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Life Sciences

2014

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

The Effects Of Temperature And Daylength On The Rosa Polyphenism In The Buckeye Butterfly, Precis Coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Kelly C. Smith Dec 2014

The Effects Of Temperature And Daylength On The Rosa Polyphenism In The Buckeye Butterfly, Precis Coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Kelly C. Smith

Kelly C Smith

In North Carolina, Precis coenia that emerge during the Summer months exhibit a ventral hindwing (VHW) with well-defined reddish-brown and brown pattern elements on a light tan background. During late Summer and early Fall, however, individuals begin to appear with poorly defined or obscured pattern elements on a dark reddish-brown background. The present study shows that the Fall (rosa) color morph can be induced by either low rearing temperatures or short daylengths. The effect of such conditions seems to be cumulative throughout the larval life, although animals are much more sensitive during the last 24 hours of larval life and ...


Argument Map: Loewi's Argument That Neuro-Transmission Works With Chemical Signals Instead Of Eletrical (Short Version), Michael Hoffmann Dec 2014

Argument Map: Loewi's Argument That Neuro-Transmission Works With Chemical Signals Instead Of Eletrical (Short Version), Michael Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This argument shows how the hypothesis that muscles are probably stimulated exclusively by chemical signals and not by electrical ones can be justified by Loewi's experimentum crucis.


Hypothesis Generation And Testing: A Template For Biomedical Research, Michael Hoffmann Dec 2014

Hypothesis Generation And Testing: A Template For Biomedical Research, Michael Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This argument map provides a template for the testing of hypotheses in biomedical research. It can be used in science education to direct students' attention to all components that need to be clarified to justify a scientific hypothesis in a specific experimental setting, including the justification of appropriate sample sizes in experiments, determination of background theories, description of experimental design, data collection methods, significance level, etc. To use this template, go to http://agora.gatech.edu/, search for argument map 3363, and copy the map.


Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein Nov 2014

Rationality, Legitimacy, & The Law, Daniel Z. Epstein

Washington University Jurisprudence Review

American legal realism was committed to examining legal reasoning in terms of the actual experiences of judges. Because the realist project sought to use social science tools to examine human nature, the contemporary rise of cognitive neuroscience provides an occasion for re-examining legal realism’s foundational critique of the law. Realism’s attempt to examine “the actual facts of judicial behavior” and to pursue a “scientific description and prediction of judicial behavior” appears to be a suitable vehicle for considering the relevance of cognitive neuroscience for legal theory. Cognitive neuroscience has provided convincing evidence for rejecting the traditional bifurcation between ...


Argument Map: Devoloping Scientific Hypotheses And Experimental Designs In Form Of An Argumentation. Loewi's Crucial Experiment On Chemical Neurotransmission, Michael Hoffmann Nov 2014

Argument Map: Devoloping Scientific Hypotheses And Experimental Designs In Form Of An Argumentation. Loewi's Crucial Experiment On Chemical Neurotransmission, Michael Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This argument map presents Paul Loewi’s crucial experiment in which he showed that neural transmissions of signals are chemical in nature, not electrical, in form of an argumentation. The map can be used in science education to show how the formulation of hypotheses should be related to a corresponding determination of experimental designs.


Hear After: Matters Of Life And Death In David Tudor’S Electronic Music, You Nakai Sep 2014

Hear After: Matters Of Life And Death In David Tudor’S Electronic Music, You Nakai

communication +1

In David Tudor’s electronic music, home-brew modular devices were carefully connected together to form complex feedback networks wherein all components—including the composer/performer himself—could only partially ‘influence’ one another. Once activated, the very instability of mismatched connections between the components triggered a cascade of signals and signal modulations, so that the work “composed itself,” and took “a life of its own.” Due to this self-producing, perpetuating nature of his works, Tudor insisted on what he called “the view from inside,” focusing more on the internal observation of his devices and sound than in materials external to the ...


Hsisp Annotated Bibliography: Moral & Character Education (1998-2013), Erich Yahner Sep 2014

Hsisp Annotated Bibliography: Moral & Character Education (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Erich Yahner

No abstract provided.


