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Full-Text Articles in Philosophy

Legal Personhood For Artificial Intelligence, Tyler Jaynes Jun 2019

Legal Personhood For Artificial Intelligence, Tyler Jaynes

Tyler Jaynes

The concept of artificial intelligence is not new nor is the notion that it should be granted legal protections given its influence on human activity. What is new, on a relative scale, is the notion that artificial intelligence can possess citizenship—a concept reserved only for humans, as it presupposes the idea of possessing civil duties and protections. Where there are several decades’ worth of writing on the concept of the legal status of computational artificial artefacts in the USA and elsewhere, it is surprising that law makers internationally have come to a standstill to protect our silicon brainchildren. In ...


Superhero Movies And Politics: The Moral Obligations Of Film Makers According To Virtue Ethics, Russell Hendrickson May 2019

Superhero Movies And Politics: The Moral Obligations Of Film Makers According To Virtue Ethics, Russell Hendrickson

Senior Theses

The theory of virtue ethics implies that filmmakers have a moral obligation to explore political themes within superhero films. My thesis is comprised of four main sections. I begin by discussing the general theory of virtue ethics and what moral obligations are placed upon someone who subscribes to this moral theory. From there, I establish my argument for why film can be used as a tool of moral education, and I outline a framework for how artists can work to cultivate virtue in themselves through the use of Arnold Berleant’s Artists and Morality: Toward an Ethics of Art as ...


Universe Of Things: A Human Presentation Of Food-For-Thought., Madeline Halpern May 2019

Universe Of Things: A Human Presentation Of Food-For-Thought., Madeline Halpern

Bachelor of Fine Arts Senior Papers

I present this statement under three loose categories: People, Objects and their Environment. I consider People as human, Objects as art objects, domestic objects, and food, and Environment as the shared space of the former groups. Food directs this statement as I present each concept and creative process as a metaphorical dish. Material exploration carried me from a direct practice of reorienting acrylic paint and questioning object functionality through personified sculptures into theoretical thesis work in which I use interpersonal relations and the idea of consumption to translate tactile, gustatory and olfactory sensations into digital film. In this meal I ...


Epistemic Injustice And Suicidality, Sam Lilly May 2019

Epistemic Injustice And Suicidality, Sam Lilly

Honors Program Theses

This paper extends both Miranda Fricker's framework regarding epistemic injustice, found in her book 'Epistemic Injustice, as well as Ian James Kidd and Havi Carel's essay "Epistemic Injustice and Illness" to a small population of people who identify internally with the desire to kill oneself i.e. suicidality. I argue that a certain population of suicidal people are especially vulnerable targets of epistemic injustice.


The Ethics Of Occultic Communication: An Invocation Of Joshua Gunn And Sissela Bok, James Thomas Begley Jr. May 2019

The Ethics Of Occultic Communication: An Invocation Of Joshua Gunn And Sissela Bok, James Thomas Begley Jr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Occultic rhetoric, according to Joshua Gunn, is a genre of discourse concerned with the study and practice of secret communications. The strategic sharing of secret messages involves a host of methods and conventions designed for the selective disclosure of hidden knowledge, thus controlling the boundaries of (and accessibility to power between) insider and outsider groups. Occultic rhetoric has its uses in everyday encounters, but the abuse of such manipulative strategies, especially by those in the academy and other positions of power and trust, calls for an ethical response. This dissertation submits occultic rhetoric to moral investigation by incorporating the works ...


A Rhetorical Analysis Of Opening Statements In Trial: Reconsidering The Classical Canon Of Invention, Andrew Chandler May 2019

A Rhetorical Analysis Of Opening Statements In Trial: Reconsidering The Classical Canon Of Invention, Andrew Chandler

Undergraduate Theses

This analysis of 21 opening statements probes at current persuasive practices employed by trial attorneys through the lens of mainstream legal advice and an expanded definition of rhetorical invention – one which includes both discovery and creation. An evaluation of such practice reveals the utility, and furthermore the duty of the advocate, to draw upon an expanded realm of available arguments.


