not immune to the overuse of authority and power. Correctional officers exercise their authority on inmates in ways that result in a prison culture, which is filled with violence and dehumanization. Correctional officers often consider inmates as morally inferior beings, who deserve to be punished beyond sentence, for the crimes that they have committed are inexcusable. However, the abrasive environment of prisons places correctional officers in a situation where they eventually adopt the prison identity and find themselves trapped in this brutish incarcerated culture. This ...


Moral Authority And Artificial Intelligence, Jacob Souza Jan 2018

Moral Authority And Artificial Intelligence, Jacob Souza

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

This paper looks at the relationship between Artificial intelligence and moral authority. It explores the important concepts related to moral authority, such as power, authority, responsibility, and morality, but also defines what a thinking machine will look like in human society. What the paper determines is that it is difficult to trust machines that do not show emotion, but thinking machines without emotion will still have an important role in society and that when emotional AIs are achievable, they will be able to achieve moral authority.


Being A Part Of Something Bigger: How Leaders Affect Morality, Abra Casey Jan 2018

Being A Part Of Something Bigger: How Leaders Affect Morality, Abra Casey

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

If a person is in a position of leadership then is he or she also responsible to uphold the moral values of the group? This paper argues that people, they are not responsible for morality, rather they become the voice of morality. This is to say that leaders should not develop a new morality on behalf of their group. When leaders do create their own version of morality instead of adhering to an inherent and objective truth such as the golden rule, then their actions ultimately become immoral. Not all leaders actually have this responsibility however. For example, there are ...


The Nature Of Authority In Nature, Sean Cleary Jan 2018

The Nature Of Authority In Nature, Sean Cleary

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

Everything from the clothes we wear to the food we eat is related to the natural world around us. Why do we Montana residents where a fluffy jacket while walking to class in the middle of December? What makes us decide on athletic shorts in July? Although these questions offer a simple response: Montana winters are colder than a Tibetan tin toilet top and Montana summers are hotter than hells pepper patch, they indicate that the natural world influences the way we act on a daily basis. We certainly have the freedom to rock a bikini in the freezing cold ...


Sources Of Moral Authority: Thinking Beyond Religion And Politics, Rhiannon B. Sturgess Jan 2018

Sources Of Moral Authority: Thinking Beyond Religion And Politics, Rhiannon B. Sturgess

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

Religion and politics served as sources of moral authority for centuries, but are limited as such, especially in modern, diverse societies like the United States. Many people feel as though they are not understood, and that their traditional beliefs are not considered when moral decisions are made. Such feelings can incite contempt between people who would otherwise be friends. This lack of harmony can lead to civil unrest and an unhappy society. Therefore, it is important that we strive for a source of moral authority that treats all people as equals. Because not all people can be assumed to operate ...


Power Versus Authority: Sacrifice Lied Or Applied?, Conor Coutts Jan 2018

Power Versus Authority: Sacrifice Lied Or Applied?, Conor Coutts

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

We live in an age that is both desperate for moral authority while simultaneously not knowing what genuine moral authority is. Authority from merely a standard of wealth and political office is not morally legitimate but instead merely powerful. I seek to differentiate between power and authority, asserting that it is through a sense of sacrifice and a disregard for popularity that moral authority is attained. Looking to the Abrahamic faiths that assert such a sacrifice and humility, the life of Christ and subsequent Christian tradition serve as an ideal practice of this. Such a practice of authority and how ...


The Moral Obligation We Have To Our Community To Be Vaccinated, Alexandria Shinaut Apr 2016

The Moral Obligation We Have To Our Community To Be Vaccinated, Alexandria Shinaut

Philosophy Undergraduate Theses

Vaccines have shown to be one of modern medicine’s greatest achievements due to their effectiveness in either greatly limiting or eradicating the spread of many infectious diseases. Vaccines work best to prevent against the spread of disease when the threshold for that vaccine has been met, a phenomenon known as community immunity. This immunity can be met in only one way, through individual immunizations. Knowing these facts, I explain how it is a moral obligation to the community to vaccinate our children and ourselves. My claim for this sense of a moral obligation to our community is supported fully ...


