Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Philosophy Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Philosophy of Science

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 924

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Questions Concerning Attention And Stiegler’S Therapeutics, Noel Fitzpatrick Jun 2020

Questions Concerning Attention And Stiegler’S Therapeutics, Noel Fitzpatrick

Articles

The article sets out to develop the concept of attention as a key aspect to building the possible therapeutics that Bernard Stiegler’s recent works have pointed to (The Automatic Society, 2016, The Neganthropocene, 2018 and Qu’appelle-t-on Panser, 2018). The therapeutic aspect of pharmacology takes place through processes that are neganthropic; therefore, which attempt to counteract the entropic nature of digital technologies where there is flattening out to the measurable and the calculable of Big Data. The most obvious examples of this flattening out can be seen in relation to the use of natural language processing technologies for text ...


The Found World: The Role Of Findability In The History Of Botany, Douglas Tuers May 2020

The Found World: The Role Of Findability In The History Of Botany, Douglas Tuers

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

This study will investigate how a community of botanists used the findability inherent in botanical localities to rediscover species that were previously lost to botany. This article will look at the literature that announced the rediscovery of three species in the vicinity of White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. These species are Heuchera hispida, Phlox buckleyi, and Gaylussacia brachycera. These three plants were rediscovered over a short period of time, about 13 years from 1919 to 1932. This study will draw from the announcement of these rediscoveries. In each of these cases there was a surrounding literature that preceded or followed ...


Living With Tiny Aliens: The Image Of God For The Anthropocene [Table Of Contents], Adam Pryor May 2020

Living With Tiny Aliens: The Image Of God For The Anthropocene [Table Of Contents], Adam Pryor

Religion

Astrobiology is changing how we understand meaningful human existence. As astrobiologically aware human beings, we must confront our deepened anxiety arising in the face of our own contingency—realizing how deeply tethered we are to the moments this pale blue dot exists in the universe. At the same time, our astrobiological awareness is opening a horizon to the exciting possibility of understanding our humanity in relation not only to a planet burgeoning with life, but a cosmos pregnant with living-possibilities.

Touching upon both these issues, this work provides an approach to astrobiological humanities: helping figure expressive modes by which human ...


Plato's Ban: Why The Poets Are Exiled, Seth J. Gerberding Apr 2020

Plato's Ban: Why The Poets Are Exiled, Seth J. Gerberding

Honors Thesis

This thesis examines Plato’s ban of poetry in the Republic. In particular, I draw a link between Plato’s method for finding the truth, dialectic, and his banishment of the poets. There are three parts to this thesis. First, I analyze dialectic as a process, understanding what the science searches for and how it does so. Second, I analyze poetry and its metaphysical standing and how that influences psychology. Finally, I argue that the design of dialectic has an inherent weakness, a weakness that allows poets and rhetoricians to corrupt former students of dialectic. In Plato’s perfect state ...


Cosmological Models And The Christian Faith In John Milton's Paradise Lost, Jacob R. Taylor Apr 2020

Cosmological Models And The Christian Faith In John Milton's Paradise Lost, Jacob R. Taylor

Tenor of Our Times

In this work the author argues that John Milton justifies the intelligibility and priority of Christian faith against modern revolutions of science in his epic poem Paradise Lost. Milton argues against scientists who choose to believe modern astronomy over cosmology. He argues that Christian faithfulness stands firm despite the crumbling of its medieval cosmological basis. This endurance of the faith is the primary scientific theme of the epic English poem.


Features Of Aspects Of Information Exchange, Donoxon Kalandarova Mar 2020

Features Of Aspects Of Information Exchange, Donoxon Kalandarova

The Light of Islam

This article is dedicated to the ideas, stages and development of an informed society. A number of scientific views and theoretical foundations of the contents, types, types, basic functions and features of the exchange of information, which is one of the main parts of the information society, are analyzed and argued. And also, the scientific views and conclusions of Western and Russian researchers in the field of information security are presented. The article puts forward the ideas of the influence of information on public consciousness and the formation of personal identity.