Autonomy, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein May 2019

Autonomy, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Personal autonomy is a constitutive element of all rights. It confers upon a rightholder the power to decide whether, and under what circumstances, to exercise her right. Every right infringement thus invariably involves a violation of its holder’s autonomy. The autonomy violation consists of the deprivation of a rightholder of a choice that was rightfully hers — the choice as to how to go about her life.

Harms resulting from the right’s infringement and from the autonomy violation are often readily distinguishable, as is the case when someone uses the property of a rightholder without securing her permission or ...


Ethical Problems With Plastic In The Ocean, Brennan Cotter May 2019

Ethical Problems With Plastic In The Ocean, Brennan Cotter

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

In the year 2018 this paper argues that plastic use and waste is destroying our oceans and that we should address the problem by fully adopting the principle and practices of sustainability. The first section outlines the advent of our plastic disposable culture. The second section gives evidence of how plastic waste is negatively affecting marine life. The third section draws from literature in environmental philosophy to develop the concept of sustainability, and the concluding section outlines several steps we can take as individuals and nations to practice sustainability.


Who Needs Blame?: Answerability Without Expressed Blame, Sarah Gokhale May 2019

Who Needs Blame?: Answerability Without Expressed Blame, Sarah Gokhale

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation argues that we can hold other agents morally responsible without expressing blame and, more strongly, that doing so is preferable. I first argue that blame is fundamentally retributive, and that blame’s retributive foundation is incipiently present even in civilized guises. As such, even though some forms of expressed blame are quite civilized, expressed blame always involves a risk of emotional damage, entrenchment, and escalation. To make things worse, I argue that anger is an exacerbating feature of blame’s retributive foundation. I then argue that, generally speaking, cases of public blame involve higher stakes than cases of ...


Quaker Virtue Ethics: Religious Life Without Creeds, Dave Nagaji May 2019

Quaker Virtue Ethics: Religious Life Without Creeds, Dave Nagaji

Senior Theses

Beliefs are conventionally understood to guide people’s actions. Put another way, the actions which people take are understood to be products of what they believe. However, these claims are challenged by the fact that many Quakers hold that they do not have a creed. This feature of Quakerism creates a tension with the theory that actions must follow from beliefs. That tension prompts a question: How can Quakers make ethical decisions in a clear and decisive manner when they lack a creed? The answer to such a question is significant for two reasons. First, it provides insights into the ...


Potentials, Actuals, And The Logical Problem Of Evil, Stephen Thomas Irby May 2019

Potentials, Actuals, And The Logical Problem Of Evil, Stephen Thomas Irby

Theses and Dissertations

J.L. Schellenberg has recently formulated a new logical problem of evil that is claimed to avoid Alvin Plantinga’s Free Will Defence. I begin my argument against this new formulation by analyzing the grounding for some of God’s maximal perfections. God’s maximal moral perfection, for example, is grounded in virtuous potentialities that are disposed to the actualization of virtuous actions. From this account, I argue that Schellenberg’s logical problem of evil fails due to one of the following two reasons. First, some good actualizations of good potentialities require evil but compose the best worlds. Second, both ...


2019: Religious Freedom Laws, C. J. Rhodes, Eleanor Ruffner, Richard Howorth, Sarah Moses, Matthew Hall, Amy Mcdowell Apr 2019

2019: Religious Freedom Laws, C. J. Rhodes, Eleanor Ruffner, Richard Howorth, Sarah Moses, Matthew Hall, Amy Mcdowell

Policy Talks

The common reading resource (see additional documents below) for this event is the Honors thesis of Religion major Samuel Brassell, "The Baptist Tradition and Religious Freedom: Recent Trajectories." This 2019 thesis provides an analysis of religious freedom laws in the state of Mississippi. We encourage all attendees to read this common reading resource prior to the event for a more focused conversation during the Q and A session and during the reception.


