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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Hypothesis Generation And Testing: A Template For Biomedical Research, Michael Hoffmann Dec 2014

Hypothesis Generation And Testing: A Template For Biomedical Research, Michael Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This argument map provides a template for the testing of hypotheses in biomedical research. It can be used in science education to direct students' attention to all components that need to be clarified to justify a scientific hypothesis in a specific experimental setting, including the justification of appropriate sample sizes in experiments, determination of background theories, description of experimental design, data collection methods, significance level, etc. To use this template, go to http://agora.gatech.edu/, search for argument map 3363, and copy the map.


Understanding Ill-Structured Engineering Ethics Problems Through A Collaborative Learning And Argument Visualization Approach, Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Jason Borenstein Feb 2013

Understanding Ill-Structured Engineering Ethics Problems Through A Collaborative Learning And Argument Visualization Approach, Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Jason Borenstein

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE’s insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in ...


Understanding Controversies And Ill-Structured Problems Through Argument Visualization. Curriculum And Learning Materials For Problem-Based Learning In Small Groups Of Students Who Work Autonomously On Projects With The Interactive Agora Software, Including An Exemplary Reader On Genetically Modified Plants, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Dec 2011

Understanding Controversies And Ill-Structured Problems Through Argument Visualization. Curriculum And Learning Materials For Problem-Based Learning In Small Groups Of Students Who Work Autonomously On Projects With The Interactive Agora Software, Including An Exemplary Reader On Genetically Modified Plants, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

No abstract provided.


Cognitive Effects Of Argument Visualization Tools, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2011

Cognitive Effects Of Argument Visualization Tools, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

External representations play a crucial role in learning. At the same time, cognitive load theory suggests that the possibility of learning depends on limited resources of the working memory and on cognitive load imposed by instructional design and representation tools. Both these observations motivate a critical look at Computer-Supported Argument Visualization (CSAV) tools that are supposed to facilitate learning. This paper uses cognitive load theory to compare the cognitive efficacy of RationaleTM 2 and AGORA.


“Theoric Transformations” And A New Classification Of Abductive Inferences, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2010

“Theoric Transformations” And A New Classification Of Abductive Inferences, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Based on a definition of “abductive insight” and a critical discussion of G. Schurz’s (2008) distinction of eleven “patterns of abduction” that he organizes in four groups, I suggest an even more comprehensive classification that distinguishes 15 forms in an alternative structure. These forms are organized, on the one hand, with regard to what is abductively inferred—singular facts; types; laws; theoretical models; or representation systems—and, on the other, with regard to the question whether the abductive procedure is selective or creative (including a distinction between “psychologically creative,” as in school learning, or “historically creative”). Moreover, I argue ...


Lam Map Of Nagel's Core Argument In "The Problem Of Global Justice" (2005), Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2010

Lam Map Of Nagel's Core Argument In "The Problem Of Global Justice" (2005), Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This map is also available online: http://tinyurl.com/23vweqm


Lam Map Of Thomas Nagel (2005), The Problem Of Global Justice, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2010

Lam Map Of Thomas Nagel (2005), The Problem Of Global Justice, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This map is also available online: http://tinyurl.com/22o9q9q


The Debate About The Stern-Review And The Economics Of Climate Change, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2010

The Debate About The Stern-Review And The Economics Of Climate Change, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This map is -- in a different form, with linked sub-maps -- also available online: http://tinyurl.com/y9jlsxv


Argument Visualization In The Political Arena: The Debate On Global Climate Engineering, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2009

Argument Visualization In The Political Arena: The Debate On Global Climate Engineering, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

A map that shows a certain point in a fictitious deliberation which is supposed to be ongoing and open-ended, driven by the motive of participants to support or to criticize any of the assumptions mapped out so far by further arguments. This map is mainly based on recent publications on geo-engineering


Learning From People, Things, And Signs, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2007

Learning From People, Things, And Signs, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Starting from the observation that small children can count more objects than numbers—a phenomenon that I am calling the “lifeworld dependency of cognition”—and an analysis of finger calculation, the paper shows how learning can be explained as the development of cognitive systems. Parts of those systems are not only an individual's different forms of knowledge and cognitive abilities, but also other people, things, and signs. The paper argues that cognitive systems are first of all semiotic systems since they are dependent on signs and representations as mediators. The two main questions discussed here are how the external ...