A Philosophical Analysis Of Ethics Education In The Canadian National Coaching Certification Program For Rowing, Mark M. Williams Aug 2014

A Philosophical Analysis Of Ethics Education In The Canadian National Coaching Certification Program For Rowing, Mark M. Williams

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation applies a conception of rationality from the philosophy of science to the coaching education context. The purpose of this dissertation is to present an account of how the exercise of judgment by coaches facing ethical dilemmas can be rational. The discussion in this dissertation begins with a traditional account of rationality that has long been a staple of moral philosophy. Next, the influence of this model in the current Canadian rowing coach education program are highlighted, as are its limitations in providing a complete account of rational ethical-decision making in the coaching context. After establishing these limitations, an ...


Facing The Wreck: Death, Optimism, And The Fragmented Form, Rachael Marie Schaffner Aug 2014

Facing The Wreck: Death, Optimism, And The Fragmented Form, Rachael Marie Schaffner

Theses and Dissertations

Walter Benjamin described history as a winged angel who faces backwards, staring perpetually into the past as the violent winds of destiny carry him into the future (Illuminations). Despite a western, post-enlightenment myth of eternal progress, the wreckage of human contributions to history is clearly evident in our 21st-century understanding of anthropogenic impact on global ecology. In the context of these ecological crises (and the resulting political and economic questions), postmodern novels reveal a powerful ability to imagine different ways of living and interacting with the world. This thesis traces the relationship between fragmentation, death, and liminal experiences through Frederick ...


Letters + Numbers = Symbols, Gabriel Leiner Jul 2014

Letters + Numbers = Symbols, Gabriel Leiner

Gabriel Leiner

A philosophical editorial column for magazine publication based on experiences in Queens, New York, gathered through interviews, late night park chess games, and various travels on trains and subways. The column touches upon the ideas of learning and classifying information by quantifying it, versus using emotion, feeling and experience to understand information. As a possible solution, the column suggests symbols and colors as perhaps better, or perhaps more advanced ways of classifying things, communicating and learning.


Scientists And Animal Research: Dr. Jekyll Or Mr. Hyde?, Andrew N. Rowan Jun 2014

Scientists And Animal Research: Dr. Jekyll Or Mr. Hyde?, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, D.Phil.

Why is the public so sensitive about the use of a few tens of millions of animals in research when they do not object to killing hundreds of millions of pigs and cows and billions of chickens for our meat diet? Why is animal research considered so bad despite the public's high opinion of science (and scientists)? Perhaps it is the image of the scientist as an objective and cold individual who deliberately inflicts harm (pain, distress, or death) on his (the public image is usually male) innocent animal victims that arouses so much horror and concern. This paper ...


Animal Pleasure And Its Moral Significance, Jonathan Balcombe Jun 2014

Animal Pleasure And Its Moral Significance, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

This paper presents arguments for, and evidence in support of, the important role of pleasure in animals’ lives, and outlines its considerable significance to humankind’s relationship to other animals. In the realms of animal sentience, almost all scholarly discussion revolves around its negative aspects: pain, stress, distress, and suffering. By contrast, the positive aspects of sentience – rewards and pleasures – have been rarely broached by scientists. Yet, evolutionary principles predict that animals, like humans, are motivated to seek rewards, and not merely to avoid pain and suffering. Natural selection favours behaviours that enhance survival and procreation. In the conscious, sentient ...


Painting And Stuff, Lol, Sopearb Touch May 2014

Painting And Stuff, Lol, Sopearb Touch

Graduate School of Art Theses

Our own human experience is a distinct realm which can never be precisely duplicated in another lifetime. It frames our whole view of existence and, as artists, affects our art making process. The theory of the Tabula Rasa functions as the inspiration of my work and this writing examines my personal view of growing up in the internet age and America, and how my view of life, as well as artistic practice, is shaped by a consumerist culture that has gone global. Additionally, as a figurative painter, I create a context with other artists who create work about their own ...