Being And Action: A Metaphysical-Ethical Analysis Of St. Thomas And Friedrich Nietzsche, John Cooney Apr 2019

Being And Action: A Metaphysical-Ethical Analysis Of St. Thomas And Friedrich Nietzsche, John Cooney

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

In this paper, I seek to identify the applicability of the theorem that we only ever act in accord with how we perceive things to be—generally viewed as self-evident until the advent of modernity—to Saint Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica and to Friedrich Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Morals. More specifically, I seek to determine the relationship between these author’s metaphysical presuppositions (or lack thereof) and their respective ethical theories which differ in both content and aim. More generally, I ask: what can the differences in these authors’ metaphysical and ethical beliefs teach us about what we ...


Review Of The Origins Of Collective Decision Making By Andy Blunden (Boston: Brill, 2016)., Timothy J. Shaffer Apr 2019

Review Of The Origins Of Collective Decision Making By Andy Blunden (Boston: Brill, 2016)., Timothy J. Shaffer

Journal of Public Deliberation

Review of The Origins of Collective Decision Making by Andy Blunden (Boston: Brill, 2016).


Study Drugs For Underprivileged Children, Joshua Watkins Apr 2019

Study Drugs For Underprivileged Children, Joshua Watkins

Scholars Week

Abstract

The effects of stimulant medication have been beneficial for individuals with Narcolepsy and especially individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Keisha Ray has offered a solution in her academic work that could help also help underprivileged children. The solution she is proposing is to offer stimulant medication to them. In this paper, I assert my thesis, offering stimulant medication to underprivileged children would not be a good, right, and practical solution to helping their social inequalities. The treatment/enhancement distinction in medicine is elaborated between Ray and me. The definition of what is a healthy normal functioning body and ...


An Investigation On Rawls’ Theory Of Justice And Its Relationship To Metaphysics, Liangxuan Xu Apr 2019

An Investigation On Rawls’ Theory Of Justice And Its Relationship To Metaphysics, Liangxuan Xu

Senior Theses and Projects

No abstract provided.


Individual Responsibility For Structural Injustice, Taro Shirakawa Apr 2019

Individual Responsibility For Structural Injustice, Taro Shirakawa

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In our globalized world, there are many cases of injustices happening due to the capitalistic economic system and the laws and norms that support it. One of the most common cases of these types of injustices is the harms to factory workers caused by sweatshop labor conditions. Although companies and factory managers must bear some responsibility for improving the labor conditions, the harms to factory workers caused by sweatshops are injustices resulting from the structure of international society where all consumers, a factory manager, its owner, and a CEO of the global apparel firm are interconnected by the international economy ...


Egoism And The Repugnant Conclusion, Nathaniel Anderson Apr 2019

Egoism And The Repugnant Conclusion, Nathaniel Anderson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Repugnant Conclusion is the conclusion that for any world of people living moderately good lives, there exists another, better, world of far more people living far worse lives. This thesis examines a number of proposed solutions to the repugnant conclusion and comes to the conclusion that none of them are satisfactory. Instead, it proposes that the repugnant conclusion may be true in value theoretic terms, but might not be repugnant if it does not underlie any significant ethical implications. Ethical egoism is defended as an ethical system under which the ethical implications of the repugnant conclusion are successfully minimized ...


Robodoc: Ethics Of Ai In Medicine, Halley Egnew Apr 2019

Robodoc: Ethics Of Ai In Medicine, Halley Egnew

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

What do we do when the doctor of the future may not be human? In order to assess the full effect of trying to replace human caregivers with AI machines, we must investigate the types of ethics that these machines would work under—implicit, explicit, and full. The type of AI that movies present us with are fully ethical AI; they have a sense of self. The possible implementation of AI in medicine forces us to confront not just new technology, but also the definition of consciousness and free will, so I advise that for now we just stick to ...