The Complementarity Of A Representational And An Epistemological Function Of Signs In Scientific Activity, Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Wolff-Michael Roth Jan 2007

The Complementarity Of A Representational And An Epistemological Function Of Signs In Scientific Activity, Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Wolff-Michael Roth

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Signs do not only “represent” something for somebody, as Peirce’s definition goes, but also “mediate” relations between us and our world, including ourselves, as has been elaborated by Vygotsky. We call the first the representational function of a sign and the second the epistemological function since in using signs we make distinctions, specify objects and relations, structure our observations, and organize societal and cognitive activity. The goal of this paper is, on the one hand, to develop a model in which both these functions appear as complementary and, on the other, to show that this complementarity is essential for ...


Limits Of Truth: Exploring Epistemological Approaches To Argumentation, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2005

Limits Of Truth: Exploring Epistemological Approaches To Argumentation, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Some proponents of epistemological approaches to argumentation (Biro, Siegel, Lumer, Goldman) assume that it should be possible to develop non-relative criteria of argument evaluation. By contrast, this paper argues that any evaluation of an argument depends (a) on the cognitive situation of the evaluator, (b) on background knowledge that is available for this evaluator in a certain situation, and (c)—in some cases—on the belief-value-system this person shares.


Logical Argument Mapping: A Method For Overcoming Cognitive Problems Of Conflict Management, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2005

Logical Argument Mapping: A Method For Overcoming Cognitive Problems Of Conflict Management, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

A crucial problem of conflict management is that whatever happens in negotiations will be interpreted and framed by stakeholders based on their different belief-value systems and world views. This problem will be discussed in the first part of this article as the main cognitive problem of conflict management. The second part develops a general semiotic solution of this problem, based on Charles Peirce's concept of "diagrammatic reasoning." The basic idea is that by representing one 's thought in diagrams, the conditions that determine interpretations can become visible, we can "experiment" with them, and we can change them eventually. The ...


What You Should Know To Survive In Knowledge Societies. On A Semiotic Understanding Of 'Knowledge', Michael H.G. Hoffmann Dec 2004

What You Should Know To Survive In Knowledge Societies. On A Semiotic Understanding Of 'Knowledge', Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Different situations - like school and workplace - demand different forms of knowledge. Even more important, in particular for lifelong learning, are forms of knowledge we need for managing movements between those situations. To develop a better understanding of how to 'navigate' knowledge boundaries, this paper analyzes, firstly, interviews with scientists interpreting familiar and unfamiliar graphs. Our goal is to identify those forms of knowledge that should receive special attention in education. Secondly, the article elaborates - based on Peirce's semiotic - an epistemologically reflected semiotic model to describe the role and conditions of knowledge.


How To Get It. Diagrammatic Reasoning As A Tool Of Knowledge Development And Its Pragmatic Dimension, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2004

How To Get It. Diagrammatic Reasoning As A Tool Of Knowledge Development And Its Pragmatic Dimension, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Discussions concerning belief revision, theory development, and "creativity" in philosophy and AI, reveal a growing interest in Peirce's concept of abduction. Peirce introduced abduction in an attempt to provide theoretical dignity and clarification to the difficult problem of knowledge generation. He wrote that "An Abduction is Originary in respect to being the only kind of argument which starts a new idea." These discussions, however, have led to considerable debates about the precise way in which Peirce's abduction can be used to explain knowledge generation. The crucial question is that of understanding how we can get the new elements ...


Learning By Developing Knowledge Networks. A Semiotic Approach Within A Dialectical Framework, Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Wolf-Michael Roth Jan 2004

Learning By Developing Knowledge Networks. A Semiotic Approach Within A Dialectical Framework, Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Wolf-Michael Roth

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

A central challenge for research on how we should prepare students to manage crossing boundaries between different knowledge settings in life long learning processes is to identify those forms of knowledge that are particularly relevant here. In this paper, we develop by philosophical means the concept of a dialectical system as a general framework to describe the development of knowledge networks that mark the starting point for learning processes, and we use semiotics to discuss (a) the epistemological thesis that any cognitive access to our world of objects is mediated by signs and (b) diagrammatic reasoning and abduction as those ...