The author classifies the means of information resources from ...


Trainer's Skills And Organizational Issues As An Impact Of The Process Of Psychological Training, Laylo Toyirova, Dildoraxon Ulmasova Mar 2020

Trainer's Skills And Organizational Issues As An Impact Of The Process Of Psychological Training, Laylo Toyirova, Dildoraxon Ulmasova

The Light of Islam

Nowadays, when life requires processing a huge amount of information, increasing stress tolerance, and adapting a person to new, “unfriendly” conditions of the surrounding social and natural environment, old techniques and methods of activity are of little help. Psychological training, being a system of specially organized intensive exposure, contributing to the solution of many of the pressing problems of both the daily life of people and personnel management. Over the past 10-15 years, psychological training has become one of the most common forms of psychological practice. Since socio-psychological training is aimed at developing healthy communication processes and relationships between people ...


Questions Of Religion And Society In The Works Of Ibn Khaldun, Lazizakhon Abbasovna Alidjanova Mar 2020

Questions Of Religion And Society In The Works Of Ibn Khaldun, Lazizakhon Abbasovna Alidjanova

The Light of Islam

Ibn Khaldun is one of the prominent scholars, studied and created works on religious science in harmony with secular science. His full name - Abdurahman Abu Zayd ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun (b. 1332, Tunisia / died. 1406, Cairo) – Arab historian and philosopher. He is considered as a follower of Ibn Rushd, in 1349-1375 he served in high posts under the rulers of Tunis, Fes, Garnot, Bujojya (Chorus). In 1382 he arrived in Egypt and began to work as a teacher at the local madrasah. Ibn Khaldun was part of the delegation negotiating the conditions for the surrender of the city of Damascus ...


Disease Mongering: How Sickness Sells, Vanessa C. Iroegbulem Mar 2020

Disease Mongering: How Sickness Sells, Vanessa C. Iroegbulem

Augustana Center for the Study of Ethics Essay Contest

“Disease mongering” is the practice of widening diagnostic boundaries of an illness and promoting their public awareness to expand the markets for treatment and to increase profits. This tactic typically used by pharmaceutical companies, medical equipment manufacturers, insurance companies, and even some doctors and patient groups, has become a great concern. Disease mongering has since increased in parallel with “medicalization,” which attempts to label normal human conditions as medical problems, thus becoming the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment. This paper first seeks to examine how an increasing amount of life’s natural conditions and ailments are being ...


Ontological Boundaries Between Humans And Computers And The Implications For Human-Machine Communication, Andrea L. Guzman Feb 2020

Ontological Boundaries Between Humans And Computers And The Implications For Human-Machine Communication, Andrea L. Guzman

Human-Machine Communication

In human-machine communication, people interact with a communication partner that is of a different ontological nature from themselves. This study examines how people conceptualize ontological differences between humans and computers and the implications of these differences for human-machine communication. Findings based on data from qualitative interviews with 73 U.S. adults regarding disembodied artificial intelligence (AI) technologies (voice-based AI assistants, automated-writing software) show that people differentiate between humans and computers based on origin of being, degree of autonomy, status as tool/tool-user, level of intelligence, emotional capabilities, and inherent flaws. In addition, these ontological boundaries are becoming increasingly blurred as ...


Identity And Counterparthood In A Many Worlds Universe, Sophia A.M. Bishop Feb 2020

Identity And Counterparthood In A Many Worlds Universe, Sophia A.M. Bishop

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics - arguably our most powerfully predictive scientific theory to date - describes a branching Universe composed of an infinite number of quasi-classical macroscopic physical worlds. Though elegant in its straightforward rendering of the mechanics, the Many Worlds Interpretation presents a challenge for understanding identity over time. If we wish to preserve the notion of strict numerical identity, we are faced with the choice between: denying the transitivity of identity; very short-lived lives with near constant death; or accepting that the world is filled with many more individuals than we previously dreamed. In adopting a perdurantist ...