Antiracist Academic Leadership In Wake Of Charlottesville, David S. Owen Mar 2019

Antiracist Academic Leadership In Wake Of Charlottesville, David S. Owen

Academic Chairpersons Conference Proceedings

What obligations do chairpersons have to confront white supremacy when it impacts departmental and campus climates? And, what steps should chairpersons take when white nationalists come to campus? Participants in this session will have an opportunity to discuss these and other questions and explore the requirements of academic leadership that is avowedly antiracist.


An Uber Ethical Dilemma: Examining The Social Issues At Stake, Florence Chee Mar 2019

An Uber Ethical Dilemma: Examining The Social Issues At Stake, Florence Chee

Florence Chee

This paper aims to engage with the social issues emerging from the increasing reliance upon app-driven services, as they pertain to precarious labor and ethical standpoints in a digital era. Popular ride services such as Uber have been lauded for bringing much needed transportation services that are superior to expensive taxis or unpleasant or inaccessible public transit.

Design/methodology/approach

As a result of over three years of ongoing research and analysis, this paper is a comprehensive assessment of a number of social issues facing the integration of practices both signified and enacted in an economy driven by apps such ...


Towards Quantifiable Metrics Warranting Industry-Wide Corporate Death Penalties, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2019

Towards Quantifiable Metrics Warranting Industry-Wide Corporate Death Penalties, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

In the singular search for profits, some corporations inadvertently kill humans. If this routinely occurs throughout an industry, it may no longer serve a net positive social purpose for society and should be eliminated. This article provides a path to an objective quantifiable metric for determining when an entire industry warrants the corporate death penalty. First, a theoretical foundation is developed with minimum assumptions necessary to provide evidence for corporate public purposes. This is formed into an objective quantifiable metric with publicly-available data and applied to two case studies in the U.S.: the tobacco and coal mining industries. The ...


A Feminism For Everyone? How The Developed Should Help The Developing, Allen Zhu Feb 2019

A Feminism For Everyone? How The Developed Should Help The Developing, Allen Zhu

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

This paper addresses both liberal and multicultural feminist concerns for the Western feminist's duty to help women around the world. Liberals accuse multiculturalists of falling into the trap of cultural essentialism, wherein they fail to hold cultures accountable for blatant human rights violations. However, liberal feminist theory both perpetuates and assumes what Alison Jagger dubs the "West is best" thesis - that the West is morally and culturally superior to non-Western cultures. I propose an agenda that accommodates concerns at both ends of the feminist spectrum. In my "multidimensional sequence for women's liberation," Western feminists must first de-Westernize the ...


Towards Quantifiable Metrics Warranting Industry-Wide Corporate Death Penalties, Joshua M. Pearce Feb 2019

Towards Quantifiable Metrics Warranting Industry-Wide Corporate Death Penalties, Joshua M. Pearce

Department of Materials Science and Engineering Publications

In the singular search for profits, some corporations inadvertently kill humans. If this routinely occurs throughout an industry, it may no longer serve a net positive social purpose for society and should be eliminated. This article provides a path to an objective quantifiable metric for determining when an entire industry warrants the corporate death penalty. First, a theoretical foundation is developed with minimum assumptions necessary to provide evidence for corporate public purposes. This is formed into an objective quantifiable metric with publicly-available data and applied to two case studies in the U.S.: the tobacco and coal mining industries. The ...