Peirce's "Diagrammatic Reasoning" As A Solution Of The Learning Paradox, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2003

Peirce's "Diagrammatic Reasoning" As A Solution Of The Learning Paradox, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

How can we reach “new” levels of knowledge if “new” means that there is something “evolved” that cannot be generated simply by deduction or by induction from what has been given before. The paper’s first goal is to show that two paradigmatic attempts at solving this so-called “learning paradox,” Plato’s apriorism and Aristotle’s inductivism, form two horns of a dilemma: While the inductivist cannot justify any representation of data without assuming a priori given hypotheses, the apriorist cannot justify why a certain application of given ideas is correct without being caught in an infinite regress. The second ...


Lernende Lernen Abduktiv: Eine Methodologie Kreativen Denkens, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2003

Lernende Lernen Abduktiv: Eine Methodologie Kreativen Denkens, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

No abstract provided.


Peirces Zeichenbegriff: Seine Funktionen, Seine Phänomenologische Grundlegung Und Seine Differenzierung, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Dec 2000

Peirces Zeichenbegriff: Seine Funktionen, Seine Phänomenologische Grundlegung Und Seine Differenzierung, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

No abstract provided.


Die Paradoxie Des Lernens Und Ein Semiotischer Ansatz Zu Ihrer Auflösung, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 2000

Die Paradoxie Des Lernens Und Ein Semiotischer Ansatz Zu Ihrer Auflösung, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

No abstract provided.


Mathematik Als Prozess Der Verallgemeinerung Von Zeichen: Eine Exemplarische Unterrichtseinheit Zur Entdeckung Der Inkommensurabilität, Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Manfred Plöger Jan 2000

Mathematik Als Prozess Der Verallgemeinerung Von Zeichen: Eine Exemplarische Unterrichtseinheit Zur Entdeckung Der Inkommensurabilität, Michael H.G. Hoffmann, Manfred Plöger

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

No abstract provided.


Problems With Peirce's Concept Of Abduction, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 1999

Problems With Peirce's Concept Of Abduction, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Abductive reasoning takes place in forming "hypotheses" in order to explain "facts." Thus, the concept of abduction promises an understanding of creativity in science and learning. It raises, however, also a lot of problems. Some of them will be discussed in this paper: After analyzing the difference between induction and abduction (1), I shall discuss Peirce's claim that there is a "logic" of abduction (2). The thesis is that this claim can be understood, if we make a clear distinction between inferential elements and perceptive elements of abductive reasoning. For Peirce, the creative act of forming explanatory hypotheses and ...


Erkenntnistheoretische Grundlagen Des Lernens: Lernen Als Verallgemeinerung, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 1998

Erkenntnistheoretische Grundlagen Des Lernens: Lernen Als Verallgemeinerung, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Ziel dieses Beitrages ist es, ein Projekt der am Institut für Didaktik der Mathematik (IDM) in Bielefeld beheimateten Arbeitsgruppe Erkenntnistheoretische und semiotische Grundlagen des Mathematik-Lernens vorzustellen und in eine bestimmte Richtung mathematikdidaktischer Forschung einzuordnen, wie sie von Michael Otte vertreten wird, dem Leiter der genannten Arbeitsgruppe. Dabei geht es insbesondere um mögliche Beziehungen zwischen Philosophie und Mathematik-Didaktik.


Das Problem Der Zukunft Im Rahmen Holistischer Ethiken. Im Ausgang Von Platon Und Peirce, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 1996

Das Problem Der Zukunft Im Rahmen Holistischer Ethiken. Im Ausgang Von Platon Und Peirce, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

No abstract provided.


Jona Oder Die Kunst, Unrecht Haben Zu Können. Überlegungen Zur Hermeneutischen Praxis, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Jan 1994

Jona Oder Die Kunst, Unrecht Haben Zu Können. Überlegungen Zur Hermeneutischen Praxis, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

No abstract provided.


The "Realization Of The Due-Measure" As Structural Principle In Plato's Statesman, Michael H.G. Hoffmann Dec 1992

The "Realization Of The Due-Measure" As Structural Principle In Plato's Statesman, Michael H.G. Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

No abstract provided.