Objectivity, Dagfinn Føllesdal Jan 2020

Objectivity, Dagfinn Føllesdal

Comparative Philosophy

No abstract provided.


Martin Luther King Jr. And Ernest Everett Just - On Evolution Of Ethical Behavior, Theodore Walker Jan 2020

Martin Luther King Jr. And Ernest Everett Just - On Evolution Of Ethical Behavior, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. prescribed an evolutionary advance in ethical behavior: the total “abolition of poverty” and the abolition of war throughout “the world house.” Cell biologist Ernest Everett Just advanced the idea that human ethical behavior evolved from cellular origins.

Also, astrobiologists Chandra Wickramasinghe and Sir Fred Hoyle advanced the idea of cosmic biology, including stellar evolution and cosmic evolution. From cells to humans to stars and cosmology, evolutionary natural science converges with natural theology.


The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr. Jan 2020

The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr.

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Abstract –

E. E. Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in cell biology, and he is perhaps the pioneer in study of egg cell fertilization. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general biology and evolutionary bioethics.

Within Just’s published contributions to observational cell biology, there are substantial fragments of his theory of ethical behavior, a theory with roots in cell biology. In addition to such previously available fragments, Just’s fully developed theory is now available. This recently discovered unpublished book-length manuscript argues for the biological origins of ethical behavior (evolving from cells to humans, within ...


Ecological Investigations: A Phenomenology Of Habitats, Adam Konopka Jan 2020

Ecological Investigations: A Phenomenology Of Habitats, Adam Konopka

Faculty Scholarship

These investigations identify and clarify some basic

assumptions and methodological principles involved in

ecological explanations of plant associations. How are

plants geographically distributed into characteristic groups?

What are the basic conditions that organize groups of

interspecific plant populations that are characteristic of

particular kinds of habitats? Answers to these questions

concerning the geographical distribution of plants in late

19th century European plant geography and early 20th

century American plant ecology can be distinguished

according to differing logical assumptions concerning the

habitats of plant associations.


Pluralistic Perspectives On Logic: An Introduction, Colin R. Caret, Teresa Kouri Kissel Jan 2020

Pluralistic Perspectives On Logic: An Introduction, Colin R. Caret, Teresa Kouri Kissel

Philosophy Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) Logical pluralism is the view that there are distinct, but equally good logics. Recent years have witnessed a sharp upswing of interest in this view, resulting in an impressive literature. We only expect this trend to continue in the future. More than one commentator has, however, expressed exasperation at the view: what can it mean to be a pluralist about logic of all things? [see, e.g., Eklund (2017); Goddu (2002); Keefe (2014)]. In this introduction, we aim to set out the basic pluralist position, identify some issues over which pluralists disagree amongst themselves, and highlight the topics ...


Ancient Wisdom And Future Medicine: A Defense Of The Science Of Ayurveda, Michael Eatmon Jan 2020

Ancient Wisdom And Future Medicine: A Defense Of The Science Of Ayurveda, Michael Eatmon

Master of Liberal Studies Theses

A growing number of people turn to Ayurveda as a complement or an alternative to conventional Western medicine. What are they turning to—a genuine medical science or a patent pseudoscience? This paper claims that modern Ayurvedic medicine is a genuine science with a promising future.


Minds Without Spines: Evolutionarily Inclusive Animal Ethics, Irina Mikhalevich, Russell Powell Jan 2020

Minds Without Spines: Evolutionarily Inclusive Animal Ethics, Irina Mikhalevich, Russell Powell

Animal Sentience

Invertebrate animals are frequently lumped into a single category and denied welfare protections despite their considerable cognitive, behavioral, and evolutionary diversity. Some ethical and policy inroads have been made for cephalopod molluscs and crustaceans, but the vast majority of arthropods, including the insects, remain excluded from moral consideration. We argue that this exclusion is unwarranted given the existing evidence and plausible concepts of moral standing. Yet anachronistic, value-laden readings of evolution still view invertebrates as lower in the scala naturae. There persists the a priori assumption that small brains are unlikely to support cognition or sentience, despite the growing evidence ...