Exercising Power As A Care-Giver, Revisited: An Argument For Virtue And Responsibility In Childcare, Connor Smith Apr 2016

Exercising Power As A Care-Giver, Revisited: An Argument For Virtue And Responsibility In Childcare, Connor Smith

Philosophy Undergraduate Theses

This paper will set forth an argument for the ethical course of action for adult care-givers when dealing with moral issues regarding the children in their care. I will begin by setting the context for this argument by defining how a child differs from an adult as well as the nature of a care-giver. I then attempt to show how the traditional western normative ethical model of consequentialism is inadequate for dealing with situations involving children due to the potential inherent in childhood and the unique relationship between child and care-giver. Although a more modern Rawlsian ethical framework provides a ...


Alcibiades: Why The Politically Ambitious Cannot Be Educated To Philosophic Virtue, Tori Nickol Apr 2016

Alcibiades: Why The Politically Ambitious Cannot Be Educated To Philosophic Virtue, Tori Nickol

Political Science and International Relations Undergraduate Theses

In the Alcibiades I dialogue, Socrates attempts to educate the extremely ambitious and beautiful Alcibiades to a life of philosophic virtue. Despite this education, Alcibiades proceeds to a life of infamy and tyrannical aspirations, which prompts one to ask the question: what are the limits of a political individual in a philosophic life, and vice versa? Ultimately, an examination of the Alcibiades I dialogue reveals that political types generally fail as philosophers because they are dependent on the city for enabling their ignorance. Philosophers, by contrast, cannot be political men because they are too focused on the development of the ...


An Investigation Of The Self As Relational And The Propensity For Evil Produced From Indifference Towards Human Relationships, Jessica Knapp Apr 2015

An Investigation Of The Self As Relational And The Propensity For Evil Produced From Indifference Towards Human Relationships, Jessica Knapp

Philosophy Undergraduate Theses

Provoked by Albert Camus’ The Stranger, this paper explores the connection between evil and an indifference towards human relationships. Relying heavily on Hannah Arendt and Simone de Beauvoir, I offer an understanding of the self as relational and interconnected. Once the human beings are understood as relational, I will then explore how an indifference towards human relationships leads to a higher propensity for evil.


Maurice Merleau-Ponty And Aesthetics: On Perception, Art, And Embodied Existence, Taylor Peliska Apr 2014

Maurice Merleau-Ponty And Aesthetics: On Perception, Art, And Embodied Existence, Taylor Peliska

Philosophy Undergraduate Theses

French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty is one of the 20th century’s greatest phenomenological thinkers. Merleau-Ponty’s main philosophical concern is understanding how humans experience and perceive the world around them. He grounds his thought in phenomenological inquiry and existential ontology, providing a rich understanding of what it means to be a human living in the world. In his examination of human situation in the world, Merleau-Ponty draws from art, in particular the work of French painter, Paul Cézanne, in outlining a theory of aesthetics that brings to light our being in the world as an embodied individual who is immersed ...


Stem Cells: Scientific Progress And Its Ethical Implications, Robert Scanlon Apr 2014

Stem Cells: Scientific Progress And Its Ethical Implications, Robert Scanlon

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

It is maintained by many scientists that stem cell research is an important resource for new discoveries and understanding, especially in the newly developing field of regenerative medicine. However, research involving embryonic and fetal stem cells remains a highly controversial undertaking in today’s world, due to both ethical concerns and skepticism regarding the effectiveness of the treatments obtained through this research. In this thesis, I examine the differing arguments for the continuation of stem cell research, as well as their counter arguments, in an effort to find a compromise between the two positions. Additionally, I examine alternatives to the ...


Potestās Marci Aurelii: Cursus Philosophus, Anna Wirth Apr 2011

Potestās Marci Aurelii: Cursus Philosophus, Anna Wirth

Philosophy Undergraduate Theses

What is it that makes a man who he is? What causes him to make certain decisions - to take certain actions over others? The beliefs and values of a human being are the only reasons for which a free person will act. Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome from 161 to 180 AD, was aware of this fact, and sought to rule his conscious will with supreme reason, the dispassionate thinking process through which decisions are made, in accordance to Nature. A free person is not ruled by emotions, and does not base decisions upon externals at all, but will always ...