The Ethics Of Human-Animal Relationships And Public Discourse: A Case Study Of Lions Bred For Their Bones, Peter Coals, Dawn Burnham, Andrew Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Michael 'T Sas-Rolfes, Vivvienne Williams, John A. Vucetich Feb 2019

The Ethics Of Human-Animal Relationships And Public Discourse: A Case Study Of Lions Bred For Their Bones, Peter Coals, Dawn Burnham, Andrew Loveridge, David W. Macdonald, Michael 'T Sas-Rolfes, Vivvienne Williams, John A. Vucetich

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Conservation and natural resource management are increasingly attending the ethical elements of public decisions. Ethical considerations are challenging, in part, because they typically require accounting for the moral consideration of various human and nonhuman forms of life, whose interests sometimes conflict (or seem to conflict). A valuable tool for such evaluations is the formal analysis of ethical arguments. An ethical argument is a collection of premises, logically interrelated, to yield a conclusion that can be expressed in the form, “We ought to…” According to the rules of logic, a conclusion is supported by an argument if all its premises are ...


Three Reasons Martin Luther King Jr. Disliked Being Labeled "Civil Rights Leader", Theodore Walker Jan 2019

Three Reasons Martin Luther King Jr. Disliked Being Labeled "Civil Rights Leader", Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Three reasons King disliked being labeled "civil rights leader:"

(1) He was a religious leader, a preacher (not a secular politician).

(2) He advanced "economic rights" ("civil rights" do not include "economic rights").

(3) He opposed war in Vietnam (not a civil rights issue).


Slogans Appropriate To The Legacy Of Martin Luther King Jr., Theodore Walker Jan 2019

Slogans Appropriate To The Legacy Of Martin Luther King Jr., Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

For printing signs, banners, posters, tee shirts, and bumper stickers (and for preaching sermons) that are appropriate to the legacy of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., please consider the following slogans: ABOLISH WAR, ABOLISH POVERTY, AMEND THE CONSTITUTION, SUPPORT AN ECONOMIC BILL OF RIGHTS, JOBS FOR ALL, GUARANTEED INCOME FOR ALL, SUPPORT UNIVERSAL BASIC INCOME, and GOOD NEWS TO THE POOR - Luke 4:14-19.


An Application Of Risk Analysis To The Doctrine Of Self-Defense, Kirsten Welch Jan 2019

An Application Of Risk Analysis To The Doctrine Of Self-Defense, Kirsten Welch

The Hilltop Review

Although it is an unavoidable aspect of any self-defense situation, risk is an underdeveloped concept in the self-defense literature. In this paper, I argue that the existence of objective risk can justify the use of self-defense, even in cases in which defensive action is not clearly necessary. To accomplish this, I first introduce the concept of risk, seeking a definition that incorporates both objective and subjective elements in a manner appropriate to a discussion of self-defense. In section two, I make a case for the appropriate way to carry out and apply risk analysis in self-defense situations, addressing questions of ...


The Ethics Of Choice In Single-Player Video Games, Erica L. Neely Jan 2019

The Ethics Of Choice In Single-Player Video Games, Erica L. Neely

Philosophy and Religion Faculty Scholarship

Video games are a specific kind of virtual world which many engage with on a daily basis; as such, we cannot ignore the values they embody. In this paper I argue that it is possible to cause moral harm or benefit within a video game, specifically by drawing attention to the nature of the choices both players and designers make. I discuss ways in which games attempt to represent morality, arguing that while flawed, even games with seemingly superficial devices such as morality meters can attempt to promote moral reflection. Ultimately, I argue that the moral status of the actions ...


Morality From Meaninglessness In Simone De Beauvoir's "The Ethics Of Ambiguity", Victoria L. Riggs Jan 2019

Morality From Meaninglessness In Simone De Beauvoir's "The Ethics Of Ambiguity", Victoria L. Riggs

University Honors Program Theses

In her book The Ethics of Ambiguity, French existentialist writer Simone de Beauvoir delves into the human condition and the possibilities for morality that arise from her understanding of such. Beginning with the assumption that there is no externally objective meaning or value to humanity, Beauvoir presents humanity as fundamentally free to create meaning and values for themselves. Beauvoir argues that humans are all simultaneously free to choose, yet limited in our choice by the facts of our situations, a paradoxical state of being she labels as our fundamental ambiguity. It is because of this ambiguity, she asserts, that we ...