Conditions Of Ensuring The Information-Psychological Security Of The Person, Baxriddin Umarov Dec 2019

Conditions Of Ensuring The Information-Psychological Security Of The Person, Baxriddin Umarov

The Light of Islam

The aim of the article is to reveal some of the socio-psychological capabilities of protecting a person from informationalpsychological threats. The article discusses the psychological possibilities of information and psychological security of a person. Humanity lives in the era of information technology, which accelerated the flow of information, which can change the mood, goals and aspirations of the people of the world, as well as the whole way of thinking. The article also notes that with the transition of mankind to the 21st century, it has been noted with unprecedented growth and quality of information, and today the impact, as ...


In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber Oct 2019

In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years both philosophers and scientists have asked whether or not our current kinds of mental disorder—e.g., schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder—are natural kinds; and, moreover, whether or not the search for natural kinds of mental disorder is a realistic desideratum for psychiatry. In this dissertation I clarify the sense in which a kind can be said to be “natural” or “real” and argue that, despite a few notable exceptions, kinds of mental disorder cannot be considered natural kinds. Furthermore, I contend that psychopathological phenomena do not cluster together into kinds in the way that paradigmatic natural ...


Non-Empirical Modelling And Theorizing: Scientific Progress In Particle Physics, Cristin Cain Chall Oct 2019

Non-Empirical Modelling And Theorizing: Scientific Progress In Particle Physics, Cristin Cain Chall

Theses and Dissertations

Particle physics (and other fundamental physics research, including searches for a theory of quantum gravity) faces a problem when it comes to acquiring experimental evidence. Many theories and models make predictions that cannot be tested with current, or even prospective technology. Yet these fields continue to develop, with new models and theories regularly being introduced, scrutinized, changed, and discarded. My project aims at examining the way theories and models are constructed, adapted, and assessed in fields that lack the empirical evidence that usually grounds such tasks. I will focus on two prominent examples: string theory and attempts to explain electroweak ...


Some Non-Human Languages Of Thought, Nicolas J. Porot Sep 2019

Some Non-Human Languages Of Thought, Nicolas J. Porot

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

What might we learn if we take seriously the possibility of non-human Languages of Thought (LoT)? A LoT is a combinatorial set of mental representations. And, since mental representations and rules of combination vary in kind, there are many possible LoTs. Simple LoTs might lack familiar features of the putative human LoT, such as object representations, recursively defined rules of combination, sentential connectives, or predicate-argument structure. The most familiar arguments for the existence of LoTs, such as those from productivity, systematicity, concept learning, and perceptual computation, all fail when applied to non-human animals. But recent empirical evidence motivates attributing LoTs ...


Is Ai Intelligent, Really?, Bruce D. Baker Aug 2019

Is Ai Intelligent, Really?, Bruce D. Baker

SPU Works

The question of intelligence opens up a bouquet of interrelated questions:

Suppose that some future AGI systems (on-screen or robots) equaled human performance. Would they have real intelligence, real understanding, real creativity? Would they have selves, moral standing, free choice? Would they be conscious? And without consciousness, could they have any of those other properties?[1]

The only way out of the morass is to recognize that truth claims do not stand on their own, aloof and cut off from the sea of meaning which grants epistemic access. In other words, truth presumes access to: (1) a way of knowing ...