The Applicability Of The Self-Fulfillment Account Of Welfare To Nonhuman Animals, Babies, And Mentally Disabled Humans, Tatjana Visak, Jonathan Balcombe May 2014

The Applicability Of The Self-Fulfillment Account Of Welfare To Nonhuman Animals, Babies, And Mentally Disabled Humans, Tatjana Visak, Jonathan Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

In this paper we will argue that generality is a virtue of Haybron’s account of welfare. Indeed, reflecting on the applicability of his theory to nonhuman animals will give us a better understanding of its applicability to humans. We will first focus on self-fulfillment and suggest an interpretation of Haybron’s account according to which the self-fulfillment of an individual consists in the fulfillment of the aspects of the self that are applicable to that particular individual. This makes Haybron’s account of welfare applicable to all sentient beings. Then we will focus on sub-personal nature-fulfillment and argue that ...


Schrödinger And Nietzsche And Life: Eternal Recurrence And The Conscious Now, Babette Babich May 2014

Schrödinger And Nietzsche And Life: Eternal Recurrence And The Conscious Now, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

The phenomenological question of consciousness usually associated with Husserl (although there are echoes of this in Augustine as in Marcus Aurelius, Kant and Schopenhauer), is the consciousness of the now, the present moment. I explore this consciousness for Erwin Schrödinger, which for him included reference to the Upaniṣads together with Nietzsche’s central teaching or “thinking” of the eternal recurrence of the same.


Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, And Culture, Gábor Náray-Szabó Mar 2014

Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, And Culture, Gábor Náray-Szabó

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

In his article "Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, and Culture" Gábor Náray-Szabó argues that evolution is conservative in the sense that throughout the history of the universe old constructs like elementary particles, amino acids, and living cells remained conserved while the world evolved/evolves in complexity. A similar process can be observed in cultural evolution as components of society and culture continue to evolve. Considering the increasing pressure on natural resources by material consumption, a close alliance between past, present, and future generations is unavoidable and thus Náray-Szabó posits that concepts of conservative evolution and sustainability are related. However, in order to ...


The Evolutionary Function Of Conscious Information Processing Is Revealed By Its Task-Dependency In The Olfactory System, Andreas Keller Feb 2014

The Evolutionary Function Of Conscious Information Processing Is Revealed By Its Task-Dependency In The Olfactory System, Andreas Keller

Publications and Research

Although many responses to odorous stimuli are mediated without olfactory information being consciously processed, some olfactory behaviors require conscious information processing. I will here contrast situations in which olfactory information is processed consciously to situations in which it is processed non-consciously. This contrastive analysis reveals that conscious information processing is required when an organism is faced with tasks in which there are many behavioral options available. I therefore propose that it is the evolutionary function of conscious information processing to guide behaviors in situations in which the organism has to choose between many possible responses.


The Failure Of Evolution In Antiquity, Devin Henry Jan 2014

The Failure Of Evolution In Antiquity, Devin Henry

Devin Henry

This paper traces the emergence and rejection of evolutionary thinking in antiquity. It examines Empedocles' original theory of evolution and why his ideas failed to gain traction among his predecessors.


Moving To A New Paradigm: A Reflection On Ethics, Sara Bajor '15 Jan 2014

Moving To A New Paradigm: A Reflection On Ethics, Sara Bajor '15

Richard T. Schellhase Essay Prize in Ethics

No abstract provided.


A Genealogy Of Ecological Rhetoric: Heraclitus, Bacon, Darwin And Huxley, Jared Grogan Jan 2014

A Genealogy Of Ecological Rhetoric: Heraclitus, Bacon, Darwin And Huxley, Jared Grogan

Wayne State University Dissertations

This dissertation is a genealogical study of historical intersections between rhetoric and ecology. Studying the works of Heraclitus, Francis Bacon, T.H. Huxley and Darwin as "bridge figures" in the history of rhetoric, science and ecological thought, I examine how their rhetorical theories and strategies (as discursive practices, performances and techniques) form a genealogy that bridges rhetorical and ecological theories and practices. My analysis studies their critical assessments and uses of rhetoric as it intersects with each figure's new investigations into natural philosophy, nature, and evolutionary biology, while drawing out relevant lessons for contemporary ecological and rhetorical thinkers. The ...