Theory Construction In High-Energy Particle Physics, Adam Koberinski Aug 2019

Theory Construction In High-Energy Particle Physics, Adam Koberinski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Science is a process, through which theoretical frameworks are developed, new phenomena defined and discovered, and properties of entities tested. The goal of this dissertation is to illustrate how high-energy physics exemplified the process of theory construction from the 1950s to 1970s, and the promising ways in which it can continue to do so today. The lessons learned from the case studies examined here can inform future physics, and may provide methodological clues as to the best way forward today. I examine the discovery of parity nonconservation in weak interactions, the emergence of Yang-Mills theories as the foundation of the ...


Post–Modern Epidemiology: When Methods Meet Matter, George Davey Smith Aug 2019

Post–Modern Epidemiology: When Methods Meet Matter, George Davey Smith

Public Health Resources

In the last third of the 20th century, etiological epidemiology within academia in high-income countries shifted its primary concern from attempting to tackle the apparent epidemic of noncommunicable diseases to an increasing focus on developing statistical and causal inference methodologies. This move was mutually constitutive with the failure of applied epidemiology to make major progress, with many of the advances in understanding the causes of noncommunicable diseases coming from outside the discipline, while ironically revealing the infectious origins of several major conditions. Conversely, there were many examples of epidemiologic studies promoting ineffective interventions and little evident attempt to account for ...


Maths Living In Social Arenas, From Practice To Foundations, Nigel Vinckier Jul 2019

Maths Living In Social Arenas, From Practice To Foundations, Nigel Vinckier

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Maths comes to life in human interaction. This has consequences for the mathematics itself. This paper discusses how this ``coming to life'' of mathematics in different social arenas influences the foundations of maths. We will argue that this influence is profound, to the extent that it is hard to upkeep the idea that there is or should be one foundation on which all mathematics can be built.


Millennial Moms : Social Media As The Preferred Source Of Information About Parenting In Indonesia, Yuanita Setyastuti, Jenny Ratna Suminar, Purwanti Hadisiwi, Feliza Zubair Jul 2019

Millennial Moms : Social Media As The Preferred Source Of Information About Parenting In Indonesia, Yuanita Setyastuti, Jenny Ratna Suminar, Purwanti Hadisiwi, Feliza Zubair

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study aims to know about how social media is the preferred source of information about parenting on millennial moms or young mothers in Indonesia. This research was conducted using a quantitative approach through survey. The survey was conducted by using a questionnaire distributed online to the respondents via Facebook. The measuring is clarified by six dimensions: rejection, punishment, support, responsiveness, autonomy, and warmth. The sampling technique is done by accidental sampling techniques with strict criteria. The sample size were 443 social media users that meet the research criteria. Research criteria are a mother that born in 1980-2000s and actively ...


Rethinking Individuality In Quantum Mechanics, Nathan Moore Jul 2019

Rethinking Individuality In Quantum Mechanics, Nathan Moore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

One recent debate in philosophy of physics has centered whether quantum particles are individuals or not. The received view is that particles are not individuals and the standard methodology is to approach the question via the structure of quantum theory. I challenge both the received view and the standard methodology. I contend not only that the structure of quantum theory is not the right place to look for conditions of individuality that quantum particles may or may not satisfy, but also that there is an important role for traditional metaphysics to play. Consequently, my work brings together the philosophy of ...


On Separating The Wheat From The Chaff: Surplus Structure And Artifacts In Scientific Theories, Marie Gueguen Jul 2019

On Separating The Wheat From The Chaff: Surplus Structure And Artifacts In Scientific Theories, Marie Gueguen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although logical empiricism is now mostly decried, their naturalist claim that the content of a theory can be read off from its structure, without any philosophical considerations needed, still supports traditional strategies to escape cases of underdetermination. The appeal to theoretical equivalence or to theoretical virtues, for instance, both assume that there is a neutral standpoint from which the structure of the theories can be analyzed, the physically relevant from the superfluous separated, and a comparison made between their theoretical content and virtues. In my dissertation, I examine the presuppositions upon which such strategies depend. I argue that the methodological ...


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker Jul 2019

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...