Review Of Darwinism And The Divine: Evolutionary Thought And Natural Theology, Timothy Shanahan Jan 2014

Review Of Darwinism And The Divine: Evolutionary Thought And Natural Theology, Timothy Shanahan

Philosophy Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Rare Books And Social Science, Donald J. Polzella Jan 2014

Rare Books And Social Science, Donald J. Polzella

Psychology Faculty Publications

An essay on the impact of the works in the Imprints and Impressions: Milestones in Human Progress, an exhibition of rare books from the collection of Stuart Rose. Exhibition was held Sept. 29-Nov. 9, 2014, at the University of Dayton.


Scholars Day Program Of Events 2014, Carl Goodson Honors Program Jan 2014

Scholars Day Program Of Events 2014, Carl Goodson Honors Program

Scholars Day

No abstract provided.


Emergence, Scale, And The Layered Model Of Biological Systems, Katie Morrow Jan 2014

Emergence, Scale, And The Layered Model Of Biological Systems, Katie Morrow

Honors Projects

The layered model of the world—the view that the physical universe is in some important sense ontologically stratified into levels—has commonly been applied in a variety of philosophical contexts, particularly in discussions of reductionism about causation, properties, or theories in science. In this paper I question whether this model, as traditionally understood, adequately reflects a contemporary scientific understanding of the world. Utilizing the layered model, philosophers have tended to focus on composition as the salient interlevel relationship, and to describe systems at temporal instants; while biologists stress the importance of the spatiotemporal scale of description and the environment ...


Integral Agriculture: Taking Seriously The Mindset Of The Farmer, The Interiority Of The Beings On The Farm, And A Metaphysics That Connects Them, Travis E. B. Cox Jan 2014

Integral Agriculture: Taking Seriously The Mindset Of The Farmer, The Interiority Of The Beings On The Farm, And A Metaphysics That Connects Them, Travis E. B. Cox

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the steady increase in the market share of organic food over the last 30 years, some farmers have switched from "conventional" to "sustainable" agricultural practices in order to capitalize on those new markets. Are the practices the only things that need to change?

Building off of Warwick Fox's conception of "transpersonal ecology," transpersonal agroecology (TPAE) is the name given to a proposed alternative mindset of the farmer derived from various alternative agricultural theorists of the last 100 years. These writers oppose the scientism and economism that typify industrial agriculture, subscribe to the notion that experiences of "identification" between ...


Books And Our Human Stories, Paul H. Benson Jan 2014

Books And Our Human Stories, Paul H. Benson

Philosophy Faculty Publications

An essay on the impact of the works in the Imprints and Impressions: Milestones in Human Progress, an exhibition of rare books from the collection of Stuart Rose. Exhibition was held Sept. 29-Nov. 9, 2014, at the University of Dayton.


Psychotherapy And The Embodiment Of The Neuronal Identity: A Hermeneutic Study Of Louis Cozolino's (2010) The Neuroscience Of Psychotherapy: Healing The Social Brain , Ari Simon Natinsky Jan 2014

Psychotherapy And The Embodiment Of The Neuronal Identity: A Hermeneutic Study Of Louis Cozolino's (2010) The Neuroscience Of Psychotherapy: Healing The Social Brain , Ari Simon Natinsky

Dissertations & Theses

In recent years, there have been several ways in which researchers have attempted to integrate psychotherapy and neuroscience research. Neuroscience has been proposed as a method of addressing lingering questions about how best to integrate psychotherapy theories and explain their efficacy. For example, some psychotherapy outcome studies have included neuroimaging of participants in order to propose neurobiological bases of effective psychological interventions (e.g., Paquette et al., 2003). Other theorists have used cognitive neuroscience research to suggest neurobiological correlates of various psychotherapy theories and concepts (e.g., Schore, 2012). These efforts seem to embody broader historical trends, including the hope ...